Aqidah is an Islamic term meaning "creed". Many schools of Islamic theology expressing different views on aqidah exist. Any religious belief system, or creed, can be considered an example of aqidah. However, this term has taken a significant technical usage in Muslim history and theology, denoting those matters over which Muslims hold conviction, it is a branch of Islamic studies describing the beliefs of Islam. According to Muslim scholar Cyril Glasse, "systematic statements of belief became necessary, from early Islam on to refute heresies, to distinguish points of view and to present them, as the divergences of schools of theology or opinion increased."The "first" creed written as "a short answer to the pressing heresies of the time" is known as Fiqh Akbar and ascribed to Abu Hanifa. Two well known creeds were the Fiqh Akbar II "representative" of the Ash'ari, Fiqh Akbar III, "representative" of the Shafi'i. Al-Ghazali had an aqidah; these creeds were more detailed. The six articles of faith or belief, derived from the Quran and Sunnah, are accepted by all Muslims.
While there are differences between Shia and Sunni Islam and other different schools or sects concerning issues such as the attributes of God or about the purpose of angels, the six articles are not disputed. The six Sunni articles of belief are: Belief in God and tawhid Belief in the angels Belief in the Islamic holy books Belief in the prophets and messengers Belief in the Last Judgment and Resurrection Belief in predestination; the first five are based on several Qurʾanic creeds: Whoever disbelieveth in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers and the Last Day, he verily wandered far stray Who is an enemy of God, His Angels, His Messengers and Michael! Lo! God is an enemy to the disbelievers...righteous is he who believeth in God and the Last Day and the angels and the scripture and the prophets...believer believe in God and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers The sixth point made it into the creed because of the first theological controversy in Islam. Although not connected with the Sunni-Shiʿi controversy about the succession, the majority of Twelfer Shiʿites do not stress God's limitless power, but rather His boundless justice as the sixth point of belief – this does not mean that Sunnis deny His justice, or Shiʿites negate His power, just that the emphasis is different.
In Sunni and Shia view, having Iman means having belief in the six articles. Tawhid is the concept of monotheism in Islam, it is the religion's most fundamental concept and holds that God is one and unique, the Only One worthy of Worship, what Jews and Christians believe that only the Uncreated can be worshiped. A creature cannot be worshiped; this is idolatry. According to Islamic belief, Allah is the proper name of God, humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim faith. "He is the only God, creator of the universe, the judge of humankind." "He is unique and inherently one, all-merciful and omnipotent." The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His 99 descriptive names expressing a quality characteristic, His actions on behalf of His creatures. Iman, in Islamic theology denotes a believer's faith in the metaphysical aspects of Islam, its most simple definition is the belief in the six articles of faith, known as arkān al-īmān.
The Hadith of Gabriel includes the Five Pillars of Islam in answer to the question, "O messenger of God, what is Islam?" This hadith is sometimes called the "truly first and most fundamental creed." Salat is the practice of formal worship in Islam. Its importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as one of the Five Pillars of Islam, with a few dispensations for those for whom it would be difficult. People who find it physically difficult can perform Salat in a way suitable for them. To perform valid Salat, Muslims must be in a state of ritual purity, achieved by ritual ablution, according to prescribed procedures. In the terminology of Islamic law, sawm means to abstain from eating and sexual intercourse from dawn until dusk; the observance of sawm during the holy month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, but is not confined to that month. Zakat is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth and is obligatory for all who are able to do so, it is considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality.
The Hajj is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca and the largest gathering of Muslims in the world every year. It is one of the five pillars of Islam, a religious duty which must be carried out by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so at least once in his or her lifetime. In addition, some Muslims include Jihad and Dawah as part of aqidah Jihad and means to endeavor, labor to apply oneself, to concentrate, to work hard, to accomplish, it could be used to refer to those who mentally or economically serve in the way of God. Da‘wah means the proselytizing or preaching of Islam. Da‘wah means "issuing a summon" or "making an invitation," being an active participle of a verb meaning variously "to summon" or "to invite." A Muslim who practices da‘wah, either as a religious worker or in a volunteer community effort, is called a dā‘ī. A dā‘ī
Zakat is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer in importance. As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious obligation for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth, it is a mandatory charitable contribution considered to be a tax. The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the Ridda wars. Zakat is based on the value of all of one's possessions, it is customarily 2.5% of a Muslim's total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat. According to Islamic doctrine, the collected amount should be paid to the poor, the needy, Zakat collectors, those sympathetic to Islam, to free from slavery, for debt relief, in the cause of Allah and to benefit the stranded traveller. Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in a handful, zakat is mandated and collected by the state.
