click links in text for more info


Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists of a nucleobase and a five-carbon sugar ribose whereas a nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, one or more phosphate groups. In a nucleoside, the anomeric carbon is linked through a glycosidic bond to the N9 of a purine or the N1 of a pyrimidine. Examples of nucleosides include cytidine, adenosine, guanosine and inosine. While a nucleoside is a nucleobase linked to a sugar, a nucleotide is composed of a nucleoside and one or more phosphate groups. Thus, nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell on the sugar's primary alcohol group to produce nucleotides. Nucleotides are the molecular building-blocks of DNA and RNA. Nucleosides can be produced by de novo synthesis pathways, in particular in the liver, but they are more abundantly supplied via ingestion and digestion of nucleic acids in the diet, whereby nucleotidases break down nucleotides into nucleosides and phosphate.

The nucleosides, in turn, are subsequently broken down in the lumen of the digestive system by nucleosidases into nucleobases and ribose or deoxyribose. In addition, nucleotides can be broken down inside the cell into nitrogenous bases, ribose-1-phosphate or deoxyribose-1-phosphate. In medicine several nucleoside analogues are used as anticancer agents; the viral polymerase incorporates these compounds with non-canonical bases. These compounds are activated in the cells by being converted into nucleotides, they are administered as nucleosides since charged nucleotides cannot cross cell membranes. In molecular biology, several analogues of the sugar backbone exist. Due to the low stability of RNA, prone to hydrolysis, several more stable alternative nucleoside/nucleotide analogues that bind to RNA are used; this is achieved by using a different backbone sugar. These analogues include LNA, morpholino, PNA. In sequencing, dideoxynucleotides are used; these nucleotides possess the non-canonical sugar dideoxyribose.

It therefore cannot bond with the next base and terminates the chain, as DNA polymerases cannot distinguish between it and a regular deoxyribonucleotide. Arabinosyl nucleosides Nucleobase Salvage enzyme Synthesis of nucleosides

Nigel Knowles

Sir Nigel Knowles is the former global co-chairman of the law firm DLA Piper and since 2017 newly appointed Chairman of DWF LLP. He was educated at the University of Sheffield, where he studied law, joined Broomhead & Neals as an articled clerk in 1978. In 1996 he was appointed as managing partner of what was Dibb Lupton Broomhead. In 2005 he became joint chief executive officer of DLA Piper following a three-way merger between DLA and U. S. law firms Piper Rudnick and Gray Cary Ware & Freidenrich LLP. He was knighted in March 2009. In 2016 he was picked to serve as High Sheriff of Greater London for one year, joined the advisory board for the legal communication platform, The Link App. Sir Nigel is the current Chairman of the Sheffield City Region Local Enterprise Partnership, a role that works with the private and public sector within the Sheffield City Region to drive economic growth across the nine local council areas that comprise the Sheffield City Region

Polyscias sandwicensis

Polyscias sandwicensis, known as the'ohe makai or ʻOhe kukuluāeʻo in Hawaiian, is a species of flowering plant in the family Araliaceae, endemic to Hawaii. It is a tree, reaching a height of 4.6–15 m high with a trunk diameter of 0.5–0.6 m. It can be found at elevations of 30–800 m on most main islands. Polyscias sandwicensis inhabits lowland dry forests, but is seen in coastal mesic and mixed mesic forests, it is threatened by habitat loss. Media related to Polyscias sandwicensis at Wikimedia Commons "Reynoldsia sandwicensis". Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Database. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

Donald F. Ferguson

Donald Ferguson is a Professor of Professional Practice in Computer Science at Columbia University. Before joining Columbia in 2018, he was vice CTO for software at Dell, he was CTO, Distinguished Engineer and Executive VP at CA, Inc. known as Computer Associates. He graduated with a PhD in computer science from Columbia University in 1989, his thesis studied the application of economic models to the management of system resources in distributed systems. From 1985 to 2007, Ferguson worked for IBM, being appointed IBM Fellow in 2001, chief architect for IBM's Software Group, he provided overall technical leadership for IBM WebSphere, Tivoli Software, IBM DB2, Rational Software and Lotus Software products. He chaired the SWG Architecture Board; the SWG AB focused on cross-product initiatives and emerging technology. Some of the public focus areas were web services, web 2.0 and business-driven development. Ferguson guided IBM’s strategy and architecture for SOA and web services, co-authored many of the initial web-service specifications.

