Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
Nikoli Co. Ltd. is a Japanese publisher that specializes in games and logic puzzles. Nikoli is the nickname of a quarterly magazine issued by the company in Tokyo. Nikoli became prominent worldwide with the popularity of Sudoku; the name "Nikoli" comes from the racehorse who won the Irish 2,000 Guineas in 1980. Nikoli's claim to fame is its vast library of "culture independent" puzzles. An example of a language/culture-dependent genre of puzzle would be the crossword, which relies on a specific language and alphabet. For this reason Nikoli's puzzles are purely logical, numerical. Nikoli's Sudoku, the most popular logic problem in Japan, was popularized in the English-speaking world in 2005, though that game has a history stretching back hundreds of years and across the globe; the magazine has invented several new genres of puzzles, introduced several new games to Japan. Some of the popular Nikoli puzzles, along with their Japanese names. Bag Connect the dots Country Road Crossword Cipher crossword Edel Fillomino Gokigen Naname Goishi Hiroi Hashiwokakero Heyawake Hitori Hotaru Beam Inshi no heya Kakuro Keisuke Kin-Kon-Kan Kuromasu Light Up LITS Mainarizumu Masyu Maze Picture maze Mochikoro Number Link Nurikabe Reflect Link Ripple Effect Shakashaka Shikaku Slitherlink Stained Glass Sudoku Tatamibari Tatebo-Yokobo Tentai Show Tile Paint Verbal arithmetic Word search Yajilin Yajisan-Kazusan Official site Rules of 80+ Nikoli Puzzles in German and English
A logic puzzle is a puzzle deriving from the mathematics field of deduction. The logic puzzle was first produced by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known under his pen name Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. In his book The Game of Logic he introduced a game to solve problems such as confirming the conclusion "Some greyhounds are not fat" from the statements "No fat creatures run well" and "Some greyhounds run well". Puzzles like this, where we are given a list of premises and asked what can be deduced from them, are known as syllogisms. Dodgson goes on to construct much more complex puzzles consisting of up to 8 premises. In the second half of the 20th century mathematician Raymond M. Smullyan has continued and expanded the branch of logic puzzles with books such as The Lady or the Tiger?, To Mock a Mockingbird and Alice in Puzzle-Land. He popularized the "knights and knaves" puzzles, which involve knights, who always tell the truth, knaves, who always lie. There are logic puzzles that are non-verbal in nature.
Some popular forms include Sudoku, which involves using deduction to place numbers in a grid. Another form of logic puzzle, popular among puzzle enthusiasts and available in magazines dedicated to the subject, is a format in which the set-up to a scenario is given, as well as the object, certain clues are given, the reader fills out a matrix with the clues and attempts to deduce the solution; these are referred to as "logic grid" puzzles. The most famous example may be the so-called Zebra Puzzle, which asks the question Who Owned the Zebra?. Common in logic puzzle magazines are derivatives of the logic grid puzzle called "table puzzles" that are deduced in the same manner as grid puzzles, but lack the grid either because a grid would be too large, or because some other visual aid is provided. For example, a map of a town might be present in lieu of a grid in a puzzle about the location of different shops. Category:Logic puzzles, a list of different logic puzzles List of puzzle video games Logic programming Mechanical puzzle Recreational mathematics Logic Test by Colin Beckley: http://think-logically.co.uk/lt.htm
Henry Ernest Dudeney was an English author and mathematician who specialised in logic puzzles and mathematical games. He is known as one of the country's foremost creators of mathematical puzzles. Dudeney was born in the village of Mayfield, East Sussex, one of six children of Gilbert and Lucy Dudeney, his grandfather, John Dudeney, was well shepherd. Dudeney learned to play chess at an early age, continued to play throughout his life; this led to a marked interest in the composition of puzzles. Chess problems in particular fascinated him during his early years. Although Dudeney spent his career in the Civil Service, he continued to devise various problems and puzzles. Dudeney's first puzzle contributions were submissions to newspapers and magazines under the pseudonym of "Sphinx." Much of this earlier work was a collaboration with American puzzlist Sam Loyd. Dudeney contributed puzzles under his real name to publications such as The Weekly Dispatch, The Queen and Cassell's Magazine. For twenty years, he had a successful column, "Perplexities", in The Strand Magazine, edited by the former editor of Tit-Bits, George Newnes.
Dudeney continued to exchange puzzles with fellow recreational mathematician Sam Loyd for a while, but broke off the correspondence and accused Loyd of stealing his puzzles and publishing them under his own name. Some of Dudeney's most famous innovations were his 1903 success at solving the Haberdasher's Puzzle and publishing the first known crossnumber puzzle, in 1926, he has been credited with discovering new applications of digital roots. Dudeney was a leading exponent of verbal arithmetic puzzles, it had been claimed that he was the inventor of verbal arithmetic. This was refuted by the counter example of a verbal arithmetic puzzle published in the US in 1864. Omission of detailed puzzle rules in the cited farm journal, suggests they were popular in America by 1864, when Dudeney was 7 years old; the popularity of these puzzles guarantees they'd be well known by to Sam Loyd, an American puzzler and early Dudeney puzzle collaborator. Loyd has gained notoriety for his own claims of invention now exposed as false.
He claimed to have invented the verbal arithmetic puzzle. For another example of Loyd's pervasive deceit, see 15 puzzle. Dudeney experienced Loyd's duplicity and intellectual theft first hand publicly equating Loyd with the Devil. Both Dudeney and Loyd were featured by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American—Loyd in August 1957 and Dudeney in June 1958. In 1884 Dudeney married Alice Whiffin, she became a well known writer who published many novels as well as a number of short stories in Harper's Magazine under the name "Mrs. Henry Dudeney". In her day, she was compared to Thomas Hardy for her portrayals of regional life; the income generated by her books was important to the Dudeney household, her fame gained them entry to both literary and court circles. After losing their first child at the age of four months in 1887, the Dudeneys had one daughter, Margery Janet, she married Christopher Fulleylove, son of John Fulleylove and one of an esteemed family of English artists.
The Fulleyloves emigrated to North America, first living in Canada and settling first in Oakland and New York. They had three sons: John Gabriel, James Shirley, Julian John. Alice's personal diaries were edited by Diana Crook and published in 1998 under the title A Lewes Diary: 1916–1944, they give a lively picture of her attempts to balance her literary career with her marriage to her brilliant but volatile husband. In April 1930, Dudeney died of throat cancer in Lewes, where he and his wife had moved in 1914 after a period of separation to rekindle their marriage. Alice Dudeney died on 21 November 1945, after a stroke. Both are buried in the Lewes town cemetery, their grave is marked by a copy of an 18th-century Sussex sandstone obelisk, which Alice had copied after Ernest's death to serve as their mutual tombstone. The Canterbury Puzzles Amusements in Mathematics The World's Best Word Puzzles Modern Puzzles Puzzles and Curious Problems A Puzzle-Mine Dudeney number Works by Henry Ernest Dudeney at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Dudeney at Internet Archive The Haberdasher Puzzle O'Connor, John J..
Samuel Loyd, born in Philadelphia and raised in New York City, was an American chess player, chess composer, puzzle author, recreational mathematician. As a chess composer, he authored a number of chess problems with interesting themes. At his peak, Loyd was one of the best chess players in the US, was ranked 15th in the world, according to chessmetrics.com. He played in the strong Paris 1867 chess tournament with little success, placing near the bottom of the field. Following his death, his book Cyclopedia of 5000 Puzzles was published by his son, his son, named after his father, dropped the "Jr" from his name and started publishing reprints of his father's puzzles. Loyd was inducted into the US Chess Hall of Fame in 1987. Loyd is acknowledged as one of America's great puzzle-writers and popularizers mentioned as the greatest. Martin Gardner featured Loyd in his August 1957 Mathematical Games column in Scientific American and called him "America's greatest puzzler". In 1898 The Strand dubbed him "the prince of puzzlers".
As a chess problemist, his composing style is distinguished by humour. However, he is known for lies and self-promotion, criticized on these grounds—Martin Gardner's assessment continues "but obviously a hustler". Canadian puzzler Mel Stover called Loyd "an old reprobate", Matthew Costello called him "puzzledom's greatest celebrity... popularizer, genius", but a "huckster" and "fast-talking snake oil salesman". He collaborated with puzzler Henry Dudeney for a while, but Dudeney broke off the correspondence and accused Loyd of stealing his puzzles and publishing them under his own name. Dudeney despised Loyd so intensely he equated him with the Devil. Loyd claimed from 1891 until his death in 1911 that he invented the 15 puzzle, for example writing in the Cyclopedia of Puzzles, p. 235: "The older inhabitants of Puzzleland will remember how in the early seventies I drove the entire world crazy over a little box of movable pieces which became known as the'14–15 Puzzle'." This is false as Loyd had nothing to do with the invention or popularity of the puzzle, the craze was in the early 1880s, not the early 1870s.
The craze had ended by July 1880 and Loyd's first article on the subject was not published until 1896. Loyd first claimed in 1891 that he had invented the puzzle, continued to do so until his death; the actual inventor was Noyes Chapman, who applied for a patent in March 1880. An enthusiast of Tangram puzzles, Loyd popularised them with The Eighth Book Of Tan, a book of seven hundred unique Tangram designs and a fanciful history of the origin of the Tangram, claiming that the puzzle was invented 4,000 years ago by a god named Tan; this was presented as true and has been described as "Sam Loyd's Most Successful Hoax". One of his best known chess problems is the following, called "Excelsior" by Loyd after the poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. White is to move and checkmate black in five moves against any defense: Loyd bet a friend that he could not pick a piece that didn't give mate in the main line, when it was published in 1861 it was with the stipulation that white mates with "the least piece or pawn".
One of the most famous chess problems by Loyd. He wrote on this problem: "The originality of the problem is due to the White King being placed in absolute safety, yet coming out on a reckless career, with no immediate threat and in the face of innumerable checks"; this problem was published in 1859. The story involves an incident during the siege of Charles XII of Sweden by the Turks at Bender in 1713. "Charles beguiled this period by means of drills and chess, used to play with his minister, Christian Albert Grosthusen, some of the contests being mentioned by Voltaire. One day while so engaged, the game had advanced to this stage, Charles had just announced mate in three." 1. Rxg3 Bxg3 2. Nf3 Bxh2 3. G4# "Scarcely had he uttered the words, when a Turkish bullet, shattering the window, dashed the White knight off of the board in fragments. Grothusen started violently, but Charles, with utmost coolness, begged him to put back the other knight and work out the mate, observing that it was pretty enough.
But another glance at the board made. We do not need the knight. I can give it to you and still mate in four!" 1. Hxg3 Be3 2. Rg4 Bg5 3. Rh4+ Bxh4 4. G4# Who would believe it, he had scarcely spoken when another bullet flew across the room, the pawn at h2 shared the fate of the knight. Grothusen turned pale. "You have our good friends the Turks with you," said the king unconcerned, "it can scarcely be expected that I should contend against such odds. I have it!" he shouted with a tremendous laugh, "I have great pleasure in informing you that there is undoubtedly a mate in 5." 1. Rb7 Be3 2. Rb1 Bg5 3. Rh1+ Bh4 4. Rh2 gxh2 5. G4# In 1900, Friedrich Amelung pointed out that in the original position, if the first bullet had struck the rook instead of the knight, Charles would still have a mate in six. 1. Nf3 Be1 2. Nxe1 Kh4 3. H3 Kh5 4. Nd3 Kh4 5. Nf4 h5 6. Ng6# In 2003, ChessBase posted a fifth variation, attributed to Brian Stewart. After the first bullet took out the knight, if the second had removed the g-pawn rather than the h-pawn, Charles would be able to mate in ten.
