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In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus. The number of nucleons in a nucleus defines an isotope's mass number; until the 1960s, nucleons were thought to be elementary particles, not made up of smaller parts. Now they are known to be composite particles, made of three quarks bound together by the so-called strong interaction; the interaction between two or more nucleons is called internucleon interaction or nuclear force, ultimately caused by the strong interaction. Nucleons sit at the boundary where nuclear physics overlap. Particle physics quantum chromodynamics, provides the fundamental equations that explain the properties of quarks and of the strong interaction; these equations explain quantitatively how quarks can bind together into neutrons. However, when multiple nucleons are assembled into an atomic nucleus, these fundamental equations become too difficult to solve directly. Instead, nuclides are studied within nuclear physics, which studies nucleons and their interactions by approximations and models, such as the nuclear shell model.

These models can explain nuclide properties, as for example, whether or not a particular nuclide undergoes radioactive decay. The proton and neutron are in a scheme of categories being at once fermions and baryons; the proton carries the neutron carries a zero net charge. Thus, they can be viewed as two states of the same nucleon, together form an isospin doublet. In isospin space, neutrons can be transformed into protons via SU symmetries, vice versa; these nucleons are acted upon by the strong interaction, invariant under rotation in isospin space. According to the Noether theorem, isospin is conserved with respect to the strong interaction. Protons and neutrons are best known in their role as nucleons, i.e. as the components of atomic nuclei, but they exist as free particles. Free neutrons are unstable, with a half-life of around 13 minutes, but they have important applications. Protons not bound to other nucleons are the nuclei of hydrogen atoms when bound with an electron or—if not bound to anything—are ions or cosmic rays.

Neither the proton nor neutron is an elementary particle, meaning each is composed of smaller parts, namely three quarks each. A proton is composed of two up quarks and one down quark, while the neutron has one up quark and two down quarks. Quarks are held together by the strong force, or equivalently, by gluons, which mediate the strong force. An up quark has electric charge +​2⁄3 e, a down quark has charge −​1⁄3 e, so the summed electric charges of proton and neutron are +e and 0, respectively. Thus, the neutron has a charge of 0, therefore is electrically neutral; the mass of the proton and neutron is quite similar: The proton is 1.6726×10−27 kg or 938.27 MeV/c2, while the neutron is 1.6749×10−27 kg or 939.57 MeV/c2. The neutron is 0.13% heavier. The similarity in mass can be explained by the slight difference in masses of up quarks and down quarks composing the nucleons. However, a detailed explanation remains an unsolved problem in particle physics; the spin of the nucleon is ​1⁄2, which means they are fermions and, like electrons, are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.

No more than one nucleon, e.g. in an atomic nucleus, may occupy the same quantum state. The isospin and spin quantum numbers of the nucleon have two states each, resulting in four combinations in total. An alpha particle is composed of four nucleons occupying all four combinations, namely it has two protons and two neutrons and its net nuclear spin is zero. In larger nuclei constituent nucleons, to avoid Pauli exclusion, are compelled to have relative motion which may contribute to nuclear spin via the orbital quantum number, they spread out into nuclear shells analogous to electron shells in chemistry. The magnetic moment of a proton, denoted μp, is 2.79 nuclear magnetons, while the magnetic moment of a neutron is μn = −1.91 μN. These parameters are important in NMR/MRI. A neutron in free state is an unstable particle, with a half-life around ten minutes, it undergoes β− decay by turning into a proton while emitting an electron and an electron antineutrino. A proton by itself is thought to be stable.

This is an important discussion in particle physics. Inside a nucleus, on the other hand, combined protons and neutrons can be stable or unstable depending on the nuclide, or nuclear species. Inside some nuclides, a neutron can turn into a proton, and inside still other nuclides, both protons and neutrons do not change form. Both nucleons have corresponding antiparticles: the antiproton and the antineutron, which have the same mass and opposite charge as the proton and neutron and they interact in the same way. (This is believed to be true, due to CPT symmetry. If there is a difference, it is too small to measure in all experiments to da

Graeme Moran

Graeme Maurice Moran was a New Zealand rower. Born in Wanganui on 12 October 1938, Moran was the son of Maurice Gerald Mona Moran, he married Susan Elizabeth Brown, the couple went on to have three children. A long-time member of the Union Boat Club in Wanganui, Moran was in the winning Union coxed four with Donald Gemmell, Peter Aitchison, Frank Crotty and Richard Tuffin at the New Zealand championships in 1958; the same crew went on to represent New Zealand at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Cardiff, finishing fourth. Moran went on to win a further three national rowing titles, in the eights in 1959, 1960, 1961, he was a member of the Wanganui eight that won the Hallyburton Johnstone Cup at the 1958 inter-provincial championships. Moran died on 24 February 1996, while training on the Whanganui River; the Graeme Moran Memorial Trophy, inaugurated in 1997, is a team trophy contested at inter-provincial rowing championships

