U.S. Route 77
U. S. Route 77 is a major north–south United States highway which extends for 1305 miles in the central United States; as of 2005, the highway's northern terminus is in Sioux City, Iowa, at an interchange with Interstate 29. Its southern terminus is in Brownsville, Texas, at Veteran's International Bridge on the U. S.-Mexico border, where it connects with both Mexican Federal Highway 101 and Mexican Federal Highway 180. It is unsigned around Dallas, Texas, its historic segment through South Dakota and Minnesota was decommissioned with the advent of Interstate 29 but otherwise the route has been spared the decommissioning that has shortened other US highways. The route has major freeway sections in Oklahoma City including the Broadway Extension connecting suburban Edmond to downtown Oklahoma City; the section between the Oklahoma–Texas state line and Waco is co-located with Interstate 35 and the 35E spur through Dallas, where it is co-located, it is not signed. The two stretches in Texas that are not co-located are a stretch wholly within the city of Denton and a longer stretch from near Red Oak, to Hillsboro, the reason being that US 77 is a separate road between the two, serving the town of Waxahachie.
As of 2004, US 77 Alternate has a northern terminus in Texas. It rejoins US 77 at Texas. While the main line of US 77 passes through Victoria, Alternate US 77 veers to the west to serve Yoakum and Cuero; the southern end extends from I-37 near Corpus Christi to Harlingen, where it merges with U. S. Highway 83 and runs through the cities of Harlingen, San Benito and Brownsville to its southern terminus at the United States/Mexico border. A section of U. S. 77 located in the Giddings, Texas area is known as the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Highway. Another section of US 77, from I-37 to SH 44 in Nueces County, was redesignated I-69/US 77 in 2011; as of 2017 - US 77 is being co-signed with I-35 E as part of the reconstruction co-signed between Denton and I-635. In Oklahoma, U. S. Route 77 runs north–south, paralleling Interstate 35, connecting Texas to Kansas and running for 268 miles through the central part of the state, it passes through many major cities, including Ardmore, Oklahoma City and Norman and Ponca City.
It has a freeway section, the Broadway Extension, connecting Oklahoma City to its northern suburb Edmond, in addition to sections that are co-flagged with Interstate-35 and Interstate-235. US-77 runs for 234 miles in Kansas. Between the U. S. 40 junction and the Cowley County line is designated as a Blue Star Memorial Highway. In Cowley County, it is the Robert B. Docking Memorial Highway. Near Arkansas City it is the Walnut Valley Greenway. From Nebraska to U. S. 24 and from K-15 to Arkansas City, it is part of the National Highway System. In Nebraska, U. S. 77 is a major north–south artery connecting the capital city of Lincoln with outlying areas to the north and south. The highway is designated as the Homestead Expressway from Beatrice to Interstate 80 at Lincoln. In Lincoln, U. S. 77 becomes a full controlled-access expressway before it overlaps with Interstate 80 for about 8 miles. North of Interstate 80, U. S. 77 continues as an expressway to Wahoo. It remains a two-lane highway except for two sections near Fremont, which are four-lane divided highways.
The expressway north of Fremont is shared with U. S. Route 275 and Nebraska Highway 91. U. S. 275 and NE 91 separate from U. S. 77 just south of Winslow, Nebraska and U. S. 77 continues north as a two-lane highway until it meets U. S. Route 75 at Winnebago; the two highways run together to the junction of Interstate 129 and U. S. Route 20 at Dakota City, where U. S. 75 breaks off and U. S. 77 continues northward as a divided highway through South Sioux City before exiting the state via the Siouxland Veterans Memorial Bridge. U. S. Route 77 enters Iowa. After crossing the Missouri River via the Veteran's Bridge at Sioux City, the highway ends at a diamond interchange with Interstate 29, its total length in Iowa is more than four-tenths mile. US 77 extended north through South Dakota to Ortonville, Minnesota, it followed the current I-29 corridor up to the Toronto, South Dakota area, followed current South Dakota Highway 15 north to Milbank, South Dakota. After reaching Milbank, it traveled to the east, concurrently with US 12 to Ortonville, where it ended at an intersection with US 75.