1. Hxg3 Be1 2. Rg4 Bxg3 3. Rxg3 Kh4 4. Kf4 h5 5. Rg2 Kh3 6. Kf3 h4 7. Rg4 Kh2 8. Rxh4+ Kg1 9. Rh3 Kf1 10. Rh1# One of Loyd's notable puzzles was the "Trick Donkeys", it was based on a similar puzzle involving dogs published in 1857. In the problem, the solver must cut the drawing along the dotted lines and rearrange the three pieces so that the riders appear to be riding the donkeys; this is one of Sam Loyd's
Windows Phone is a family of discontinued mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune. Windows Phone features a new user interface derived from Metro design language. Unlike Windows Mobile, it is aimed at the consumer market rather than the enterprise market, it was first launched in October 2010 with Windows Phone 7. Windows Phone 8.1 is the latest public release of the operating system, released to manufacturing on April 14, 2014. Windows Phone was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile in 2015. On October 8, 2017, Joe Belfiore announced that work on Windows 10 Mobile was drawing to a close due to lack of market penetration and resultant lack of interest from app developers. In January 2019, Microsoft announced that support for Windows 10 Mobile would end on December 10, 2019, that Windows 10 Mobile users should migrate to iOS or Android phones. Work on a major Windows Mobile update may have begun as early as 2004 under the codename "Photon", but work moved and the project was cancelled.
In 2008, Microsoft reorganized the Windows Mobile group and started work on a new mobile operating system. The product was to be released in 2009 as Windows Phone, but several delays prompted Microsoft to develop Windows Mobile 6.5 as an interim release. Windows Phone was developed quickly. One result was. Larry Lieberman, senior product manager for Microsoft's Mobile Developer Experience, told eWeek: "If we'd had more time and resources, we may have been able to do something in terms of backward compatibility." Lieberman said that Microsoft was attempting to look at the mobile phone market in a new way, with the end user in mind as well as the enterprise network. Terry Myerson, corporate VP of Windows Phone engineering, said, "With the move to capacitive touch screens, away from the stylus, the moves to some of the hardware choices we made for the Windows Phone 7 experience, we had to break application compatibility with Windows Mobile 6.5."The latest version of Windows Phone, Windows Phone 8.1, entered End of Support Status on July 11, 2017.
Windows 10 Mobile was announced, on October 8 2017, that it no longer receive system features updates, but it would continue to receive security updates. On February 11, 2011, at a press event in London, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer and Nokia CEO Stephen Elop announced a partnership between their companies in which Windows Phone would become the primary smartphone operating-system for Nokia, replacing Symbian; the event focused on setting up "a new global mobile ecosystem", suggesting competition with Android and iOS with the words "It is now a three horse race". Elop stated the reason for choosing Windows Phone over Android, saying: "the single most important word is'differentiation'. Entering the Android environment late, we knew we would have a hard time differentiating." While Nokia would have had more long-term creative control with Android, Elop enjoyed familiarity with his past company where he had been a top executive. The pair announced integration of Microsoft services with Nokia's own services.
Jo Harlow, whom Elop tapped to run Nokia's smartphone business, rearranged her team to match the structure led by Microsoft's VP of Windows Phone, Terry Myerson. Myerson was quoted as saying, "I can trust her with, she uses that same direct and genuine communication to motivate her team."The first Nokia Lumia Windows Phones, the Lumia 800 and Lumia 710, were announced in October 2011 at Nokia World 2011. At the Consumer Electronics Show in 2012 Nokia announced the Lumia 900, featuring a 4.3-inch AMOLED ClearBlack display, a 1.4 GHz processor and 16 GB of storage. The Lumia 900 was one of the first Windows Phones to support LTE and was released on AT&T on April 8. An international version launched in Q2 2012, with a UK launch in May 2012; the Lumia 610 was the first Nokia Windows Phone to run the Tango Variant and was aimed at emerging markets. On September 2, 2013, Microsoft announced a deal to acquire Nokia's mobile phone division outright, retaining former CEO Stephen Elop as the head of Microsoft's devices operation.
Microsoft managers revealed that the acquisition was made because Nokia was driving the development of the Windows Phone platform to better match their products. The merger was completed after regulatory approval in all major markets in April 2014; as a result, Nokia's hardware division became a subsidiary of Microsoft operating under the name Microsoft Mobile. In February 2014, Nokia released the Nokia X series of smartphones, using a version of Android forked from the Android Open Source Project; the operating system was modified.