1.
Plane (Unicode)
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In the Unicode standard, a plane is a continuous group of 65,536 code points. There are 17 planes, identified by the numbers 0 to 16decimal, Plane 0 is the Basic Multilingual Plane, which contains most commonly-used characters. The higher planes 1 through 16 are called supplementary planes, or humorously astral planes, as of Unicode version 9.0, six of the planes have assigned code points, and four are named. The limit of 17 is due to the design of UTF-16, which can encode 16 supplementary planes and the BMP, to a value of 0x10FFFF. The encoding scheme used by UTF-8 was designed with a larger limit of 231 code points. Since Unicode limits the points to the 17 planes that can be encoded by UTF-16, code points above 0x10FFFF are invalid in UTF-8. The 17 planes can accommodate 1,114,112 code points, of these,2,048 are surrogates,66 are non-characters, and 137,468 are reserved for private use, leaving 974,530 for public assignment. Planes are further subdivided into Unicode blocks, which, unlike planes, the 273 blocks defined in Unicode 9.0 cover 24% of the possible code point space, and range in size from a minimum of 16 code points to a maximum of 65,536 code points. For future usage, ranges of characters have been mapped out for most known current and ancient writing systems. The first plane, plane 0, the Basic Multilingual Plane contains characters for almost all languages. A primary objective for the BMP is to support the unification of prior character sets as well as characters for writing, most of the assigned code points in the BMP are used to encode Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters. The High Surrogates and Low Surrogate codes are reserved for encoding characters in UTF-16 by using a pair of 16-bit codes, one High Surrogate. A single surrogate code point will never be assigned a character,65,408 of the 65,536 code points in this plane have been allocated to a Unicode block, leaving just 128 code points in unallocated ranges. As of Unicode 9.0, the BMP comprises the following 161 blocks, Plane 1, the Supplementary Multilingual Plane, contains historic scripts, scripts include Linear B, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and cuneiform scripts, and also reform orthographies like Shavian and Deseret. Symbols and notations include historic and modern musical notation, mathematical alphanumerics, Emoji and other sets, and game symbols for playing cards, Mah Jongg. Plane 3 is tentatively named the Tertiary Ideographic Plane, but as of version 9.0 there are no characters assigned to it and it is reserved for Oracle Bone script, Bronze Script, Small Seal Script, additional CJK unified ideographs, and other historic ideographic scripts. It is not anticipated that all these planes will be used in the foreseeable future, the number of possible symbol characters that could arise outside of the context of writing systems is potentially huge. At the moment, these 11 planes out of 17 are unused, Plane 14, the Supplementary Special-purpose Plane, currently contains non-graphical characters
2.
Latin script
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Latin script is used as the standard method of writing in most Western and Central European languages, as well as in many languages in other parts of the world. Latin script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world, Latin script is also the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet. The 26 most widespread letters are the contained in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. The script is either called Roman script or Latin script, in reference to its origin in ancient Rome, in the context of transliteration, the term romanization or romanisation is often found. Unicode uses the term Latin as does the International Organization for Standardization, the numeral system is called the Roman numeral system, and the collection of the elements, Roman numerals. The numbers 1,2,3. are Latin/Roman script numbers for the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the Latin alphabet spread, along with Latin, from the Italian Peninsula to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire. The Latin script also came into use for writing the West Slavic languages and several South Slavic languages, the speakers of East Slavic languages generally adopted Cyrillic along with Orthodox Christianity. The Serbian language uses both scripts, with Cyrillic predominating in official communication and Latin elsewhere, as determined by the Law on Official Use of the Language and Alphabet. As late as 1500, the Latin script was limited primarily to the languages spoken in Western, Northern, the Orthodox Christian Slavs of Eastern and Southeastern Europe mostly used Cyrillic, and the Greek alphabet was in use by Greek-speakers around the eastern Mediterranean. The Arabic script was widespread within Islam, both among Arabs and non-Arab nations like the Iranians, Indonesians, Malays, and Turkic