Portions of the old highway in the Sioux Falls, South Dakota area exist today as South Dakota Highway 115, further north, as Moody County road 77A. U. S. 77 is being upgraded between the Mexican border in Brownsville, Texas to Victoria, Texas as Interstate 69E. Texas US 83 at the Veterans International Bridge at Los Tomates at the Mexico–United States border in Brownsville. US 77/US 83 travels concurrently to Harlingen. I‑69E in Brownsville; the highways travel concurrently to north of Raymondville. I‑169 in Brownsville I‑2 / US 83 in Harlingen I‑69E in Robstown; the highways travel concurrently to Corpus Christi. I‑37 / I‑69E in Corpus Christi. I-37/US 77 travels concurrently to west-northwest of Corpus Christi. US 181 north of Sinton US 183 in Refugio Future I‑69 / Future I‑69E / Future I‑69W / US 59 south-southwest of Victoria. US 59/US 77 travels concurrently to southwest of Victoria. US 87 in Victoria US 90 in Schulenburg I‑10 in Schulenburg US 290 in Giddings US 79 in Rockdale US 190 southeast of Cameron.
The highways travel concurrently to Cameron. I‑35 in Waco; the highways travel concurrently to northeast of Hillsboro. US 84 in Bellmead I‑35 in Waxahachie US 287 in Waxahachie I-35E in Red Oak; the highways travel concurrently to Denton. I‑20 in Dallas US 67 in Dallas; the highways travel concurrently through Dallas. I‑30 / US 67 in Dallas I‑635 in Dallas
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Corpus Christi, Texas
Corpus Christi, colloquially Corpus, is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U. S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it extends into Aransas and San Patricio Counties, it is 130 miles southeast of San Antonio. Its political boundaries encompass Corpus Christi Bay, its zoned boundaries include small land parcels or water inlets of three neighboring counties. The city's population was estimated to be 320,434 in 2014, making it the eighth-most populous city in Texas; the Corpus Christi metropolitan area had an estimated population of 442,600. It is the hub of the six-county Corpus Christi-Kingsville-Alice Combined Statistical Area, with a 2013 estimated population of 516,793; the Port of Corpus Christi is the fifth-largest in the United States. The region is served by the Corpus Christi International Airport; the city's name means Body of Christ in Latin. The name was given to the settlement and surrounding bay by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda in 1519, as he discovered the lush semitropical bay on the Catholic feast day of Corpus Christi.
The nickname of the city is "Sparkling City by the Sea" featured in tourist literature. Karankawans inhabited the Corpus Christi region in pre-Columbian times. Spaniard Alonso Alvarez de Pineda traveled in 1519 to this bay on the day of the religious “Feast of Corpus Christi,” thus naming the semi-tropical bay Corpus Christi. Cabeza de Vaca may have passed through Corpus Christi in the 1500s, but the first European to study the Nueces River and Corpus Christi Bay was Joaquín de Orobio y Basterra in 1747. A few years José de Escandón organized a colony of about 50 families to settle the head of the bay, though this was short-lived. In 1839, the first known permanent settlement of Corpus Christi was established by Colonel Henry Lawrence Kinney and William P. Aubrey as Kinney's Trading Post, or Kinney's Ranch, it was a small trading post that sold supplies to a Mexican revolutionary army camped about 25 mi west. In July 1845, U. S. troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor set up camp there in preparation for war with Mexico, where they remained until March 1846.
About a year the settlement was named Corpus Christi and was incorporated on September 9, 1852. The Battle of Corpus Christi was fought between August 12 and August 18, 1862, during the American Civil War. United States Navy forces blockading Texas fought a small land and sea engagement with Confederate forces in and around Corpus Christi Bay and bombarded the city. Union forces defeated Confederate States Navy ships operating in the area, but were repulsed when they landed on the coast; the Port of Corpus Christi was opened in 1926, the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station was commissioned in 1941. The 1919 Storm devastated the city, killing hundreds on September 14. Only three structures survived the storm on North Beach. To protect the city, the seawall was built; the city suffered damage from Hurricane Celia in 1970 and Hurricane Allen in 1980, but little damage from Hurricane Ike in 2008. The city was affected in 2017 by Hurricane Harvey. In November 1873, seven Mexican shepherds were lynched by a mob near the city.