Shias, unlike Sunnis, traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary decision, they give zakat to imam-sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors. Zakat means "that which purifies". Zakat is considered a way to purify one's income and wealth from sometimes worldly, impure ways of acquisition. According to Sachiko Murata and William Chittick, "Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul, so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to God." The Quran discusses charity in many verses. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found, for example, in suras: 7:156, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7. Zakat is described as obligatory for Muslims, it is given for the sake of salvation. Muslims believe those who give zakat can expect reward from God in the afterlife, while neglecting to give zakat can result in damnation. Zakat is considered part of the covenant between a Muslim. Verse 2.177 sums up the Quranic view of charity and alms giving: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West.
And those who keep their treaty when they make one, the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they; such are the God fearing. - 2:177 According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, verse 9.5 of the Quran makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become Muslims: "but if they repent, establish prayers, practice zakat they are your brethren in faith". The Quran lists who should receive the benefits of zakat, discussed in more detail below; each of the most trusted. Sahih Bukhari's Book 24, Sahih Muslim's Book 5, Sunan Abu-Dawud's Book 9 discuss various aspects of zakat, including who must pay, how much and what; the 2.5% rate is mentioned in the hadiths. The hadiths admonish those. According to the hadith, refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy, God will not accept the prayers of such people; the sunna describes God's punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat. On the day of Judgment, those who did not give the zakat will be punished.
The hadith contain advice on the state-authorized collection of the zakat. The collectors are required not to take more than what is due, those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment; the hadith warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it. The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses; the Quran does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets is 2.5%. Zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods, precious metals and livestock at a rate varying between 2.5% and 20%, depending on the type of goods. Zakat is payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab, a minimum monetary value. However, Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue. For example, Abu Hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre-requisite for zakat, in the case of land crops and minerals.
Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Unlike prayers, we observe that the ratio, the exemption, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars. Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat. For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable, others don't; some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable, others don't. Similar differences exist for women's jewelry; some require certain minimum for zakat
Five Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life. They are summarized in the famous hadith of Gabriel; the Sunni and Shia agree on the essential details for the performance and practice of these acts, but the Shia do not refer to them by the same name. They make up Muslim life, concern for the needy, self-purification, the pilgrimage, if one is able. Shahada is a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, it is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but God Muhammad is the messenger of God." It is essential to utter it to convert to Islam. Salah is the Islamic prayer. Salah consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna; the Fajr prayer is performed before sunrise, Dhuhr is performed in the midday after the sun has surpassed its highest point, Asr is the evening prayer before sunset, Maghrib is the evening prayer after sunset and Isha is the night prayer.
All of these prayers are recited while facing in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and form an important aspect of the Muslim Ummah. Muslims must wash before prayer; the prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions including. A Muslim may perform their prayer anywhere, such as in offices and fields. However, the mosque is the more preferable place for prayers because the mosque allows for fellowship. Zakāt or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving based on accumulated wealth; the word zakāt can be defined as purification and growth because it allows an individual to achieve balance and encourages new growth. The principle of knowing that all things belong to God is essential to growth. Zakāt is obligatory for all Muslims, it is the personal responsibility of each Muslim to ease the economic hardship of others and to strive towards eliminating inequality. Zakāt consists of spending a portion of one's wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, like debtors or travelers. A Muslim may donate more as an act of voluntary charity, rather than to achieve additional divine reward.
There are five principles that should be followed when giving the zakāt: The giver must declare to God his intention to give the zakāt. The zakāt must be paid on the day. After the offering, the payer must not exaggerate on spending his money more than usual means. Payment must be in kind; this means if one is wealthy he or she needs to pay a portion of their income. If a person does not have much money they should compensate for it in different ways, such as good deeds and good behavior toward others; the zakāt must be distributed in the community. Three types of fasting are recognized by the Quran: Ritual fasting, fasting as compensation for repentance, ascetic fasting. Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk during this month, are to be mindful of other sins. Fasting is necessary for every Muslim; the fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness and to look for forgiveness from God, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, to remind them of the needy.
