Sheldon coin grading scale
The Sheldon Coin Grading Scale is a 70-point coin grading scale used in the numismatic assessment of a coin's quality. The American Numismatic Association based its Official ANA Grading Standards in large part on the Sheldon scale; the scale was created by William Herbert Sheldon. In 1949, the original scale was first presented in "Dr. William H. Sheldon's Early American Cents" titled "A Quantitative Scale for condition" as a way to grade Large cents; the scale is known today as the Sheldon scale. By 1953 the original Sheldon scale had become outdated, it was not until the 1970s, that the ANA chose to adapt the scale for use on all US coins. The scale used today is a modification of the original Sheldon scale, with added adjustments, additions and modifications to it. Note: Some early American coin varieties are always found to be weakly struck in places; this does not bring the grade of these coins down as in some cases no flawless coin exists for the variety. Early coins in general have planchet quality issues which depending on severity and market conditions can bring the grade down for other coins.
Mint State refers to a coin minted for regular distribution, never put into circulation, i.e. it was never used for daily commerce. Since individuals never used these coins to purchase goods or services, the coins were not handed from one person to another. Uncirculated coins should not show signs of wear. In modern-day United States numismatics, coin dealers, third-party grading services grade mint state coins using a number from 60 to 70 inclusive, with 70 representing a perfect coin with no visible blemishes. Coins in the lower grade range, although unworn, may suffer from weak striking, bag marks and other defects that make them less attractive to the collector; some early coins appear quite worn-looking in mint state, due to striking problems or problems with the coin's planchet or metal quality—in other words, they look worn, but they are uncirculated coins. There are a few United States coins for which no mint state specimens exist, e.g. the 1792 silver disme, the 1802 Draped Bust silver half dime.
Coin dealers and individual coin collectors use adjectives—with or without an accompanying Sheldon numerical code—to describe an uncirculated coin's grade. The term Brilliant Uncirculated is the most common—and the most ambiguous—of such adjectives. While Brilliant Uncirculated ought to refer to an uncirculated coin that retains its original mint luster, some equate BU with Uncirculated, i.e. they might refer to an MS-60 coin with little or no effulgence as Brilliant Uncirculated. Along these lines, some numismatists argue that an unscrupulous subset of coin dealers mislead customers by using adjectival grades without defining their terms. At the same time, there appears to be at least some consensus in the numismatic community for the following definitions. However, bear in mind that if a coin dealer advertises a coin as "Gem Uncirculated", it does not mean that a third-party coin grading company would assign an MS-65 or MS-66 grade to the coin. Like circulated grades, proof coins are graded on the Sheldon scale from 1 to 70.
Proof coins graded 60 to 70 are mirrored to those of Uncirculated grades with the difference that the coin was not made for circulation. Proof coins with the grade of Pr63 are sometimes called "Choice Proofs". Proof coins that are below the grade of 60 and show signs of circulation or mishandling have been classified as Impaired Proofs, these are not included alongside circulated coins as they were never issued or intended for circulation in the first place; the following table shows coins. Coin dealers will grade these coins at or below the ones shown for that respective type, the grades here depend on how bad the issue or issues are. Coins that are uncirculated as mentioned above can not go below an MS-60 grade
American Numismatic Association
The American Numismatic Association is a Colorado Springs, Colorado organization founded in 1891 by Dr. George F. Heath, it was formed to advance the knowledge of numismatics along educational and scientific lines, as well as to enhance interest in the hobby. The ANA has more than 25,000 members who receive many benefits, such as discounts, access to website features, the monthly journal The Numismatist; the ANA's Colorado Springs headquarters houses its administrative offices and money museum. The ANA received a Federal Charter from the United States Congress in 1912. A Board of Governors are in charge of the ANA. Numerous advisory committees help to operate it properly; the ANA has a Young Numismatists program intended to promote interest among youth. The ANA has held annual conventions throughout the nation in most years since 1891, with two per year since 1978; the Farran Zerbe Memorial Award is bestowed upon the most dedicated members. The ANA maintains a Numismatic Hall of Fame. Dr. George F. Heath of Monroe, gained knowledge of world history by studying his collection of coins.
The obscurity of his community was an obstacle towards obtaining certain specimens, made meeting fellow numismatists difficult. In 1888, he printed and distributed a four-page leaflet, NUMISMATIST, in which he listed his coin needs, advertised duplicates for sale, discussed numismatic topics; the nascent publication found many friends among other isolated collectors. As Heath's subscription list increased, a need for a national organization of numismatists was evident; the February 1891 edition of The Numismatist printed a question, "What is the matter with having an American Numismatic Association?" A follow-up statement was included: "There is nothing like the alliance of kindred pursuits to stimulate growth and interest."On October 7 and October 8, 1891, five men—Heath, William G. Jerrems, David Harlowe, J. A. Heckelman and John Brydon—holding 26 proxies, met in Chicago with 61 charter members; the result was the founding of the ANA, which has since become the largest non-profit numismatic organization in the world.
Heath introduced the idea of a numismatic convention, where members could make personal contact with other numismatists. The first convention was held in 1891 annually until 1895, in 1901 and 1904. After the 1907 convention in Columbus, Ohio, it was decided to hold annual conventions thereafter. On June 16, 1908, Dr. Heath died. Farran Zerbe president, assumed the task of editing and publishing THE NUMISMATIST, soon purchased the publication from Heath's heirs. In 1911, W. C. C. Wilson of Montreal, Canada, purchased THE NUMISMATIST from Zerbe and presented it to the ANA. Since the magazine has been owned and published monthly by the ANA. On May 9, 1912, the ANA attained national prominence as it was granted a Federal Charter signed by President William H. Taft. In 1962, an amendment to make the Charter permanent and allow for a larger Board was introduced and passed by Congress and signed into law by John F. Kennedy on April 10; the amendment was presented by Congressman Wilbur Mills and Senator John L. McClellan, both of Arkansas.