peoples, most of the rest of Asia used a variety of Brahmic alphabets or the Chinese script. It is used for many Austronesian languages, including the languages of the Philippines, Latin letters served as the basis for the forms of the Cherokee syllabary developed by Sequoyah, however, the sound values are completely different. In the late 19th century, the Romanians returned to the Latin alphabet, under French rule and Portuguese missionary influence, a Latin alphabet was devised for the Vietnamese language, which had previously used Chinese characters. In 1928, as part of Mustafa Kemal Atatürks reforms, the new Republic of Turkey adopted a Latin alphabet for the Turkish language, kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Iranian-speaking Tajikistan, and the breakaway region of Transnistria kept the Cyrillic alphabet, chiefly due to their close ties with Russia. In the 1930s and 1940s, the majority of Kurds replaced the Arabic script with two Latin alphabets, although the only official Kurdish government uses an Arabic alphabet for public documents, the Latin Kurdish alphabet remains widely used throughout the region by the majority of Kurdish-speakers. In 2015, the Kazakh government announced that the Latin alphabet would replace Cyrillic as the system for the Kazakh language by 2025. In the course of its use, the Latin alphabet was adapted for use in new languages, sometimes representing phonemes not found in languages that were written with the Roman characters. These new forms are given a place in the alphabet by defining an alphabetical order or collation sequence, a digraph is a pair of letters used to write one sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters in sequence. Examples are ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ng⟩, ⟨rh⟩, ⟨sh⟩ in English, a trigraph is made up of three letters, like the German ⟨sch⟩, the Breton ⟨c’h⟩ or the Milanese ⟨oeu⟩
3.
Script (Unicode)
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In Unicode, a script is a collection of letters and other written signs used to represent textual information in one or more writing systems. Some scripts support one and only one writing system and language, for example, other scripts support many different writing systems, for example, the Latin script supports English, French, German, Italian, Vietnamese, Latin itself, and several other languages. Some languages make use of multiple alternate writing systems, thus also use several scripts, in Turkish, the Arabic script was used before the 20th century, but transitioned to Latin in the early part of the 20th century. For a list of languages supported by each script see the list of languages by writing system, more or less complementary to scripts are symbols and Unicode control characters. The unified diacritical characters and unified punctuation characters frequently have the common or inherited script property, Unicode 9.0 defines 135 separate scripts, including 84 modern scripts and 51 ancient or historic scripts. More scripts are in the process for encoding or have been allocated for encoding in roadmaps. When multiple languages make use of the script, there are frequently some differences, particularly in diacritics. For example, Swedish and English both use the Latin script, however, Swedish includes the character ‘å’ while English has no such character. Nor does English make use of the diacritic combining circle above for any character, in general the languages sharing the same scripts share many of the same characters. Despite these peripheral differences in the Swedish and English writing systems they are said to use the same Latin script, so the Unicode abstraction of scripts is a basic organizing technique. The differences between different alphabets or writing systems remain and are supported through Unicode’s flexible scripts, combining marks, writing system is sometimes treated as a synonym for script. However it also can be used as the specific writing system supported by a script. For example, the Vietnamese writing system is supported by the Latin script, a writing system may also cover more than one script, for example the Japanese writing system makes use of the Han, Hiragana and Katakana scripts. The term complex system is used to describe those where the admixture makes classification problematic. Unicode supports all of these types of writing systems through its numerous scripts, Unicode also adds further properties to characters to help differentiate the various characters and the ways they behave within Unicode text processing algorithms. In addition to explicit or specific script properties Unicode uses three values, Common Unicode can assign a character in the UCS to a single script only. However, many characters — those that are not part of a natural language writing system or are unified across many writing systems may be used in more than one script. For example, currency signs, symbols, numerals and punctuation marks, in these cases Unicode defines them as belonging to the common script
4.