He had been the chief architect for WebSphere and the WebSphere products, which provide support for dynamic web applications. Prior to transferring to IBM SWG, Ferguson was a research staff member at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. From 2007 to 2008, he worked at Microsoft as a technical fellow in platforms and strategy in the office of the CTO. Ferguson joined CA in March 2008. Ferguson joined Dell in June 2012 as CTO for software. Ferguson received the 2013 Columbia School of Engineering and applied Science Alumni Association Egleston Medal for Distinguished Engineering Achievement. Web Services Platform Architecture: SOAP, WSDL, WS-Policy, WS-Addressing, WS-BPEL, WS-Reliable Messaging, More, Prentice Hall PTR, ISBN 0-13-148874-0, March 22, 2005 WWISA Birth of a Platform The Architecture Journal BPM 2006 Keynotes Trends in Enterprise Application Architecture 2006 2nd International Conference on Service Oriented Computing

Renewable Fuels Association

The Renewable Fuels Association represents the ethanol industry promoting policies and research and development initiatives that will lead to the increased production and use of ethanol fuel. First organized in 1981, RFA serves as a voice of advocacy for the ethanol industry, providing research data and industry analysis to its members, to the public via the media, to the United States Congress, as well as to related federal and state agencies. RFA's chairman is Neil Koehler of Pacific Ethanol, Inc. and the vice-chairman is Jeanne McCaherty of Guardian Energy, LLC. The RFA has offices in both St. Louis and Washington, the District of Columbia. Geoff Cooper is RFA's President and CEO, a position he has held since October 2018, he served as RFA Executive Vice President. In addition to overseeing market analysis and policy research, he provides regulatory support and strategic planning for the association and its members. Geoff focuses on issues related to lifecycle analysis and ethanol co-products.

Prior to joining RFA, Geoff served as Director of Ethanol Programs for the National Corn Growers Association. In this role, he led research and promotional efforts to increase the production and use of corn-based ethanol. Geoff served as a Captain in the U. S. Army, specializing in bulk petroleum supply and logistics. A Wyoming native, Geoff graduated from Drake University in Iowa, he earned his master's degree at Webster University in St. Louis; the RFA argues that the Environmental Protection Agency abused its waiver authority by setting RVOs lower than the statutory minimums. They say Congress intended for the law to apply according to supply that could be available rather than demand, they contend. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, the statutory standard for 2017 is 24 billion gallons; the EPA only set an RVO of 18.8 billion gallons of biofuel for 2017. This was up from 18.4 billion gallons in 2016. Ethanol supporters and oil companies alike criticized this target; the RFA considers employment in the ethanol industry to be a primary example of "green jobs."

The 2010 US Ethanol Industry Salary Survey determined that employees about 500,000 people with 75% of such workers making more than $50,000 per year and 99% receiving health benefits. The RFA points out that these jobs concentrated in rural areas, provide a much-needed economic boost to otherwise depressed places; as of December 2014 half of new vehicles produced by Chrysler and General Motors are flex-fuel, meaning one-quarter of all new vehicles sold by 2015 are capable of using up to E85. However, obstacles to widespread use of E85 fuel remain. A 2014 analysis by the Renewable Fuels Association found that oil companies prevent or discourage affiliated retailers from selling E85 through rigid franchise and branding agreements, restrictive supply contracts, other tactics; the report showed independent retailers are five times more to offer E85 than retailers carrying an oil company brand. The RFA convenes four concern-specific committees. Technical Committeefocuses on fuel specifications and standards such as ASTM International, National Conference of Weights and Measures, ISO, Canadian General Standards Board, other international fuel requirements.

Environmental Compliance Committeeexamines and provides guidance on the myriad of environmental regulations pertaining to ethanol production facilities. Co-Products Committeefocuses on issues relevant to all ethanol co-products, from research and educational programs to regulatory issues and trade. Plant and Employee Safety Committeeworks with federal and local governments as well as industry partners, to bring attention to hazardous materials regulations and other safety requirements. Renewable Fuel Standard Canadian Renewable Fuels Association Renewable energy commercialization in the United States Solar Energy Industries Association Renewable energy commercialization American Council on Renewable Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Fuels Association Iowa Renewable Fuels Association Canadian Renewable Fuels Association Fuels America Al-Corn Clean Fuel: About

Thomas DeSimone

Thomas Anthony "Tommy" DeSimone was an American mobster belonging to New York City's Lucchese crime family, alleged to have participated in both the Air France robbery and the Lufthansa heist. DeSimone inspired the character Tommy DeVito, one of the main characters of the 1990 film Goodfellas, played by Joe Pesci in an Oscar winning performance. Tommy DeSimone had two sisters and Phyllis, two brothers and Anthony. Both of his brothers were associates of the Gambino crime family. Phyllis was James Burke's mistress from the time she turned 16. DeSimone was the brother-in-law of mobster Joseph "The Barber" Spion, slain for refusing to help kill DeSimone in the late 1970s, the ex-son-in-law of Gambino associate Salvatore DeVita. DeSimone's father owned a printing shop. Both his paternal grandfather, Rosario DeSimone, uncle, Frank DeSimone, were bosses of the Los Angeles crime family. Rosario became the boss of the Los Angeles family after Vito Di Giorgio was killed in Chicago in 1922. Frank was a criminal attorney turned mobster.