The crime was never solved. In February 1929, the League of United Latin American Citizens was founded in Corpus Christi; this organization was created to battle racial discrimination against Hispanic people in the United States. Since its founding, LULAC has grown and now has a national headquarters in Washington, DC. In March 1949, the American GI Forum was founded in Corpus Christi. AGIF focuses on veteran's issues and civil-rights issues; this organization was founded after concerns over the segregation of Mexican-American veterans from other veterans groups and the denial of medical services based on race by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Cisneros v. Corpus Christi Independent School District was the first case to extend the U. S. Supreme Court's Brown v. the Board of Education of Kansas decision to Mexican Americans. It recognized them as a minority group that could be and was discriminated against; such segregation and discrimination was ruled unconstitutional. Judge Woodrow Seals found that the school board consciously fostered a system that perpetuated traditional segregation.
This included a system that bused Anglo students to schools out of their neighborhoods, renovated old schools in black and Mexican-American neighborhoods rather than building new ones, assigned black and Hispanic teachers to segregated schools, limited hiring of such teachers at other schools. Corpus Christi is situated on fluvial deposits -- Pleistocene age. Although no solidified rock occurs at the surface, the Deweyville Formation of sand, silt and gravel, is locally indurated with calcium carbonate deposits. In 2017, Hurricane Harvey's storm surge eroded down to shale bedrock at a depth of 40' in Packery Channel, an artificial pass cut between North Padre and Mustang Islands; this feature has become a gathering place for game fish, can be identified from the surface by its whirlpool-like current. The large, shallow bay makes Corpus Christi an ideal feeding place for birds, this is one reason why Corpus Christi is known as the "Bird Capital" of North America; the San Diego Audubon Society has designated Corpus Christi as "America's birdiest place."
According to the United States Census Bureau, Corpus Christi has a total area of 460.2 square miles, of which 154.6 mi2 are land and 305.6 mi2 are covered by water. Drinking water for the city is supplied by three reservoirs
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Jim Wells County, Texas
Jim Wells County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,838, its county seat is Alice. The county was founded in 1911 and is named for James B. Wells, Jr. for three decades a judge and Democratic Party political boss in South Texas. Jim Wells County comprises the Alice, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Corpus Christi-Kingsville-Alice, TX Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 868 square miles, of which 865 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. Live Oak County San Patricio County Nueces County Kleberg County Brooks County Duval County At the 2000 census, there were 39,326 people, 12,961 households and 10,096 families residing in the county; the population density was 46 per square mile. There were 14,819 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.90% White, 0.60% Black or African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 17.93% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races.
75.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,961 households of which 40.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 15.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.10% were non-families. 19.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.45. Age distribution was 31.40% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median household income was $28,843, the median family income was $32,616. Males had a median income of $30,266 versus $17,190 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,252. About 20.10% of families and 24.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.80% of those under age 18 and 21.30% of those age 65 or over.
Being in South Texas, Jim Wells County is part of the oldest Democratic stronghold in the entire United States – a region that has voted for Democrats since the days of Woodrow Wilson. The Jim Wells County Democratic Party has maintained control of the county despite massive demographic changes due to Civil Rights, the collapse of Jim Crow and poll taxes, mass immigration from Mexico; the only Republicans to win the county since it was created have been Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956 and Richard Nixon in his 1972 landslide. Since 2004 Jim Wells County has become somewhat less Democratic the during the late twentieth century, but nonetheless the Democratic candidate has won at least 53.77 percent of the county’s vote in every election since 1976. In the 2016 election, Hillary Clinton won 54.08 percent of Jim Wells County’s vote to Donald Trump’s 43.78 percent. In the 2018 gubernatorial election, Republican Greg Abbott won 52.04% of the vote in Jim Wells County, becoming the first member of his party to win the county in a statewide race.
During the same election, Democrat Beto O'Rourke won the county in the Senate contest with 53.85% of the vote. Jim Wells County is known as the home of “Box 13”, the infamous ballot box which gave Lyndon Baines Johnson an 86-vote edge over popular former governor Coke Stevenson in the Democratic primary election, it was demonstrated that these 200 votes were "stuffed" into the ballot box after the polls had closed. Johnson went on to win the election. Alice Orange Grove Premont San Diego Pernitas Point List of museums in South Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Jim Wells County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Jim Wells County Jim Wells County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas