Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA. The "E" stands for "Europe". Found on food labels, their safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority. Having a single unified list for food additives was first agreed upon in 1962 with food colouring. In 1964, the directives for preservatives were added, 1970 for antioxidants and 1974 for the emulsifiers, stabilisers and gelling agents; the numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee, though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. Outside the European continent plus Russia, E numbers are encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, South Africa, New Zealand and Israel, they are though still found on North American packaging on imported European products.
In some European countries, "E number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, products may promote themselves as "free of E numbers". This is incorrect, because many components of natural foods have assigned E numbers, e.g. vitamin C and lycopene, found in carrots. NB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals in the E400–499 range, have a variety of purposes; the list shows all components that had an E-number assigned. Not all additives listed are still allowed in the EU, but are listed as they used to have an E-number. For an overview of allowed additives see information provided by the Food Standards Agency of the UK. Food Chemicals Codex List of food additives List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius Codex Alimentarius, the international foods standards, established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization in 1963 See their document "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives" Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives publications at the World Health Organization Food Additive Index, JECFA, Food and Agriculture Organization E-codes and ingredients search engine with details/suggestions for Muslims Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers Food Additives in the European Union Food Additives, Food Safety, website of the European Union.
Includes Lists of authorised food additives Food additives database The Food Additives and Ingredients Association, FAIA website, UK
A barcode is a visual, machine-readable representation of data. Traditional barcodes systematically represent data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines, may be referred to as linear or one-dimensional. Two-dimensional variants were developed, using rectangles, dots and other geometric patterns, called matrix codes or 2D barcodes, although they do not use bars as such. Barcodes were only scanned by special optical scanners called barcode readers. Application software became available for devices that could read images, such as smartphones with cameras; the barcode was invented by Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver and patented in the US in 1952. The invention was based on Morse code, extended to thin and thick bars. However, it took over twenty years. An early use of one type of barcode in an industrial context was sponsored by the Association of American Railroads in the late 1960s. Developed by General Telephone and Electronics and called KarTrak ACI, this scheme involved placing colored stripes in various combinations on steel plates which were affixed to the sides of railroad rolling stock.
Two plates were used per car, one on each side, with the arrangement of the colored stripes encoding information such as ownership, type of equipment, identification number. The plates were read by a trackside scanner, located for instance, at the entrance to a classification yard, while the car was moving past; the project was abandoned after about ten years because the system proved unreliable after long-term use. Barcodes became commercially successful when they were used to automate supermarket checkout systems, a task for which they have become universal, their use has spread to many other tasks that are generically referred to as automatic identification and data capture. The first scanning of the now-ubiquitous Universal Product Code barcode was on a pack of Wrigley Company chewing gum in June 1974. QR codes, a specific type of 2D barcode, have become popular. Other systems have made inroads in the AIDC market, but the simplicity and low cost of barcodes has limited the role of these other systems before technologies such as radio-frequency identification became available after 2000.
In 1948 Bernard Silver, a graduate student at Drexel Institute of Technology in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US overheard the president of the local food chain, Food Fair, asking one of the deans to research a system to automatically read product information during checkout. Silver told his friend Norman Joseph Woodland about the request, they started working on a variety of systems, their first working system used ultraviolet ink, but the ink faded too and was expensive. Convinced that the system was workable with further development, Woodland left Drexel, moved into his father's apartment in Florida, continued working on the system, his next inspiration came from Morse code, he formed his first barcode from sand on the beach. "I just extended the dots and dashes downwards and made narrow lines and wide lines out of them." To read them, he adapted technology from optical soundtracks in movies, using a 500-watt incandescent light bulb shining through the paper onto an RCA935 photomultiplier tube on the far side.