In 1965, when he was 15 years old, DeSimone was introduced to Paul Vario, a caporegime in the Lucchese family. Henry Hill, a Vario associate, in his early 20s at the time recounted his first meeting with DeSimone, describing him as "a skinny kid, wearing a wiseguy suit and a pencil mustache." DeSimone worked under Vario and Hill, among others, becoming involved in truck hijackings and fencing of stolen property, extortion and murder. While hijacking, DeSimone would always carry his gun in a brown paper bag. "Walking down the street, he looked like he was bringing you a sandwich instead of a.38." Hill said. During the 1960s, Air France was the carrier of American currency, exchanged in Southeast Asia; the airline had contracted to return the money to the U. S for depositing with American banks; the money was carried in linen bags, each containing US$60,000, Air France shipped up to $1 million a week in this manner. The money was stored in a cement-block strong room at the Air France cargo terminal at John F. Kennedy International Airport, with a round-the-clock private security guard.

In 1967, Robert McMahon, an Air France employee, tipped off Burke, DeSimone to an incoming delivery of between $400,000 and $700,000 in cash on Friday, April 7. McMahon said the best time for the actual robbery would be just before midnight, when the security guard would be on his meal break. On the day of the robbery, Hill and DeSimone drove to Kennedy airport with an empty suitcase, the largest Hill could find. At 11:40 p.m, they entered the Air France cargo terminal. McMahon said that they should just walk in, as people came to the terminal to pick up lost baggage. DeSimone and Hill entered the unsecured area unchallenged and unlocked the door with a duplicate key. Using a small flashlight, they found seven of the bags, which they loaded into the suitcase and left. No alarm was raised, no shots fired, no one was injured; the theft was not discovered until the following Monday, when a Wells Fargo truck arrived to pick up the cash to be delivered to the French American Banking Corporation. After William "Billy Batts" Bentvena was released from prison in 1970, in the book Wiseguy, Henry Hill said that they threw a "welcome home" party for Bentvena at Robert's Lounge, owned by Jimmy Burke.

Hill stated that Bentvena saw Tommy DeSimone and jokingly asked him if he still shined shoes and DeSimone perceived it as an insult. DeSimone leaned over to Hill and Burke and said "I'm gonna kill that fuck." Two weeks on June 11, 1970, Bentvena was at The Suite, a nightclub owned by Hill in Jamaica, Queens. Late in the night, with the bar club nearly empty, DeSimone pistol-whipped Bentvena. Hill said that before DeSimone started to beat Bentvena, DeSimone yelled, "Shine these fucking shoes!". After Bentvena was beaten and presumed killed, DeSimone and Hill placed his body in the trunk of Hill's car for transport, they stopped at DeSimone's mother's house to get a lime. They started to hear sounds from the trunk, when they realized that Bentvena was still alive, DeSimone and Burke stopped the car and beat him to death with the shovel and a tire iron. Burke had a friend who owned a dog kennel in Upstate New York, Bentvena was buried there. About three months after Bentvena's murder, Burke's friend sold the dog kennel to housing developers, Burke ordered Hill and DeSimone to exhume Bentvena's corpse and dispose of it elsewhere.

In Wiseguy, Hill said the body was crushed in a mechanical compactor at a New Jersey junkyard, owned by Clyde Brooks. However, on the commentary for the film Goodfellas, he states that Bentvena's body was buried in the basement of Robert's Lounge, a bar and restaurant owned by Burke, only was put into the car crusher. DeSimone's third murder, described by Hill, was of a young man named Michael "Spider" Gianco, serving as a bartender at a card game. Gianco and DeSimone had an argument that resulted in DeSimone pulling out a handgun and shooting him in the thigh. A week when Gianco was again serving drinks and donning a full leg cast, DeSimone started to goad him about his wounded leg, spurring Gianco to tell DeSimone to "go fuck himself". After a stunned silence, an impressed Burke, having now developed a respect for Gianco for sticking up for himself, gave him some money before jokingl