2014 Portuguese Socialist Party prime ministerial primary

The 2014 Portuguese Socialist Party prime ministerial primary was held on 28 September 2014 and was the first primary open for non members of the Socialist Party and it elected the party's candidate for Prime Minister for the 2015 general election. It's the first time in Portugal. There were only two candidates running, António José Seguro current general secretary of the party and António Costa current mayor of Lisbon. António Costa won the primary by a landslide, achieving about 68% of the votes against the 32% of António José Seguro. After the first results were announced, Seguro conceded defeat and resigned as Secretary-General of the Party. Following the narrow victory of the Socialist Party over the coalition between the PSD and the CDS-PP in the European elections on 25 May 2014, many Socialist Party members and supporters considered the result a disappointment and many blamed Seguro for not being a real alternative to the Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho. On 27 May, António Costa announced.

António José Seguro refused to initiate a leadership contest and accused António Costa of being an opportunist who had broken the deal the two made in early 2013, when António Costa was considering challenging Seguro. After a bitter meeting of the party leadership members, António Costa included, it was agreed to call a primary election open to supporters of the Socialist Party that would elect the party's candidate for Prime Minister for the following legislative elections in October 2015. Nominations for the candidacy were opened on 15 July 2014 and closed on 14 August 2014. To be able to vote, voters had to registered between 15 July 2014 and 12 September 2014. Unlike previous Socialist Party leadership elections, this was the first primary to be open to the general public. In order to participate to the open primary, voters had to meet the following conditions: Members of the party are automatically registered to vote. António Costa, Mayor of Lisbon. Primárias 2014 Official website PS Official WebsiteOfficial campaign websitesMobilizar Portugal - António Costa campaign website Seguro 2015 - António José Seguro campaign website

Lovell General Hospital (Rhode Island)

Lovell General Hospital was a United States Army hospital in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, active during the American Civil War from 1862 to 1865. On May 19, 1862 the surgeon general of the U. S. Army authorized Governor of Rhode Island William Sprague IV to "provide suitable accommodations for wounded and sick soldiers". Sprague appointed a commission which selected Portsmouth Grove in the Melville section of the town of Portsmouth as the location for the hospital; the first patients arrived on July 6, 1862. Over the course of the war thousands patients were cared for by the hospital; as a number of patients at the hospital were Union soldiers convicted by court martial and others were Confederate prisoners of war, it was necessary to have guards posted at the hospital. In the early months of the hospital's operation security was provided by units of the Rhode Island Militia - first by the Artillery Company of Newport and by the First Light Infantry of Providence. In December 1862 a company of volunteers, called the Hospital Guards, was raised under the command of Captain Christopher Blanding.

Soldiers who joined the company had to have disabilities or injuries which precluded them from front line service. The company remained at the hospital until it was closed and was mustered out of service on August 25, 1865. An early superintendent of the hospital was Katherine Prescott Wormeley, a key organizer of the United States Sanitary Commission. Wormeley was inspired by the work of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War and was successful in recruiting nurses to work at the hospital; the hospital was named Lovell General Hospital after Joseph Lovell, who served as the Surgeon General of the United States Army from 1818 to 1836. The hospital was known as Portsmouth Grove Hospital; the hospital was closed on August 25, 1865. In time, all the buildings of the hospital were either removed. There are no remains of the hospital. During the course of the war, over 200 patients died at the hospital, their remains were buried in a cemetery near the hospital but were removed to Cypress Hills National Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York in May 1868.