Fraction (mathematics)
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A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters. A common, vulgar, or simple fraction consists of an integer numerator displayed above a line, numerators and denominators are also used in fractions that are not common, including compound fractions, complex fractions, and mixed numerals. The numerator represents a number of parts, and the denominator. For example, in the fraction 3/4, the numerator,3, tells us that the fraction represents 3 equal parts, the picture to the right illustrates 34 or ¾ of a cake. Fractional numbers can also be written without using explicit numerators or denominators, by using decimals, percent signs, an integer such as the number 7 can be thought of as having an implicit denominator of one,7 equals 7/1. Other uses for fractions are to represent ratios and to represent division, thus the fraction ¾ is also used to represent the ratio 3,4 and the division 3 ÷4. The test for a number being a number is that it can be written in that form. In a fraction, the number of parts being described is the numerator. Informally, they may be distinguished by placement alone but in formal contexts they are separated by a fraction bar. The fraction bar may be horizontal, oblique, or diagonal and these marks are respectively known as the horizontal bar, the slash or stroke, the division slash, and the fraction slash. In typography, horizontal fractions are known as en or nut fractions and diagonal fractions as em fractions. The denominators of English fractions are expressed as ordinal numbers. When the denominator is 1, it may be expressed in terms of wholes but is commonly ignored. When the numerator is one, it may be omitted, a fraction may be expressed as a single composition, in which case it is hyphenated, or as a number of fractions with a numerator of one, in which case they are not. Fractions should always be hyphenated when used as adjectives, alternatively, a fraction may be described by reading it out as the numerator over the denominator, with the denominator expressed as a cardinal number. The term over is used even in the case of solidus fractions, Fractions with large denominators that are not powers of ten are often rendered in this fashion while those with denominators divisible by ten are typically read in the normal ordinal fashion. A simple fraction is a number written as a/b or a b
5.
Roman numerals
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The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols, The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two and XIII is thirteen. Symbols are placed left to right in order of value. Named after the year of its release,2014 as MMXIV, the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The standard forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than a universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval, Roman inscriptions, especially in official contexts, seem to show a preference for additive forms such as IIII and VIIII instead of subtractive forms such as IV and IX. Both methods appear in documents from the Roman era, even within the same document, double subtractives also occur, such as XIIX or even IIXX instead of XVIII. Sometimes V and L are not used, with such as IIIIII. Such variation and inconsistency continued through the period and into modern times. Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show IIII for four o’clock but IX for nine o’clock, however, this is far from universal, for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster in London uses IV. Similarly, at the beginning of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance,1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, although Roman numerals came to be written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used
6.
Specials (Unicode block)
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Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 codepoints, five are assigned as of Unicode 9, U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the sense. They can be used to guess a texts encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by not a correctly encoded Unicode text. The replacement character � is a found in the Unicode standard at codepoint U+FFFD in the Specials table. It is used to indicate problems when a system is unable to render a stream of data to a correct symbol and it is usually seen when the data is invalid and does not match any character, Consider a text file containing the German word für in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. This file is now opened with an editor that assumes the input is UTF-8. The first and last byte are valid UTF-8 encodings of ASCII, therefore, a text editor could replace this byte with the replacement character symbol to produce a valid string of Unicode code points. The whole string now displays like this, f�r, a poorly implemented text editor might save the replacement in UTF-8 form, the text file data will then look like this, 0x66 0xEF 0xBF 0xBD 0x72, which will be displayed in ISO-8859-1 as fï¿½r. Since the replacement is the same for all errors this makes it impossible to recover the original character, a better design is to preserve the original bytes, including the error, and only convert to the replacement when displaying the text. This will allow the text editor to save the original byte sequence and it has become increasingly common for software to interpret invalid UTF-8 by guessing the bytes are in another byte-based encoding such as ISO-8859-1. This allows correct display of both valid and invalid UTF-8 pasted together, Unicode control characters UTF-8 Mojibake Unicodes Specials table Decodeunicodes entry for the replacement character
7.
