Polymer chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that focuses on the chemical synthesis, structure and physical properties of polymers and macromolecules. The principles and methods used within polymer chemistry are applicable through a wide range of other chemistry sub-disciplines like organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry Many materials have polymeric structures, from inorganic metals and ceramics to DNA and other biological molecules, polymer chemistry is referred to in the context of synthetic, organic compositions. Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in commercial materials and products in everyday use referred to as plastics, rubbers, are major components of composite materials. Polymer chemistry can be included in the broader fields of polymer science or nanotechnology, both of which can be described as encompassing polymer physics and polymer engineering; the work of Henri Braconnot in 1777 and the work of Christian Schönbein in 1846 led to the discovery of nitrocellulose, when treated with camphor, produced celluloid.
Dissolved in ether or acetone, it is collodion, used as a wound dressing since the U. S. Civil War. Cellulose acetate was first prepared in 1865. In years 1834-1844 the properties of rubber were found to be improved by heating with sulfur, thus founding the vulcanization process. In 1884 Hilaire de Chardonnet started the first artificial fiber plant based on regenerated cellulose, or viscose rayon, as a substitute for silk, but it was flammable. In 1907 Leo Baekeland invented the first polymer made independent of the products of organisms, a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin called Bakelite. Around the same time, Hermann Leuchs reported the synthesis of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides and their high molecular weight products upon reaction with nucleophiles, but stopped short of referring to these as polymers due to the strong views espoused by Emil Fischer, his direct supervisor, denying the possibility of any covalent molecule exceeding 6,000 daltons. Cellophane was invented in 1908 by Jocques Brandenberger who treated sheets of viscose rayon with acid.
Leading figures in polymer chemistry The chemist Hermann Staudinger first proposed that polymers consisted of long chains of atoms held together by covalent bonds, which he called macromolecules. His work expanded the chemical understanding of polymers and was followed by an expansion of the field of polymer chemistry during which such polymeric materials as neoprene and polyester were invented. Before Staudinger, polymers were thought to be clusters of small molecules, without definite molecular weights, held together by an unknown force. Staudinger received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1953. Wallace Carothers invented the first synthetic rubber called neoprene in 1931, the first polyester, went on to invent nylon, a true silk replacement, in 1935. Paul Flory was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1974 for his work on polymer random coil configurations in solution in the 1950s. Stephanie Kwolek developed an aramid, or aromatic nylon named Kevlar, patented in 1966. Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta received a Nobel Prize for their discovery of catalysts for the polymerization of alkenes.
Alan J. Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa were awarded the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of polyacetylene and related conductive polymers. Polyacetylene itself did not find practical applications, but organic light-emitting diodes emerged as one application of conducting polymers. Teaching and research programs in polymer chemistry were introduced in the 1940s. An Institut fur Makromolekulare Chemie was founded in 1940 in Freiburg, Germany under the direction of Staudinger. In America a Polymer Research Institute was established in 1941 by Herman Mark at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. Polymers are high molecular mass compounds formed by polymerization of monomers; the simple reactive molecule from which the repeating structural units of a polymer are derived is called a monomer. A polymer can be described in many ways: its degree of polymerisation, molar mass distribution, copolymer distribution, the degree of branching, by its end-groups, crosslinks and thermal properties such as its glass transition temperature and melting temperature.
Polymers in solution have special characteristics with respect to solubility and gelation. Illustrative of the quantitative aspects of polymer chemistry, particular attention is paid to the number-average and weight-average molecular weights M n and M w, respectively. M n = ∑ M i N i ∑ N i, M w = ∑ M i 2 N i ∑ M i N i, The formation and properties of polymers have been rationalized by many theories including Scheutjens–Fleer theory, Flory–Huggins solution theory, Cossee-Arlman mechanism, Polymer field theory, Hoffman Nucleation Theory, Flory-Stockmayer Theory, many others. Polymers can be subdivided into synthetic polymers according to their origin; each one of these classes of compounds can be subdivided into more specific categories in relationship to their use and prope
Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology. Bioinorganic chemistry includes the study of both natural phenomena such as the behavior of metalloproteins as well as artificially introduced metals, including those that are non-essential, in medicine and toxicology. Many biological processes such as respiration depend upon molecules that fall within the realm of inorganic chemistry; the discipline includes the study of inorganic models or mimics that imitate the behaviour of metalloproteins. As a mix of biochemistry and inorganic chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry is important in elucidating the implications of electron-transfer proteins, substrate bindings and activation and group transfer chemistry as well as metal properties in biological chemistry. About 99% of mammals' mass are the elements carbon, calcium, chlorine, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur; the organic compounds contain the majority of the carbon and nitrogen and most of the oxygen and hydrogen is present as water.