In the early 20th Century the hospital site became a coaling station for the Navy. Prior to World War II the Navy converted from coal to oil and the coaling station was converted accordingly; the site of the hospital became a PT boat training base during World War II. John F. Kennedy was one of the hundreds of Navy officers to receive training there. After the Navy reduced its presence in Rhode Island in the 1970s, the site was converted for use by the boating industry. Major commercial enterprises there include Little Harbor Marine, the Bend Boat Basin and the Melville Grille restaurant. Several former America's Cup yachts are stored there during the winter. Rhode Island's Civil War Hospital. Life and death at Portsmouth Grove, 1862-1865. Frank L. Grzyb. McFarland and Company, Inc. 2012

It Can't Happen Here

It Can't Happen Here is a semi-satirical 1935 political novel by American author Sinclair Lewis and a 1936 play by Lewis and John C. Moffitt adapted from the novel; the novel was published during the heyday of fascism in Europe, reported on by Dorothy Thompson, Lewis' wife. The novel describes the rise of Berzelius "Buzz" Windrip, a demagogue, elected President of the United States, after fomenting fear and promising drastic economic and social reforms while promoting a return to patriotism and "traditional" values. After his election, Windrip takes complete control of the government and imposes totalitarian rule with the help of a ruthless paramilitary force, in the manner of European fascists like Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini; the novel's plot centers on journalist Doremus Jessup's opposition to the new regime and his subsequent struggle against it as part of a liberal rebellion. Reviewers at the time, historians and literary critics since, have emphasized the resemblance with Louisiana politician Huey Long, who used strong-arm political tactics and, building a nationwide "Share Our Wealth" organization in preparing to run for president in the 1936 election.

He was assassinated in 1935 just prior to the novel's publication. In 1936, Senator Berzelius "Buzz" Windrip, a charismatic and power-hungry politician, wins the 1936 United States presidential election on a populist platform, promising to restore the country to prosperity and greatness, promising each citizen $5,000 a year. Portraying himself as a champion of traditional American values, Windrip defeats President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the Democratic convention easily beats his Republican opponent, Senator Walt Trowbridge, in the November election. Although having foreshadowed some authoritarian measures in order to reorganize the United States government, Windrip outlaws dissent, incarcerates political enemies in concentration camps, trains and arms a paramilitary force called the Minute Men, who terrorize citizens and enforce the policies of Windrip and his "corporatist" regime. One of Windrip's first acts as president is to eliminate the influence of the United States Congress, which draws the ire of many citizens as well as the legislators themselves.

The Minute Men respond to protests against Windrip's decisions harshly, attacking demonstrators with bayonets. In addition to these actions, Windrip's administration, known as the "Corpo" government, curtails women's and minority rights, eliminates individual states by subdividing the country into administrative sectors; the government of these sectors is managed by "Corpo" authorities prominent businessmen or Minute Men officers. Those accused of crimes against the government appear before kangaroo courts presided over by military judges. Despite these dictatorial measures, a majority of Americans approve of them, seeing them as painful but necessary steps to restore U. S. power. One of Windrip's cronies brings up the matter of fascism in America, but Francis Tasbrough, the wealthy owner of the quarry, dismisses it with the remark that it "can't happen here". Open opponents of Windrip's, led by Senator Trowbridge, form an organization called the New Underground named after the Underground Railroad, helping dissidents escape to Canada and distributing anti-Windrip propaganda.

One recruit to the New Underground is Doremus Jessup, the novel's protagonist, a traditional liberal and an opponent of both corporatist and communist theories, the latter of which Windrip's administration suppresses. Jessup's participation in the organization results in the publication of a periodical called The Vermont Vigilance, in which he writes editorials decrying Windrip's abuses of power. Shad Ledue, the local district commissioner and Jessup's former hired man, resents his old employer. Ledue discovers Jessup's actions and has him sent to a concentration camp. Ledue subsequently terrorizes Jessup's family and his daughter Sissy, whom he unsuccessfully attempts to seduce. Sissy does, discover evidence of corrupt dealings on the part of Ledue, which she exposes to Francis Tasbrough, a one-time friend of Jessup and Ledue's superior in the administrative hierarchy. Tasbrough has Ledue imprisoned in the same camp as Jessup, where inmates Ledue had sent there organize Ledue's murder. Jessup escapes, after a brief incarceration, when his friends bribe one of the camp guards.

He flees to Canada. He serves the organization as a spy, passing along information and urging locals to resist Windrip. In time, Windrip's hold on power weakens as the economic prosperity he promised does not materialize, increased numbers of disillusioned Americans, including Vice President Perley Beecroft, flee to both Canada and Mexico. Windrip angers his Secretary of State, Lee Sarason, who had served earlier as his chief political operative and adviser. Sarason and Windrip's other lieutenants, including General Dewey Haik, seize power and exile the president to France. Sarason succeeds Windrip, but his extravagant and weak rule creates a power vacuum in which Haik and others vie for power. In a bloody putsch, Haik leads a party of military supporters into the White House, kills Sarason and his associates, proclaims himself president; the two coups cause a slow erosion of Corpo power, Haik's government tries to arouse patriotism by launching an unjustified invasion of Mexico. After slandering Mexico in state-run newspapers, Haik orders a mass conscription of young American men for the invasion of that country, infuriating many who had until been staunch Corpo loyalists.

