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Nucleosynthesis

Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons. According to current theories, the first nuclei were formed a few minutes after the Big Bang, through the process called Big Bang nucleosynthesis. After about 20 minutes, the universe had cooled to a point at which these processes ended, so only the fastest and simplest reactions occurred, leaving our universe containing about 75% hydrogen, 24% helium by mass; the rest is traces of other elements such as the hydrogen isotope deuterium. The universe still has the same composition. Stars fuse light elements to heavier ones in their cores, giving off energy in the process known as stellar nucleosynthesis. Fusion processes create many of the lighter elements, up to and including iron and nickel in the most massive stars although these remain trapped in stellar cores and remnants; the s-process creates heavy elements, from strontium upwards. Supernova nucleosynthesis within exploding stars is responsible for the elements between oxygen and rubidium: from the ejection of elements produced during stellar nucleosynthesis.

Neutron star mergers are responsible for the synthesis of many heavy elements, via the r-process. When two neutron stars collide, a large amount of neutron-rich matter may be ejected at high temperatures, heavy elements form as the ejecta begins to cool. Cosmic ray spallation, caused when cosmic rays impact the interstellar medium and fragment larger atomic species, is a significant source of the lighter nuclei 3He, 9Be and 10,11B, that are not created by stellar nucleosynthesis. Cosmic ray bombardment of elements on Earth contribute to the presence of rare, short-lived atomic species called cosmogenic nuclides. In addition to the fusion processes responsible for the growing abundances of elements in the universe, a few minor natural processes continue to produce small numbers of new nuclides on Earth; these nuclides contribute little to their abundances, but may account for the presence of specific new nuclei. These nuclides are produced via radiogenesis of long-lived, primordial radionuclides such as uranium and thorium.

It is thought that the primordial nucleons themselves were formed from the quark–gluon plasma during the Big Bang as it cooled below two trillion degrees. A few minutes afterwards, starting with only protons and neutrons, nuclei up to lithium and beryllium were formed, but hardly any other elements; some boron may have been formed at this time, but the process stopped before significant carbon could be formed, as this element requires a far higher product of helium density and time than were present in the short nucleosynthesis period of the Big Bang. That fusion process shut down at about 20 minutes, due to drops in temperature and density as the universe continued to expand; this first process, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, was the first type of nucleogenesis to occur in the universe. A star formed in the early universe produces heavier elements by combining its lighter nuclei – hydrogen, lithium and boron – which were found in the initial composition of the interstellar medium and hence the star.

Interstellar gas therefore contains declining abundances of these light elements, which are present only by virtue of their nucleosynthesis during the Big Bang, cosmic ray spallation. Larger quantities of these lighter elements in the present universe are therefore thought to have been restored through billions of years of cosmic ray mediated breakup of heavier elements in interstellar gas and dust; the fragments of these cosmic-ray collisions include helium-3 and the stable isotopes of the light elements lithium and boron. Carbon was not made in the Big Bang, but was produced in larger stars via the triple-alpha process; the subsequent nucleosynthesis of heavier elements requires the extreme temperatures and pressures found within stars and supernovas. These processes began as hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang collapsed into the first stars at 500 million years. Star formation has occurred continuously in galaxies since that time. Among the elements found on Earth, those heavier than boron were created by stellar nucleosynthesis, supernova nucleosynthesis, by neutron star nucleosynthesis.

These heavier elements range in atomic numbers from Z = 6 to Z = 94. Synthesis of these elements occurred either by nuclear fusion or to a lesser degree by nuclear fission followed by beta decay; the first ideas on nucleosynthesis were that the chemical elements were created at the beginning of the universe, but no rational physical scenario for this could be identified. It became clear that hydrogen and helium are much more abundant than any of the other elements. All the rest constitute less than 2% of the mass of the Solar System, of other star systems as well. At the same time it was clear that oxygen and carbon were the next two most common elements, that there was a general trend toward high abundance of the light elements those with isotopes composed of whole numbers of helium-4 nuclei. Arthur Stanley Eddington first suggested in 1920, that stars obtain their energy by fusing hydrogen into helium and raised the possibility that the heavier elements may form in stars; this idea was not accepted, as the nuclear mechanism was not understood.

In the

Siim Tenno

Siim Tenno is an Estonian footballer who plays for German Oberliga Niedersachsen club MTV Gifhorn as a midfielder. Tenno, Tartu Tammeka youth product, started his men's league career with club's third team in the II Liiga in 2007; the next season, he played 29 matches for the club's second team and was promoted to the first team for the 2009 season. In January 2012, he and teammate Kaarel Kiidron were loaned to Czech Republic club Viktoria Žižkov until the end of the season, he made the first team debut on 30 March 2012. In the start of 2014 season, Tenno signed a one-year contract with Meistriliiga club Narva Trans. Before that he went on trial to 2. Bundesliga club Paderborn. Good spell in Narva helped him to sign a contract with German Regionalliga club Neumünster. At the start of July, Siim Tenno was with his former teammate Reio Laabus together in VfR Neumünster and both signed contracts. On 21 July 2015, Tenno rejoined Tammeka. In January 2016, Tenno joined German Oberliga Niedersachsen club MTV Gifhorn.

