The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Lueders is a city in Jones and Shackelford counties in the U. S. state of Texas. The population was 346 at the 2010 census; the portion of Lueders located in Jones County is part of Texas metropolitan area. Lueders is located in eastern Jones County at 32°48′1″N 99°37′25″W; the city limits extend east to include 0.9 acres with zero population in Shackelford County. The city has a total area of all land. Texas State Highway 6 passes through the city on Main Street, leading northwest 15 miles to Stamford and southeast 21 miles to Albany; the Clear Fork of the Brazos River passes just south of the city limits. As of the census of 2000, there were 300 people, 125 households, 75 families residing in the city; the population density was 485.4 people per square mile. There were 168 housing units at an average density of 271.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.67% White, 0.67% African American, 1.33% Native American, 2.00% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.67% of the population.
There were 125 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.25. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,058, the median income for a family was $29,318. Males had a median income of $25,341 versus $15,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,877. About 11.0% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under the age of eighteen and 22.9% of those sixty five or over.
Lueders is served by the Lueders-Avoca Independent School District. Lueders, Texas – Texas Escapes Online Magazine Lueders from the Handbook of Texas Online A Little History of Lueders, Texas
Abilene is a city in Taylor and Jones counties in Texas, United States. The population was 117,463 at the 2010 census, making it the 27th-most populous city in the state of Texas, it is the principal city of the Abilene Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 170,219. It is the county seat of Taylor County. Dyess Air Force Base is located on the west side of the city. Abilene is located between exits 279 on its western edge and 292 on the east. Abilene is 150 miles west of Fort Worth; the city is looped by I-20 to the north, US 83/84 on the west, Loop 322 to the east. A railroad divides the city down the center into south; the historic downtown area is on the north side of the railroad. Established by cattlemen as a stock shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881, the city was named after Abilene, the original endpoint for the Chisholm Trail; the T&P had bypassed the town of the county seat at the time. A landowner north of Buffalo Gap, Clabe Merchant, known as the father of Abilene, chose the name for the new town.
According to a Dallas newspaper, about 800 people had begun camping at the townsite before the lots were sold. The town was laid out by Colonel J. Stoddard Johnson, the auction of lots began early on March 15, 1881. By the end of the first day, 139 lots were sold for a total of $23,810, another 178 lots were sold the next day for $27,550. Abilene was incorporated soon after being founded in 1881, Abilenians began to set their sights on bringing the county seat to Abilene, in a three-to-one vote, won the election. In 1888, the Progressive Committee was formed to attract businesses to the area, which became the Board of Trade in 1890. By 1900, 3,411 people lived in Abilene, in that decade, the Board of Trade changed its name to the 25,000 Club in the hope of reaching 25,000 people by the next census. However, this committee failed when the population only hit 9,204 in 1910. Replacing it was the Young Men's Booster Club, which became the Abilene Chamber of Commerce in 1914; the cornerstone was laid for the first of three future universities in Abilene, called Simmons College, in 1891, which became Hardin–Simmons University.
Childers Classical Institute followed in 1906 Abilene Christian University, the largest of the three. In 1923, McMurry College was founded and became McMurry University. Much more Abilene succeeded in bringing Cisco Junior College and Texas State Technical College branches to Abilene, with the Cisco Junior College headquarters being located in Abilene. In 1940, Abilene raised the money to purchase land for a U. S. Army base, southwest of town, named Camp Barkeley, at the time twice the size of Abilene with 60,000 men; when the base closed, many worried that Abilene could become a ghost town, but in the post-World War II boom, many servicemen returned to start businesses in Abilene. In the early-1950s, residents raised $893,261 to purchase 3,400 acres of land for an Air Force base. Today, Dyess Air Force Base is the city's largest employer, with 6,076 employees. Abilene's population nearly doubled in 10 years from 45,570 in 1950 to 90,638. In the same year, a second high school was added, Cooper High School.
In 1966, the Abilene Zoo was created near Abilene Regional Airport. The following year, one of the most important bond elections in the city's history passed for the funding of the construction of the Abilene Civic Center and the Taylor County Coliseum, as well as major improvements to Abilene Regional Airport. In 1969, the Woodson elementary and high school for black students closed as the school system was integrated. In 1982, Abilene became the first city in Texas to create a downtown reinvestment zone. Texas State Technical College opened an Abilene branch three years later; the 2,250-bed French Robertson Prison Unit was built in 1989. A half-cent sales tax earmarked for economic development was created after the decline in the petroleum business in the 1980s. A branch of Cisco Junior College was located in the city in 1990; the Grace Museum and Paramount Theatre revitalizations, along with Artwalk in 1992, sparked a decade of downtown restoration. In 2004, Frontier Texas!, a multimedia museum highlighting the history of the area from 1780 to 1880, was constructed, a new $8 million, 38-acre Cisco Junior College campus was built at Loop 322 and Industrial Boulevard.