During Ramadan, Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, envy, lust, profane language, gossip and to try to get along with fellow Muslims better. In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided. Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be dangerous and excessively problematic; these include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or traveling. Missing fasts must be made up for soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance; the Hajj is a pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life.
When the pilgrim is around 10 km from Mecca, he/she must dress in Ihram clothing, for men, consists of two white sheets. Both men and women are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. After a Muslim makes the trip to Mecca, he/she is known as a hajj/hajja; the main rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba termed Tawaf, touching the Black Stone termed Istilam, traveling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah termed Sa'yee, symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina termed Ramee. The pilgrim, or the haji, is honoured in the Muslim community. Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God, not a means to gain social standing; the beli
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Angels in Islam
In Islam, angels are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them. The angels from the angelic realm are subordinates in a hierarchy headed by one of the archangels in the highest heavens. Belief in angels is one of the six articles of faith in Islam. Islam acknowledges the concept of angels both abstract, it does not mean Islamic scholars depict them as either personified creatures or abstract forces: Some scholars distinguished between the angels, charged with carrying the laws of nature dwelling on earth as being abstract, the angels in heaven prostrating before God and spiritual creatures of the supreme world, such as the archangels, as personified. Angels are another kind of creature created by God, known to mankind dwelling in the heavenly spheres. Although the Quran does not mention the time when angels were created, they are considered as the first creation of God, they are created from a luminous substance with no bodily desires, never get tired, do not eat or drink and have no anger.
Al-Kindi and Ibn Sina both define angels as simple substances endowed with life and immortality. In contrast to humans, who are substances endowed with life and reason but are mortal, who is, in turn, distinguished by unreasonable but mortal animals. In chapter 10 of Sahih Muslim The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, a hadith states: The Angels were born out of light and the Jann was born out of the mixture of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined for you and many Islamic sources talk of angels being created from light, based on the hadith by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. However, many scholars have argued. According to the famous exegete al-Tabari, God may have created angels from fire and other things, as well as from light; some angels are thought to be composed of elements such as water or fire those who carry the Throne of God. According to the Isra and Mi'raj-narrations, Muhammad met an angel composed of fire and ice and both pass into one another without cooling down the fire, nor melting the ice, demonstrating God's power over the usual laws of nature.
Islamic scholars evaluated — in the view of the prevailing Jewish opinion at the time that angels were created by God from fire — whether angels were created from fire or not and how they are distinguished from those created from light. Al-Suyuti stated that angels are composed either of light. Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi divided the angels into two groups: The angels of mercy created from light, angels of Punishment created from the fire. Qazwini and Ibishi assert that all supernatural creatures, due to their invisibility, are composed of a subtle matter, equivalent to fire but which differs in intensity and are distinguished by the part of fire they originated from. Accordingly, the angels are created from the light of a fire, the jinn from the tongue of fire and the demons from its smoke. Furthermore, scholars such as al-Tabari stated that light and fire do not appeal to different elements, but to a luminous origin of angels which should not be taken literally. Angels as abstract concepts belong to Al-Ghaib.
Angels here are used as expressions of natural laws. They carry the Divine command into execution. References to specific angels, like Jabra'il or Azrail, are respective leaders, with a multitude of subordinative angels, who perform for a specific function. Qazwini portrays the earthly angels as indwelling forces of nature, who keep the world in order and never deviate from their duty. Qazwini believed that the existence of these angels could be proven by reason and the things these angels affect. Islamic philosophy stressed that humans own angelic and demonic qualities and that the human soul is seen as a potential angel or potential demon. Depending on whether the sensual soul or the rational soul develop, the human soul becomes an angel or a demon. Angels may give inspirations opposite to the evil suggestions, called waswās, from Satan; the modern astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum has pointed to modern Islamic scholars such as Muhammad Asad and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez in his book "Islam's Quantum Question" who have suggested a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels.