He decided that the system would work better if it were printed as a circle instead of a line, allowing it to be scanned in any direction. On 20 October 1949, Woodland and Silver filed a patent application for "Classifying Apparatus and Method", in which they described both the linear and bull's eye printing patterns, as well as the mechanical and electronic systems needed to read the code; the patent was issued on 7 October 1952 as US Patent 2,612,994. In 1951, Woodland continually tried to interest IBM in developing the system; the company commissioned a report on the idea, which concluded that it was both feasible and interesting, but that processing the resulting information would require equipment, some time off in the future. IBM offered to buy the patent. Philco purchased the patent in 1962 and sold it to RCA sometime later. During his time as an undergraduate, David Collins worked at the Pennsylvania Railroad and became aware of the need to automatically identify railroad cars. After receiving his master's degree from MIT in 1959, he started work at GTE Sylvania and began addressing the problem.
He developed a system called KarTrak using blue and red reflective stripes attached to the side of the cars, encoding a six-digit company identifier and a four-digit car number. Light reflected off the stripes was fed into one of two photomultipliers, filtered for red; the Boston and Maine Railroad tested the KarTrak system on their gravel cars in 1961. The tests continued until 1967, when the Association of American Railroads selected it as a standard, Automatic Car Identification, across the entire North American fleet; the installations began on 10 October 1967. However, the economic downturn and rash of bankruptcies in the industry in the early 1970s slowed the rollout, it was not until 1974 that 95% of the fleet was labeled. To add to its woes, the system was found to be fooled by dirt in certain applications, which affected accuracy; the AAR abandoned the system in the late 1970s, it was not until the mid-1980s that they introduced a similar system, this time based on radio tags. The railway project had failed, but a toll bridge in New Jersey requested a similar syst
West American Digest System
The West American Digest System is a system of identifying points of law from reported cases and organizing them by topic and key number. The system was developed by West Publishing to organize the entire body of American law; this extensive taxonomy makes the process of doing case law legal research less time consuming as it directs the researcher to cases that are similar to the legal issue under consideration. The problem of finding cases on a particular topic was a large problem for the growing American legal system of the 19th century. John B. West, the founder of West Publishing, described this problem in his article A multiplicity of reports. To solve the problem, he developed a system with two major parts. First, his company published cases in many American jurisdictions in bound volumes called reporters. Second, he put together a classification system in which he divided the law into major categories which he called topics, he created hundreds of subcategories. To save space in printing, these were given a number called a key number.
He applied this "topic and key number" system to the cases he published. The key number is identified in the books with a key symbol graphic; each case published in a West reporter is evaluated by an editor who identifies the points of law cited or explained in the case. The editor places the summaries of the points of law covered in the case at the beginning of the case; these summaries are a paragraph long, are called headnotes. Each headnote is assigned a topic and key number; the headnotes are arranged according to their topic and key number in multi-volume sets of books called Digests. A digest serves as a subject index to the case law published in West reporters. Headnotes are editorial guides to the points of law discussed or used in the cases, the headnotes themselves are not legal authority. West publishes West's Analysis of American Law, a complete guide to the topic and key number system, it is revised periodically. In print, a digest works like an encyclopedia, in that the topics are listed in alphabetical order and printed on the spines.
The "Descriptive Word Index" provides guidance as to key numbers. The digest system includes digests for the individual states; the U. S. Supreme Court, Bankruptcy Courts, Federal Claims Court, military courts each have an individual digest, as well as their decisions being included in the Federal Practice Digest with the notes of decisions from the federal District Courts and Courts of Appeals. Digests are published for West's National Reporter System. Specialty subject digests exist, such as the Education Law Digest, the Social Security Digest. For nationwide research, about once a month, West publishes a General Digest volume, which incorporates classified digest notes from all reporters of the West National Reporter System; these are cumulated into a Decennial Digest. Decennial implies that this occurs every ten years, but in the past several decades, there have been Decennial Digest Parts I and II, so the cumulation is now more frequent. However, the various Decennial Digests are not cumulated.