The entire collection of metal-containing biomolecules in a cell is called the metallome. Paul Ehrlich used organoarsenic for the treatment of syphilis, demonstrating the relevance of metals, or at least metalloids, to medicine, that blossomed with Rosenberg’s discovery of the anti-cancer activity of cisplatin; the first protein crystallized was urease shown to contain nickel at its active site. Vitamin B12, the cure for pernicious anemia was shown crystallographically by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin to consist of a cobalt in a corrin macrocycle; the Watson-Crick structure for DNA demonstrated the key structural role played by phosphate-containing polymers. Several distinct systems are of identifiable in bioinorganic chemistry. Major areas include: This topic covers a diverse collection of ion channels, ion pumps, vacuoles and other proteins and small molecules which control the concentration of metal ions in the cells. One issue is that many metals that are metabolically required are not available owing to solubility or scarcity.
Organisms have developed a number of strategies for transporting them. Many reactions in life sciences involve water and metal ions are at the catalytic centers for these enzymes, i.e. these are metalloproteins. The reacting water is a ligand. Examples of hydrolase enzymes are carbonic anhydrase, metallophosphatases, metalloproteinases. Bioinorganic chemists seek to replicate the function of these metalloproteins. Metal-containing electron transfer proteins are common, they can be organized into three major classes: iron-sulfur proteins, blue copper proteins, cytochromes. These electron transport proteins are complementary to the non-metal electron transporters nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide; the nitrogen cycle make extensive use of metals for the redox interconversions. Several metal ions are toxic to other animals; the bioinorganic chemistry of lead in the context of its toxicity has been reviewed. Aerobic life make extensive use of metals such as iron and manganese.
Heme is utilized by red blood cells in the form of hemoglobin for oxygen transport and is the most recognized metal system in biology. Other oxygen transport systems include myoglobin and hemerythrin. Oxidases and oxygenases are metal systems found throughout nature that take advantage of oxygen to carry out important reactions such as energy generation in cytochrome c oxidase or small molecule oxidation in cytochrome P450 oxidases or methane monooxygenase; some metalloproteins are designed to protect a biological system from the harmful effects of oxygen and other reactive oxygen-containing molecules such as hydrogen peroxide. These systems include peroxidases and superoxide dismutases. A complementary metalloprotein to those that react with oxygen is the oxygen evolving complex present in plants; this system is part of the complex protein machinery that produces oxygen as plants perform photosynthesis. Bioorganometallic systems feature metal-carbon bonds as intermediates. Bioorganometallic enzymes and proteins include the hydrogenases, FeMoco in nitrogenase, methylcobalamin.
These occurring organometallic compounds. This area is more focused on the utilization of metals by unicellular organisms. Bioorganometallic compounds are significant in environmental chemistry. A number of drugs contain metals; this theme relies on the study of the design and mechanism of action of metal-containing pharmaceuticals, compounds that interact with endogenous metal ions in enzyme active sites. The most used anti-cancer drug is cisplatin. MRI contrast agent contain gadolinium. Lithium carbonate has been used to treat the manic phase of bipolar disorder. Gold antiarthritic drugs, e.g. auranofin have been commerciallized. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules are metal complexes have been developed to suppress inflammation by releasing small amounts of carbon monoxide; the cardiovascular and neuronal importance of nitric oxide has been examined, including the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. Besides, metallic transition complexes based on triazolopyrimidines have been tested against several parasite strains.
Environmental chemistry traditionally emphasizes the interaction of heavy metals with organisms. Methylmercury has caused major disaster called Minamata disease. Arsenic poisoning is a widespread problem owing to arsenic con
The periodic table known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, recurring chemical properties. The structure of the table shows periodic trends; the seven rows of the table, called periods have metals on the left and non-metals on the right. The columns, called groups, contain elements with similar chemical behaviours. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens. Displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with the filling of different atomic orbitals; the organization of the periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the various element properties, to predict chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the first recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements.
He predicted some properties of unidentified elements that were expected to fill gaps within the table. Most of his forecasts proved to be correct. Mendeleev's idea has been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour; the modern periodic table now provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, continues to be used in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences. The elements from atomic numbers 1 through 118 have been discovered or synthesized, completing seven full rows of the periodic table; the first 94 elements all occur though some are found only in trace amounts and a few were discovered in nature only after having first been synthesized. Elements 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in nuclear reactors; the synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is being pursued: these elements would begin an eighth row, theoretical work has been done to suggest possible candidates for this extension.
Numerous synthetic radionuclides of occurring elements have been produced in laboratories. Each chemical element has a unique atomic number representing the number of protons in its nucleus. Most elements have differing numbers of neutrons among different atoms, with these variants being referred to as isotopes. For example, carbon has three occurring isotopes: all of its atoms have six protons and most have six neutrons as well, but about one per cent have seven neutrons, a small fraction have eight neutrons. Isotopes are never separated in the periodic table. Elements with no stable isotopes have the atomic masses of their most stable isotopes, where such masses are shown, listed in parentheses. In the standard periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z. A new row is started. Columns are determined by the electron configuration of the atom. Elements with similar chemical properties fall into the same group in the periodic table, although in the f-block, to some respect in the d-block, the elements in the same period tend to have similar properties, as well.
Thus, it is easy to predict the chemical properties of an element if one knows the properties of the elements around it. Since 2016, the periodic table has 118 confirmed elements, from element 1 to 118. Elements 113, 115, 117 and 118, the most recent discoveries, were confirmed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in December 2015, their proposed names, moscovium and oganesson were announced by the IUPAC in June 2016 and made official in November 2016. The first 94 elements occur naturally. Of the 94 occurring elements, 83 are primordial and 11 occur only in decay chains of primordial elements. No element heavier than einsteinium has been observed in macroscopic quantities in its pure form, nor has astatine. A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. Groups have more significant periodic trends than periods and blocks, explained below. Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group have the same electron configurations in their valence shell.
Elements in the same group tend to have a shared chemistry and exhibit a clear trend in properties with increasing atomic number. In some parts of the periodic table, such as the d-block and the f-block, horizontal similarities can be as important as, or more pronounced than, vertical similarities. Under an international naming convention, the groups are numbered numerically from 1 to 18 from the leftmost column to the rightmost column, they were known by roman numerals. In America, the roman numerals were followed by either an "A" if the group was in the s- or p-block, or a "B" if the group was in the d-block; the roman numerals used correspond to the last digit of today's naming convention (e.g. the
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms and ions: their composition, properties and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology, it is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry, the formation of igneous rocks, how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded, the properties of the soil on the moon, how medications work, how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron; the word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy and medicine.
It is seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold, though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, growth, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos. An alchemist was called a'chemist' in popular speech, the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry"; the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία; this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, in turn derived from the word Kemet, the ancient name of Egypt in the Egyptian language. Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning "cast together"; the current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model. Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, molecules, metals and other aggregates of matter.
This matter can be studied in isolation or in combination. The interactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together; such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware; however glassware is not central to chemistry, a great deal of experimental chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances; the basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation, which involves atoms as subjects; the number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws.
Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure, phase, as well as their chemical compositions, they can be analyzed using the tools of e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; the particles that make up matter have rest mass as well – not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a mixture of substances; the atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud; the nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense. The atom is the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity, ionization potential, preferred oxidation state, coordination number, preferred types of bonds to form. A chemical element is a pure substance, composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z; the mass number is the sum of the number of neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same
Solid-state chemistry sometimes referred as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis and properties of solid phase materials but not exclusively of, non-molecular solids. It therefore has a strong overlap with solid-state physics, crystallography, metallurgy, materials science and electronics with a focus on the synthesis of novel materials and their characterisation. Solids can be classified as crystalline or amorphous on basis of the nature of order present in the arrangement of their constituent particles; because of its direct relevance to products of commerce, solid state inorganic chemistry has been driven by technology. Progress in the field has been fueled by the demands of industry, sometimes in collaboration with academia. Applications discovered in the 20th century include zeolite and platinum-based catalysts for petroleum processing in the 1950s, high-purity silicon as a core component of microelectronic devices in the 1960s, “high temperature” superconductivity in the 1980s.
The invention of X-ray crystallography in the early 1900s by William Lawrence Bragg was an enabling innovation. Our understanding of how reactions proceed at the atomic level in the solid state was advanced by Carl Wagner's work on oxidation rate theory, counter diffusion of ions, defect chemistry; because of his contributions, he has sometimes been referred to as the father of solid state chemistry. Given the diversity of solid state compounds, an diverse array of methods are used for their preparation. For organic materials, such as charge transfer salts, the methods operates near room temperature and are similar to the techniques of organic synthesis. Redox reactions are sometimes conducted by electrocrystallisation, as illustrated by the preparation of the Bechgaard salts from tetrathiafulvalene. For thermally robust materials, high temperature methods are employed. For example, bulk solids are prepared using tube furnaces, which allow reactions to be conducted up to ca. 1100 °C. Special equipment e.g. ovens consisting of a tantalum tube through which an electric current is passed can be used for higher temperatures up to 2000 °C.
Such high temperatures are at times required to induce diffusion of the reactants. One method employed is to melt the reactants together and later anneal the solidified melt. If volatile reactants are involved the reactants are put in an ampoule, evacuated -ofnt mixture cold e.g. by keeping the bottom of the ampoule in liquid nitrogen- and sealed. The sealed ampoule is put in an oven and given a certain heat treatment.. It is possible to use solvents to prepare solids by evaporation. At times the solvent is used hydrothermal, under pressure at temperatures higher than the normal boiling point. A variation on this theme is the use of flux methods, where a salt of low melting point is added to the mixture to act as a high temperature solvent in which the desired reaction can take place; this can be useful Many solids react vigorously with reactive gas species like chlorine, oxygen etc. Others form adducts with e.g. CO or ethylene; such reactions are conducted in a tube, open ended on both sides and through which the gas is passed.
A variation of this is to let the reaction take place inside a measuring device such as a TGA. In that case stoichiometric information can be obtained during the reaction, which helps identify the products. A special case of a gas reaction is a chemical transport reaction; these are carried out in a sealed ampoule to which a small amount of a transport agent, e.g. iodine is added. The ampoule is placed in a zone oven; this is two tube ovens attached to each other which allows a temperature gradient to be imposed. Such a method can be used to obtain the product in the form of single crystals suitable for structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Chemical vapour deposition is a high temperature method, employed for the preparation of coatings and semiconductors from molecular precursors. Synthetic methodology and characterization go hand in hand in the sense that not one but a series of reaction mixtures are prepared and subjected to heat treatment; the stoichiometry is varied in a systematic way to find which stoichiometries will lead to new solid compounds or to solid solutions between known ones.
A prime method to characterize the reaction products is powder diffraction, because many solid state reactions will produce polycristalline ingots or powders. Powder diffraction will facilitate the identification of known phases in the mixture. If a pattern is found, not known in the diffraction data libraries an attempt can be made to index the pattern, i.e. to identify the symmetry and the size of the unit cell. Once the unit cell of a new phase is known, the next step is to establish the stoichiometry of the phase; this can be done in a number of ways. Sometimes the composition of the original mixture will give a clue, if one finds only one product -a single powder pattern- or if one was trying to make a phase of a certain composition by analogy to known materials but this is rare. Considerable effort in refining the synthetic methodology is required to obtain a pure sample of the new material. If it is possible to separate the product from the rest of the reaction mixture elemental analysis can be used.
Another way involves the generation of characteristic X-rays in the electron beam. X-ray diffraction is used due to its imaging capabilities and speed of data generation; the latter requires revisiting and ref
The interdisciplinary field of materials science commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics and engineering; as such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Beginning in the 1940s, materials science began to be more recognized as a specific and distinct field of science and engineering, major technical universities around the world created dedicated schools of the study, within either the Science or Engineering schools, hence the naming. Materials science is a syncretic discipline hybridizing metallurgy, solid-state physics, chemistry, it is the first example of a new academic discipline emerging by fusion rather than fission.
Many of the most pressing scientific problems humans face are due to the limits of the materials that are available and how they are used. Thus, breakthroughs in materials science are to affect the future of technology significantly. Materials scientists emphasize understanding how the history of a material influences its structure, thus the material's properties and performance; the understanding of processing-structure-properties relationships is called the § materials paradigm. This paradigm is used to advance understanding in a variety of research areas, including nanotechnology and metallurgy. Materials science is an important part of forensic engineering and failure analysis – investigating materials, structures or components which fail or do not function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to property; such investigations are key to understanding, for example, the causes of various aviation accidents and incidents. The material of choice of a given era is a defining point. Phrases such as Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Steel Age are historic, if arbitrary examples.
Deriving from the manufacture of ceramics and its putative derivative metallurgy, materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science. Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining and ceramics and earlier from the use of fire. A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century, when the American scientist Josiah Willard Gibbs demonstrated that the thermodynamic properties related to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys, silica and carbon materials, used in building space vehicles enabling the exploration of space. Materials science has driven, been driven by, the development of revolutionary technologies such as rubbers, plastics and biomaterials. Before the 1960s, many eventual materials science departments were metallurgy or ceramics engineering departments, reflecting the 19th and early 20th century emphasis on metals and ceramics.