A question in Islamic theology deals with the impeccability of the angels. The majority of Islamic scholars prefer the opinion. Advocates of angels' infallibility cite certain verses from the Quran, which support their claim such as 16:49: "To Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth, including animals and angels, they are not arrogant". However, these verses cannot prove the impeccability for all angels at any time and in any situation; the motif of erring angels is known to Islam. This is supported by verses being tested. Al-Baydawi argued, angels are only impeccable. Others speak of Islamic angels as continuously obedient and refer to Ijma. One of the first scholars who asserted the doctrine of impeccable angels was Hasan of Basra, he not only advocated the impeccability of angels by quoting certain Quranic verses, but reinterpreted verses, which speak against the impeccability of angels. With the discussion whether angels are able to or not, a dispute arises concerning whether humans, prophets or angels are the superior.
Hasa of Basra advocated that angels are better than both humans and prophets because of their purity, a position, opposed by Sunnis and Shias. On the other hand, the prostration of angels before Adam is seen a
Fasting during Ramadan
This is a sub-article to Fasting in Islam and RamadanDuring the entire month of Ramadan, Muslims are expectedto fast, every day from dawn to sunset. Fasting requires the abstinence from drink. Fasting the month of Ramadān was made obligatory during the month of Sha‘bān, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Makkah to Madīnah. Fasting the month of Ramadan is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. Fasting during the month of Ramadan is mentioned in three consecutive verses of the Qur'an: O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you. —Surah Baqarah 2:183 for a fixed number of days. For those who can do it, is a ransom, the feeding of one, indigent, but he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast. —Surah Baqarah 2:184 Eating and sexual relations are not allowed between dawn, sunset. Fasting is considered an act of personal worship in which Muslims seek a raised level of closeness to God. During Ramadan, Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, envy, lust, angry/sarcastic retorts and are meant to try to get along with each other better than normal.
All obscene and irreligious stimuli are to be avoided as purity of both thought and action is important. Fasting during Ramadan is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would be excessively problematic, among them people with a medical condition and the elderly. Pre-pubescent children are not required to fast, though some choose to do so, some small children fast for half a day to train themselves. If puberty is delayed, fasting becomes obligatory for females after a certain age. Diabetics and nursing or pregnant women are not expected to fast. According to a hadith, observing the Ramadan fast is forbidden for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those in battle, travellers who intend to spend fewer than five days away from home. If the circumstance preventing fasting is temporary, a person is required to make up for the missed days after the month of Ramadan is over and before the next Ramadan arrives. Should the circumstance be permanent or present for an extended amount of time, one may recompense by feeding a needy person for every day missed.
If one does not fit into any category of exemption and breaks the fast out of forgetfulness, the fast is still valid. Intentionally breaking the fast voids it, the person must make up for the entire day later. If one breaks the fast intentionally or through consensual sexual intercourse, the transgressor must make up for the day by fasting for sixty consecutive days, freeing a slave or feeding sixty people in need. During a 2013 poliomyelitis outbreak in Somalia, some groups of aid workers were granted an exemption for the oral polio vaccine. Many mosques will provide iftar meals after sundown for the community to come and end their day's fasting as a whole, it is common for such meals to take place at Muslim soup kitchens. The fast is broken with water. Linguistically, the word fasting in the Arabic language means unconditional'restraint' from any action or speech during any time. According to the Sacred Law, fasting is the act of: refraining from engaging in sexual activity, and. Entering any of these substances inside the body cavity means that the substance enters into the throat, the intestines, the stomach, or the brain by way of the nose, the throat, the private parts, or open wounds.'Whether deliberately or accidentally' excludes forgetful acts of eating, drinking, or sexual activity.'From the time the sun begins to rise to the time the sun sets' refers to the true entering of the Fajr time to the entering of the Maghrib time.'Accompanied with the intention of fasting' means that one must intend to fast in order to distinguish if one is performing an act of worship or not when one refrains from eating, drinking, or having sexual intercourse.
For example, if one were to stay away from food, drink, or sexual activity without an intention to fast this fast is not valid and does not count.'From individuals who are permitted to fast' means that one must be free from a situation that would prevent the validity of one's fast, such as menstruation or lochia. The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr marks the end of the Islamic fasting of the month of Ramadan. Fasting & Ramadhan: Complete Interactive online book