Subdivisions and businesses started locating along the freeway, on the same side as the CJC campus, showing a slow but progressive trend for Abilene growth on the Loop. Abilene has become the commercial, retail and transportation hub of a 19-county area more known as "The Big Country", but known as the "Texas Midwest", is part of the Central Great Plains ecoregion. By the end of 2005, commercial and residential development had reached record levels in and around the city. Abilene is located in northeastern Taylor County; the city limits extend north into Jones County. Interstate 20 leads west 148 miles to Midland. Three U. S. highways pass through the city. US 83 runs west of the city center, leading south 55 miles to Ballinger. US 84 runs with US 83 through the southwest part of the city but leads southeast 52 miles to Coleman and west with I-20 40 miles to Sweetwater. US 277 follows US 83 around the northwest side of the city and north to Anson but heads southwest from Abilene 89 miles so San Angelo.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Abilene has a total area of 112.2 square miles, of which 106.8 square miles are land and 5.4 square miles are covered by
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Anson is a city in and the county seat of Jones County, United States. The population was 2,430 at the 2010 census, it is part of Texas metropolitan area. Named "Jones City", the town was renamed "Anson" in 1882 in honor of Anson Jones, the last president of the Republic of Texas. Anson is located in central Jones County at 32°45′20″N 99°53′47″W. Three U. S. highways pass through the city. U. S. Routes 83 and 277 run north-south through the center as Commercial Avenue, while U. S. Route 180 crosses on 17th Street. US 83 leads northwest 36 miles to Aspermont, while US 277 leads northeast 15 miles to Stamford, the highways together lead southeast 24 miles to Abilene. US 180 leads west 61 miles to Snyder. According to the United States Census Bureau, Anson has a total area of 2.8 square miles, of which 2.2 acres, or 0.12%, are water. The city is part of the Brazos River watershed, with the southeast corner of the city crossed by Carter Creek, the northern part draining to Redmud Creek; as of the census of 2000, 2,556 people, 950 households, 681 families resided in the city.
The population density was 1,219.2 people per square mile. The 1,089 housing units had an average density of 519.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.82% White, 2.78% African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 18.62% from other races, 1.56% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 32.63% of the population. Of the 950 households, 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were not families. About 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57, the average family size was 3.10. In the city, the population was distributed as 28.3% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 20.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $23,954, for a family was $30,284. Males had a median income of $26,893 versus $19,038 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,798. About 17.0% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.0% of those under age 18 and 18.8% of those age 65 or over. Anson is home to the "Texas Cowboys' Christmas Ball", a three-night event held the weekend before Christmas; the first ball was held by M. G. Rhodes at his Star Hotel in Anson in 1885 and annually thereafter until 1890, when the hotel burned down; the event happened sporadically. Teacher and folklorist Leonora Barrett revived the event in 1940; the dance was held in Pioneer Hall, a Works Progress Administration project from the Great Depression. Music is provided by Michael Martin Murphey and his band. Anson may or may not have been the inspiration for the movie "Footloose" and, as of 1987, still had an enforced "no dancing" law on the books that is/was only lifted for the annual Christmas dance.
An effort was made in 1987 to change the ordinance to allow supervised dancing, successful. The conflict was the basis for the book, No Dancin' In Anson: An American Story of Race and Social Change, by University of Texas professor Ricardo Ainslie; the city is served by the Anson Independent School District and is home to the Anson High School Tigers. Omar Burleson, late U. S. representative born in Anson Greg Glazner, Walt Whitman Award-winning poet born in Anson Country singer Jeannie C. Riley, who in the second half of 1968 had a number-one pop and country hit with "Harper Valley PTA". According to the Köppen climate classification system, Anson has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps. City of Anson official website
Hamlin is a city in Jones and Fisher Counties in the U. S. state of Texas. The population was 2,124 at the 2010 census, in 2017, the estimated population was 2,018; the Jones County portion of Hamlin is part of Texas metropolitan area. The city was named for W. H. Hamlin, a railroad official of the Kansas City and Orient Railway; the Orient reached Hamlin in 1906 and was followed by the Texas Central Railroad within a few years and by the Abilene and Southern Railroad in 1910. The arrival of the railroad was announced in 1902, the first train arrived in 1906; the county's first gypsum plant was constructed 6 miles outside of Hamlin in 1903. Business boomed with the rail service, the town included gins, a cottonseed oil mill, a number of other businesses. Oil was discovered in 1928, which contributed to the economy; the Hamlin Herald is still in print. Hamlin would gain its first and only hospital, Hamlin Memorial Hospital, in 1948. Hamlin Memorial Hospital owns Hamlin Medical Clinic. Hamlin is located in northwestern Jones County at 32°53′12″N 100°7′31″W.
The city limits extend west into Fisher County, although no people lived in this portion as of 2010. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.3 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.20%, is covered by water. U. S. Route 83 passes through the center of Hamlin as Central Avenue, leading north 18 miles to Aspermont and southeast 17 miles to Anson, the Jones County seat. Abilene is 42 miles to the southeast. Texas State Highway 92 crosses Hamlin as Lake Drive, leading east 20 miles to Stamford and west 20 miles to Rotan; as of the census of 2000, 2,248 people, 924 households, 623 families resided in the city. The population density was 422.4 people per square mile. The 1,090 housing units averaged 204.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.58% White, 6.23% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 11.48% from other races, 1.73% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 20.69% of the population.
Of the 924 households, 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were not families. About 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.00. In the city, the population was distributed as 25.7% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 21.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,873, for a family was $33,667. Males had a median income of $25,887 versus $16,350 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,308. About 13.7% of families and 20.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.6% of those under age 18 and 21.2% of those age 65 or over.
The city is served by the Hamlin Independent School District and is home to the Hamlin High School Pied Pipers. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Hamlin has a semiarid climate, BSk on climate maps