The growth of materials science in the United States was catalyzed in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which funded a series of university-hosted laboratories in the early 1960s "to expand the national program of basic research and training in the materials sciences." The field has since broadened to include every class of materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, magnetic materials and nanomaterials classified into three distinct groups: ceramics and polymers. The prominent change in materials science during the recent decades is active usage of computer simulations to find new materials, predict properties, understand phenomena. A material is defined as a substance, intended to be used for certain applications. There are a myriad of materials around us—they can be found in anything from buildings to spacecraft. Materials can be further divided into two classes: crystalline and non-crystalline; the traditional examples of materials are metals, semiconductors and polymers.
New and advanced materials that are being developed include nanomaterials and energy materials to name a few. The basis of materials science involves studying the structure of materials, relating them to their properties. Once a materials scientist knows about this structure-property correlation, they can go on to study the relative performance of a material in a given application; the major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and the way in which it has been processed into its final form. These characteristics, taken together and related through the laws of thermodynamics and kinetics, govern a material's microstructure, thus its properties; as mentioned above, structure is one of the most important components of the field of materials science. Materials science examines the structure of materials from the atomic scale, all the way up to the macro scale. Characterization is the way; this involves methods such as diffraction with X-rays, electrons, or neutrons, various forms of spectroscopy and chemical analysis such as Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, thermal analysis, electron microscope analysis, etc.
Chemistry education is the study of the teaching and learning of chemistry in all schools and universities. Topics in chemistry education might include understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry, how to improve learning outcomes by changing teaching methods and appropriate training of chemistry instructors, within many modes, including classroom lecture and laboratory activities. There is a constant need to update the skills of teachers engaged in teaching chemistry, so chemistry education speaks to this need. There are at least four different philosophical perspectives that describe how the work in chemistry education is carried out; the first is what one might call a practitioner’s perspective, wherein the individuals who are responsible for teaching chemistry are the ones who define chemistry education by their actions. A second perspective is defined by a self-identified group of chemical educators, faculty members and instructors who, as opposed to declaring their primary interest in a typical area of laboratory research, take on an interest in contributing suggestions, essays and other descriptive reports of practice into the public domain, through journal publications and presentations.
Dr. Robert L. Lichter, then-Executive Director of the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, speaking in a plenary session at the 16th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education, posed the question “why do terms like ‘chemical educator’ exist in higher education, when there is a respectable term for this activity, namely, ‘chemistry professor.’ One criticism of this view is that few professors bring any formal preparation in or background about education to their jobs, so lack any professional perspective on the teaching and learning enterprise discoveries made about effective teaching and how students learn. A third perspective is chemical education research. Following the example of physics education research, CER tends to take the theories and methods developed in pre-college science education research, which takes place in Schools of Education, applies them to understanding comparable problems in post-secondary settings. Like science education researchers, CER practitioners tend to study the teaching practices of others as opposed to focusing on their own classroom practices.
Chemical education research is carried out in situ using human subjects from secondary and post-secondary schools. Chemical education research utilizes both qualitative data collection methods. Quantitative methods involve collecting data that can be analyzed using various statistical methods. Qualitative methods include interviews, observations and other methods common to social science research. There is an emergent perspective called The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Although there is debate on how to best define SoTL, one of the primary practices is for mainstream faculty members to develop a more informed view of their practices, how to carry out research and reflection on their own teaching, about what constitutes deep understanding in student learning. Chemistry courses are required for many university students for students who are studying science; some students find chemistry classes and lab work stressful. This anxiety has been called chemophobia. Fears center on academic performance, the difficulty of learning chemical equations, fear of getting lab chemicals on the hands.
Women students were more anxious than men. Previous exposure to learning chemistry was associated with lower anxiety. See chemophobia for aversion to chemical compounds rather than chemistry as a subject in education. There are many journals where papers related to chemistry education can be published; the circulation of many of these journals was limited to the country of publication. Some concentrate on chemistry at different education levels. Most of these journals carry a mixture of articles that range from reports on classroom and laboratory practices to educational research. Australian Journal of Education in Chemistry: Published by the Royal Australian Chemical Institute and covering both School and University education. Chemistry Education Research and Practice: Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry CERP publishes research concerned with all aspects of chemistry education. CERP publishes theoretical perspectives, literature reviews, empirical papers, including systematic evaluations of innovative practice.
Education in Chemistry: Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry with a coverage of all areas of chemical education. EiC is the RSC's educational magazine. Foundations of Chemistry: Published by Springer]] with a coverage of philosophical and historical aspects of chemical education. Journal of Chemical Education: Published by the Chemical Education Division of the American Chemical Society and covering both School and University education, it was established in 1924. The Chemical Educator: Coverage of all areas of chemical education. Chemical Education Journal: Coverage of all areas of chemical education. List of scientific journals in chemistryMuch research in chemistry education is pub