Riots and rebellions break o

More of the Monkees

More of the Monkees is the second studio album by the American pop rock band the Monkees. It was recorded in late 1966 and released on Colgems label #102 on January 9, 1967, it displaced the band's debut album from the top of the Billboard 200 chart and remained at No.1 for 18 weeks—the longest of any Monkees album. Combined, the first two Monkees albums were at the top of the Billboard chart for 31 consecutive weeks. More of the Monkees went to No.1 in the UK. In the U. S. it has been certified quintuple platinum by the RIAA with sales of more than five million copies. More of the Monkees is notable for being the first pop/rock album to be the best-selling album of the year in the U. S. Monkeemania had reached full swing by the time; the Monkees' second single, "I'm a Believer"—included on this album—held the number one position on the Billboard Hot 100 and they were about to embark on a successful concert tour. The release of More of the Monkees was rushed to capitalize on the band's popularity, catching its members by surprise.

The band learned of the album's existence while on tour in Cleveland, discovering it had been released. They were dismayed by the cover image of them and offended by production overseer Don Kirshner's liner notes, which praised his team of songwriters before mentioning as an afterthought, the names of the Monkees; the band Nesmith, was furious about the songs—selected for the record from 34, recorded—leading Nesmith to tell Melody Maker magazine that More of the Monkees was "probably the worst album in the history of the world". The group began to grow concerned over their musical output, since this album and their debut, The Monkees, featured them limited to just vocals with scattered instrumental contributions. Kirshner had a strict rule that the Monkees were to provide only vocals on his productions, though separate sessions produced by Michael Nesmith himself featured Peter Tork on guitar. More of the Monkees has Nesmith limited to one song as lead vocalist. Within weeks of the release of More of the Monkees, Nesmith lobbied with the group's creators, Bob Rafelson and Bert Schneider, for the Monkees to be allowed to play their instruments on future records giving the quartet artistic control.

To make his point clear to Kirshner, balking at the idea, Nesmith proceeded to punch a hole in the wall of a suite at the Beverly Hills Hotel during a group meeting with Kirshner and Colgems lawyer Herb Moelis, declaring to the latter: "That could have been your face!". This outburst came after Moelis snapped to Nesmith, "You'd better read your contract", when Nesmith threatened to quit. Kirshner was dropped from the project altogether; the original pressing catalog number is COM/COS 102. When the album was reissued in 1969 the Colgems symbol replaced the word "Colgems" on the bottom right-hand corner of the reverse side, it was standard practice for RCA to add an "RE". There were no mono copies issued in 1969 as they were phased out altogether in 1968. Tracks 1-12: Original album in stereo "Don't Listen to Linda" – 2:28 "I'll Spend My Life with You" – 2:30 "I Don't Think You Know Me" – 2:19 "Look Out" – 2:53 "I'm a Believer" – 2:53 Bonus track at the end of Side 1: "I Don't Think You Know Me" – 2:19 Bonus track at the end of Side 2: "Don't Listen to Linda" – 2:28, "I'll Spend My Life with You" – 2:30 The following tracks were included on the 2006 deluxe edition of the album.

Some were unreleased, while others were on the 1994 Rhino reissue or the Missing Links series. Studio chatter is included between some bonus tracks. Disc one Tracks 1-12: Original album in stereo "Apples, Peaches and Pears" – 02:18 "Ladies Aid Society" – 3:27 "I'll Spend My Life with You" – 2:28 "I Don't Think You Know Me" – 2:20 "Through the Looking Glass" – 2:31 "Don't Listen to Linda" – 2:28 "Kicking Stones" – 2:32 "Look Out" – 3:08 "I'm a Believer" – 2:51 "Mr. Webster" – 2:47Disc two Tracks 1-12: Original album in mono "Valleri" – 2:30 "Words" – 2:58 "Look Out" – 2:50 "I'll Be Back Up on My Feet" – 2:37 "Tear Drop City" – 2:18 "Of You" – 2:01 "Hold on Girl" – 2:44 " Do Not Ask for Love" – 02:59 Works cited More of the Monkees CD liner notes The Monkees: The Day-By-Day Story of the 60s TV Pop Sensation by Andrew Sandoval