Thus, completing such a search over several decades requires consulting the Decennial Digests, updating that work with the most recent series of the General Digest. Some of the state and topical digests are revised to include the first cases in the jurisdiction, while the spines of the books of some of the other digests indicate that they are from "1933 to date," for instance, indicating that one must consult a prior series for references to earlier cases; the state, federal and topical digests are updated by interim pamphlets, pocket parts, replacement volumes, or a new series. Researchers can search the digest electronically using Westlaw: with the "Key Number Search Tool," which uses a word search to identify up to five key numbers, with the "Key Numbers and Digest" feature, by a key number search using the "Terms and Connectors" method, by using the KeySearch feature, or by finding a relevant case using keyword searching and using the key number hyperlinks in the document to find related cases.
Most secondary sources published by Thomson West, such as Corpus Juris Secundum and American Jurisprudence have key number hyperlinks in their on-line Westlaw versions. The "Key Numbers and Digest" feature and the hyperlinks create a "Custom Digest." The Custom Digest allows: selection of the jurisdiction of interest. Selecting key numbers and jurisdictions in the "Key Number Search Tool" results in a similar display of digest headnotes. Since all West headnote annotations are merged on Westlaw into a single database from which each Custom Digest is generated, there is no need to consult each separate series of the hard copy Decennial Digest. Full text of the cases may be accessed from the Custom Digest by clicking on the underlined case citation; the key number search or KeySearch will retrieve entire cases from a case law database. Other digest systems exist, including Butterworth's Digest for the United Kingdom (also containing references to cases decided in other Commonwealth
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities. Some additives have been used for centuries. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the twentieth century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin. Food additives include substances that may be introduced to food indirectly in the manufacturing process, through packaging, or during storage or transport. To regulate these additives, inform consumers, each additive is assigned a unique number, termed as "E numbers", used in Europe for all approved additives; this numbering scheme has now been adopted and extended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to internationally identify all additives, regardless of whether they are approved for use. E numbers are all prefixed by "E", but countries outside Europe use only the number, whether the additive is approved in Europe or not. For example, acetic acid is written as E260 on products sold in Europe, but is known as additive 260 in some countries.
Additive 103, alkannin, is not approved for use in Europe so does not have an E number, although it is approved for use in Australia and New Zealand. Since 1987, Australia has had an approved system of labelling for additives in packaged foods; each food additive has to be numbered. The numbers are the same as in Europe, but without the prefix "E"; the United States Food and Drug Administration lists these items as "generally recognized as safe". See list of food additives for a complete list of all the names. Food additives can be divided into several groups, although there is some overlap because some additives exert more than one effect. For example, salt is both a preservative as well as a flavor. Acidulents Acidulents confer sour or acid taste. Common acidulents include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, lactic acid. Acidity regulators Acidity regulators are used for controlling the pH of foods for stability or to affect activity of enzymes. Anticaking agents Anticaking agents keep powders such as milk powder from sticking.
Antifoaming and foaming agents Antifoaming agents prevent foaming in foods. Foaming agents do the reverse. Antioxidants Antioxidants such as vitamin C are preservatives by inhibiting the degradation of food by oxygen. Bulking agents Bulking agents such as starch are additives that increase the bulk of a food without affecting its taste. Food coloring Colorings are added to food to replace colors lost during preparation or to make food look more attractive. Fortifying agents Vitamins and dietary supplements to increase the nutritional value Color retention agents In contrast to colorings, color retention agents are used to preserve a food's existing color. Emulsifiers Emulsifiers allow water and oils to remain mixed together in an emulsion, as in mayonnaise, ice cream, homogenized milk. Flavors Flavors are additives that give food a particular taste or smell, may be derived from natural ingredients or created artificially. Flavor enhancers Flavor enhancers enhance a food's existing flavors. A popular example is monosodium glutamate.