He made his international debut for Estonia in 2011. His brother, Simo, is a footballer

Ako Kurdnasab

Ako Kurdnasab was a Kurdish journalist for the weekly Kurdish journal Krafto. Krafto, based in Sanandaj, the capital of the Kurdistan province of Iran, was closed by the authorities last year. Kurdnasab was arrested in a polling station in December 2006 while covering municipal elections. Reporters Without other organizations condemned his arrest. Kurdnasab was released on bail on January 3, 2007 but re-arrested on July 23, 2007, because he expressed support for imprisoned journalists Adnan Hassanpour and Abdolwahed Butimar. On September 10, 2007, Kurdnasab was charged with "espionage," "actions against national security," and "attempts to overthrow the government by means of journalistic activities." He was sentenced to three years in prison. His sentence was reduced to six months in prison on November 13, 2007, after an appeals court overturned the espionage charge but confirmed the charge of “trying to overthrow the government by means of journalistic activities.” “We welcome the quashing of Kurdnasab’s espionage conviction but the fact remains that a journalist should not be imprisoned for what he writes and we therefore call for the entire conviction to be overturned and for him to be released unconditionally,” Reporters Without Borders said.

The European Union called for Kurdnasab's release. Ako Kurdnasab was released from prison on January 17, 2008. Kurdnasab was arrested on November 12, 2009, following his participation in protests of the execution of Ehsan Fatahian, he was released on bail on November 30

Fran├žois Arnal

François Arnal was a French painter and sculptor. Born and raised in a rural area of France, he was educated in Toulon high school and studied law at the University of Aix-en-Provence. Towards the end of the war he joined the resistance, where the Dutch refugee Conrad Kickert taught him the rudiments of painting. After the war he took up painting and moved to Paris, where he associated with established artists such as Pierre Dmitrienko, Serge Rezvani and Bernard Quentin, becoming involved in the lyrical abstraction movement. In 1960 he turned his attention to sculpture and spent much of his time in the United States and exhibiting. In the mid-1960s he settled in Paris and experimented with "bombardments", whereby he traced the shapes of objects with spray paint. In 1968 he set up Atelier A to publicise the work of designers of such everyday things as chairs and lamps. In 1975 he returned to painting and sculpture and began writing novels and plays, he died in Paris in 2012. L'Éclipse, 1954, oil on canvas, 54.5 × 33 cm, Musée d'Évreux.

Série des élémentaires pour une dynamique blanche, 1980, acrylic on canvas, 176 × 175 cm, Musée d'art de Toulon Les sombres fêtes de la chair, 1957, oil on canvas, 150 x 200 cm, Art Institute of Chicago AIC This article includes elements translated from the equivalent article on French Wikipedia Arnal paintings at the Art Institute of Chicago

Miyuki Takahashi

Miyuki Takahashi is a Japanese volleyball player who plays for the NEC Red Rockets. Miyuki Takahashi plays for the All-Japan women's volleyball team and participated at the 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics, her nickname is SHIN. She was the captain of the Japanese volleyball team during the Volleyball World Championship. Yamagata Higashi Jr. NEC Red Rockets Minetti Infoplus Vicenza NEC Red Rockets Toyota Auto Body Queenseis 2001: Bronze Medal in the World Grand Champions Cup 2001 2002: 13th place in the World Championship 2002 2003: 5th place in the World Cup 2003 2004: 5th place in the Olympic Games of Athens 2006: 6th place in the World Championship 2006 2007: 7th place in the World Cup 2007 2008: 5th place in the Olympic Games of Beijing 2004 Olympic Qualifier "Best Spiker" 2005 FIVB World Grand Prix "Best Scorer" Best Server FIVB biography

Aunque mal paguen

Aunque mal paguen is a Venezuelan telenovela written by Alberto Barrera Tyszka and produced by Venevisión in 2007. María Antonieta Castillo and Miguel de León star as the main protagonists while Ana Karina Manco, Desideria D'Caro and Josué Villae star as antagonists. Soledad is a young, beautiful woman who lives in the small, quiet town of El Guayabo where she works at the local tobacco factory "Caribana" as a winder. One night, destiny brings her to meet Alejandro, a young and ambitious developer from the city who has lost his memory after being hit on the head and robbed of his possessions. After a while, the townspeople discover that Alejandro is the owner of the town and the man behind the development project of a beach resort that will destroy their simple way of life, their homes and the tobacco lands surrounding the factory which forms their only source of income. Everyone begins to treat him with hostility, although he himself is yet to regain his memory, it is after this discovery that it is revealed that Soledad's real mother, thought to be dead is alive.

Catalina spent the last 20 years in prison for killing her abusive husband, the son of the town's patriarch, Don Luis Santana, owner of the tobacco factory. Because of this, she is the only legitimate heir and owner of the tobacco lands and thus, she can undo the sale of the lands to the developer. Don Luis, aware of Soledad's true paternity, offers Catalina a deal that if she saves the town from ruin he will reunite her with her daughter. Mother and daughter do not know of each other's existence, as Soledad thinks that the parents that raised her are her real parents while Catalina thinks that her daughter was adopted in another country. Mother and daughter will be reunited, but they will both fall in love with the same man, thus tearing them apart. Aunque mal paguen on IMDb