Number
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Numbers that answer the question How many. Are 0,1,2,3 and so on, when used to indicate position in a sequence they are ordinal numbers. To the Pythagoreans and Greek mathematician Euclid, the numbers were 2,3,4,5, Euclid did not consider 1 to be a number. Numbers like 3 +17 =227, expressible as fractions in which the numerator and denominator are whole numbers, are rational numbers and these make it possible to measure such quantities as two and a quarter gallons and six and a half miles. What we today would consider a proof that a number is irrational Euclid called a proof that two lengths arising in geometry have no common measure, or are incommensurable, Euclid included proofs of incommensurability of lengths arising in geometry in his Elements. In the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, a pair of walking forward marked addition. They were the first known civilization to use negative numbers, negative numbers came into widespread use as a result of their utility in accounting. They were used by late medieval Italian bankers, by 1740 BC, the Egyptians had a symbol for zero in accounting texts. In Maya civilization zero was a numeral with a shape as a symbol. The ancient Egyptians represented all fractions in terms of sums of fractions with numerator 1, for example, 2/5 = 1/3 + 1/15. Such representations are known as Egyptian Fractions or Unit Fractions. The earliest written approximations of π are found in Egypt and Babylon, in Babylon, a clay tablet dated 1900–1600 BC has a geometrical statement that, by implication, treats π as 25/8 =3.1250. In Egypt, the Rhind Papyrus, dated around 1650 BC, astronomical calculations in the Shatapatha Brahmana use a fractional approximation of 339/108 ≈3.139. Other Indian sources by about 150 BC treat π as √10 ≈3.1622 The first references to the constant e were published in 1618 in the table of an appendix of a work on logarithms by John Napier. However, this did not contain the constant itself, but simply a list of logarithms calculated from the constant and it is assumed that the table was written by William Oughtred. The discovery of the constant itself is credited to Jacob Bernoulli, the first known use of the constant, represented by the letter b, was in correspondence from Gottfried Leibniz to Christiaan Huygens in 1690 and 1691. Leonhard Euler introduced the letter e as the base for natural logarithms, Euler started to use the letter e for the constant in 1727 or 1728, in an unpublished paper on explosive forces in cannons, and the first appearance of e in a publication was Eulers Mechanica. While in the subsequent years some researchers used the letter c, e was more common, the first numeral system known is Babylonian numeric system, that has a 60 base, it was introduced in 3100 B. C. and is the first Positional numeral system known
8.
Vulgar fraction
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A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, eight-fifths, three-quarters. A common, vulgar, or simple fraction consists of an integer numerator displayed above a line, numerators and denominators are also used in fractions that are not common, including compound fractions, complex fractions, and mixed numerals. The numerator represents a number of parts, and the denominator. For example, in the fraction 3/4, the numerator,3, tells us that the fraction represents 3 equal parts, the picture to the right illustrates 34 or ¾ of a cake. Fractional numbers can also be written without using explicit numerators or denominators, by using decimals, percent signs, an integer such as the number 7 can be thought of as having an implicit denominator of one,7 equals 7/1. Other uses for fractions are to represent ratios and to represent division, thus the fraction ¾ is also used to represent the ratio 3,4 and the division 3 ÷4. The test for a number being a number is that it can be written in that form. In a fraction, the number of parts being described is the numerator. Informally, they may be distinguished by placement alone but in formal contexts they are separated by a fraction bar. The fraction bar may be horizontal, oblique, or diagonal and these marks are respectively known as the horizontal bar, the slash or stroke, the division slash, and the fraction slash. In typography, horizontal fractions are known as en or nut fractions and diagonal fractions as em fractions. The denominators of English fractions are expressed as ordinal numbers. When the denominator is 1, it may be expressed in terms of wholes but is commonly ignored. When the numerator is one, it may be omitted, a fraction may be expressed as a single composition, in which case it is hyphenated, or as a number of fractions with a numerator of one, in which case they are not. Fractions should always be hyphenated when used as adjectives, alternatively, a fraction may be described by reading it out as the numerator over the denominator, with the denominator expressed as a cardinal number. The term over is used even in the case of solidus fractions, Fractions with large denominators that are not powers of ten are often rendered in this fashion while those with denominators divisible by ten are typically read in the normal ordinal fashion. A simple fraction is a number written as a/b or a b