Some flavor enhancers have their own flavors. Flour treatment agents Flour treatment agents are added to flour to improve its color or its use in baking. Glazing agents Glazing agents provide a shiny appearance or protective coating to foods. Humectants Humectants prevent foods from drying out. Tracer gas Tracer gas allow for package integrity testing to prevent foods from being exposed to atmosphere, thus guaranteeing shelf life. Preservatives Preservatives prevent or inhibit spoilage of food due to fungi and other microorganisms. Stabilizers Stabilizers and gelling agents, like agar or pectin give foods a firmer texture. While they are not true emulsifiers, they help to stabilize emulsions. Sweeteners Sweeteners are added to foods for flavoring. Sweeteners other than sugar are added to keep the food energy low, or because they have beneficial effects regarding diabetes mellitus, tooth decay, or diarrhea. Thickeners Thickening agents are substances which, when added to the mixture, increase its viscosity without modifying its other properties.
Packaging Bisphenols and perfluoroalkyl chemicals are indirect additives used in manufacturing or packaging. In July 2018 the American Academy of Pediatrics called for more careful study of those three substances, along with nitrates and food coloring, as they might harm children during development. With the increasing use of processed foods since the 19th century, food additives are more used. Many countries regulate their use. For example, boric acid was used as a food preservative from the 1870s to the 1920s, but was banned after World War I due to its toxicity, as demonstrated in animal and human studies. During World War II, the urgent need for cheap, available food preservatives led to it being used again, but it was banned in the 1950s; such cases led to a general mistrust of food additives, an application of the precautionary principle led to the conclusion that only additives that are known to be safe should be used in foods. In the United States, this led to the adoption of the Delaney clause, an amendment to the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act of 1938, stating that no carcinogenic substances may be used as food additives.
X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet-switched wide area network communication. An X.25 WAN consists of packet-switching exchange nodes as the networking hardware, leased lines, plain old telephone service connections, or ISDN connections as physical links. X.25 was defined by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee in a series of drafts and finalized in a publication known as The Orange Book in 1976. X.25 networks were popular during the 1980s with telecommunications companies and in financial transaction systems such as automated teller machines. However, most uses have moved to Internet Protocol systems instead. X.25 is still used and available in niche applications such as Retronet that allows vintage computers to use the internet. X.25 is one of the oldest packet-switched services available. It was developed before the OSI Reference Model; the protocol suite is designed as three conceptual layers, which correspond to the lower three layers of the seven-layer OSI model.
It supports functionality not found in the OSI network layer. X.25 was developed in the ITU-T Study Group VII based upon a number of emerging data network projects. Various updates and additions were worked into the standard recorded in the ITU series of technical books describing the telecommunication systems; these books were published every fourth year with different-colored covers. The X.25 specification is only part of the larger set of X-Series specifications on public data networks. The public data network was the common name given to the international collection of X.25 providers. Their combined network had large global coverage into the 1990s. Publicly accessible X.25 networks were set up in most countries during the 1970s and 1980s, to lower the cost of accessing various online services. Beginning in the early 1990s, in North America, use of X.25 networks started to be replaced by Frame Relay services offered by national telephone companies. Most systems that required X.25 now use TCP/IP, however it is possible to transport X.25 over TCP/IP when necessary.
X.25 networks are still in use throughout the world. A variant called AX.25 is used by amateur packet radio. Racal Paknet, now known as Widanet, is still in operation in many regions of the world, running on an X.25 protocol base. In some countries, like the Netherlands or Germany, it is possible to use a stripped version of X.25 via the D-channel of an ISDN-2 connection for low-volume applications such as point-of-sale terminals. Additionally X.25 is still under heavy use in the aeronautical business though a transition to modern protocols like X.400 is without option as X.25 hardware becomes rare and costly. As as March 2006, the United States National Airspace Data Interchange Network has used X.25 to interconnect remote airfields with Air Route Traffic Control Centers. France was one of the last remaining countries where commercial end-user service based on X.25 operated. Known as Minitel it was based on Videotex, itself running on X.25. In 2002, Minitel had about 9 million users, in 2011, it still accounted for about 2 million users in France when France Télécom announced it would shut down the service by 30 June 2012.
As planned, service was terminated 30 June 2012. There were 800,000 terminals still in operation at the time; the general concept of the X. 25 was to create a global packet-switched network. Much of the X.25 system is a description of the rigorous error correction needed to achieve this, as well as more efficient sharing of capital-intensive physical resources. The X. 25 specification defines only the interface between an X. 25 network. X.75, a protocol similar to X.25, defines the interface between two X.25 networks to allow connections to traverse two or more networks. X.25 does not specify how the network operates internally – many X.25 network implementations used something similar to X.25 or X.75 internally, but others used quite different protocols internally. The ISO protocol equivalent to X.25, ISO 8208, is compatible with X.25, but additionally includes provision for two X.25 DTEs to be directly connected to each other with no network in between. By separating the Packet-Layer Protocol, ISO 8208 permits operation over additional networks such as ISO 8802 LLC2 and the OSI data link layer.
X.25 defined three basic protocol levels or architectural layers. In the original specifications these were referred to as levels and had a level number, whereas all ITU-T X.25 recommendations and ISO 8208 standards released after 1984 refer to them as layers. The layer numbers were dropped to avoid confusion with the OSI Model layers. Physical layer: This layer specifies the physical, electrical and procedural characteristics to control the physical link between a DTE and a DCE. Common implementations use X. 21, EIA-449 or other serial protocols. Data link layer: The data link layer consists of the link access procedure for data interchange on the link between a DTE and a DCE. In its implementation, the Link Access Procedure, Balanced is a data link protocol that manages a communication session and controls the packet framing, it is a bit-oriented protocol that provides orderly delivery. Packet layer: This layer defined a packet-layer protocol for exchanging control and user data packets to form a packet-switching network based on virtual calls, acco
A database is an organized collection of data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are developed using formal design and modeling techniques; the database management system is the software that interacts with end users and the database itself to capture and analyze the data. The DBMS software additionally encompasses; the sum total of the database, the DBMS and the associated applications can be referred to as a "database system". The term "database" is used to loosely refer to any of the DBMS, the database system or an application associated with the database. Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support. Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s; these model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data. In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages.
Formally, a "database" refers to the way it is organized. Access to this data is provided by a "database management system" consisting of an integrated set of computer software that allows users to interact with one or more databases and provides access to all of the data contained in the database; the DBMS provides various functions that allow entry and retrieval of large quantities of information and provides ways to manage how that information is organized. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it. Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is used to refer to any collection of related data as size and usage requirements necessitate use of a database management system. Existing DBMSs provide various functions that allow management of a database and its data which can be classified into four main functional groups: Data definition – Creation and removal of definitions that define the organization of the data.
Update – Insertion and deletion of the actual data. Retrieval – Providing information in a form directly usable or for further processing by other applications; the retrieved data may be made available in a form the same as it is stored in the database or in a new form obtained by altering or combining existing data from the database. Administration – Registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, recovering information, corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure. Both a database and its DBMS conform to the principles of a particular database model. "Database system" refers collectively to the database model, database management system, database. Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software. Database servers are multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage.
RAID is used for recovery of data. Hardware database accelerators, connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, are used in large volume transaction processing environments. DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications. DBMSs may be built around a custom multitasking kernel with built-in networking support, but modern DBMSs rely on a standard operating system to provide these functions. Since DBMSs comprise a significant market and storage vendors take into account DBMS requirements in their own development plans. Databases and DBMSs can be categorized according to the database model that they support, the type of computer they run on, the query language used to access the database, their internal engineering, which affects performance, scalability and security; the sizes and performance of databases and their respective DBMSs have grown in orders of magnitude. These performance increases were enabled by the technology progress in the areas of processors, computer memory, computer storage, computer networks.
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, post-relational. The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links; the relational model employs sets of ledger-style tables, each used for a different type of entity. Only in the mid-1980s did computing hardware become powerful enough to allow the wide deployment of relational systems. By the early 1990s, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, as of 2018 they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS; the dominant database language, standardised SQL for the relational model, has influenced database languages for other data models. Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and the development of hybrid object-relational databas