An ANA national headquarters building fund was established on April 29, 1961. A site in Colorado Springs, Colorado was selected as the headquarter's location and a ground breaking ceremony was held on September 6, 1966. On December 20, the $250,000 building fund goal was reached and the new headquarters was dedicated and opened on June 10, 1967; the ANA's administration operates from its Colorado Springs headquarters. The ANA's monthly journal, The Numismatist, is produced here. Many articles are contributed by ANA members; the facility houses the largest circulating numismatic library in the world. Books, educational slide programs and instructional videotapes are loaned to members without charge other than costs to cover postage and insurance; the ANA has many affiliate club members throughout the United States, such as the Beverly Hills Coin Club and the Chicago Coin Club. ANA headquarters contains the ANA Money Museum, which includes over 250,000 objects encompassing the history of numismatics from the earliest invention of money to modern day.
The Harry W. Bass Collection features American gold coins, experimental pattern coins and paper money; the museum offers changing exhibits about money in history, archeology and economics, coin collecting. Members may study the items on display and, by prearrangement, can use other museum materials for research purposes; the ANA has more than 25,000 members. Memberships last three years, five years, or a lifetime; the cost of the latter is $800 to $1,200, depending on a member's age and whether the ANA's magazine, "The Numismatist", is mailed or emailed. The ANA is run by a nine-member Board of Governors composed of the President, Vice-President, seven Governors, each elected by ANA members in odd-numbered years. Governor candidates must have been ANA members for at least three years. President and Vice President candidates must have served at least one term as a Governor. Total service on the Board is limited to 10 years; the current Board of Governors was elected in 2017. The President and Vice President positions were uncontested.
Candidates ran for seven Governor seats. The election results were as follows: The ANA is served by various advisory committees. There are temporary advisory committees for searches, one formed for forming a Strategic Vision for the board in 2012. There are several more permanent advisory committees: Bylaws & Ethics Community Education Community Relations Convention & Dealer Relations Exhibits & Awards, to set rules and work to oversee collector exhibiting
Presidential $1 Coin Program
The Presidential $1 Coin Program was the release by the United States Mint of $1 coins with engravings of relief portraits of U. S. presidents on the obverse and the Statue of Liberty on the reverse. From 2007 to 2011, presidential $1 coins were minted for circulation in large numbers, resulting in a large stockpile of unused $1 coins. From 2012 to 2016, new coins in the series were minted only for collectors. S. 1047, the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, was introduced on May 17, 2005, by Senator John E. Sununu with over 70 co-sponsors, it was reported favorably out of the U. S. Senate Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs without amendment on July 29, 2005; the Senate passed it with a technical amendment, by unanimous consent on November 18, 2005. The House of Representatives passed it on December 13, 2005; the engrossed bill was presented to president George W. Bush on December 15, 2005, he signed it into law on December 22, 2005; the program began on January 1, 2007, like the 50 State Quarters program, was not scheduled to end until every eligible subject was honored.
The program was to issue coins featuring each of four presidents per year on the obverse, issuing one for three months before moving on to the next president in chronological order by term in office. To be eligible, a President must have been deceased for at least two years prior to the time of minting; the U. S. Mint called it the Presidential $1 Coin Program; the reverse of the coins bears the Statue of Liberty, the inscription "$1" and the inscription "United States of America". Inscribed along the edge of the coin is the year of minting or issuance of the coin, the mint mark, 13 stars, the legend E Pluribus Unum in the following arrangement: ★★★★★★★★★★ 2009 D ★★★ E PLURIBUS UNUM; the legend "Liberty" is absent from the coin altogether, since the decision was made that the image of the Statue of Liberty on the reverse of the coin was sufficient to convey the message of liberty. The text of the act does not specify the color of the coins, but per the U. S. Mint "the specifications will be identical to those used for the current Golden dollar".
The George Washington $1 coin was first available to the public on February 15, 2007, in honor of Presidents' Day, observed on February 19. This marked the first time since the St. Gaudens Double Eagle that the United States had issued a coin with edge lettering for circulation. Edge-lettered coins date back to the 1790s; the process was started to discourage the shaving of gold coin edges, a practice, used to cheat payees. In December 2007, Congress passed H. R. 2764, moving "In God We Trust" to either the reverse of the coins. This is the same bill that created a program that included quarters for Washington, D. C. Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa; the act had been introduced because of the failure of the Sacagawea $1 coin to gain widespread circulation in the United States. The act sympathized with the need of the nation's private sector for a $1 coin, expected that the appeal of changing the design would increase the public demand for new coins; the program was intended to help educate the public about the nation's presidents and their history.
In the event that the coins did not catch on with the general public, the Mint hoped that collectors would be as interested in the dollars as they were with the State Quarters, which generated about $4.6 billion in seigniorage between January 1999 and April 2005, according to a report by the Congressional Budget Office. Unlike the State Quarter program and the Westward Journey nickel series, which suspended the issuance of the current design during those programs, the act directed the Mint to continue to issue Sacagawea dollar coins during the presidential series; the law states. Furthermore, the Sacagawea design is required to continue; these requirements were added at the behest of the North Dakota congressional delegation to ensure that Sacagawea, whom North Dakotans consider to be one of their own remains on the dollar coin. However, Federal Reserve officials indicated to Congress that "if the Presidential $1 Coin Program does not stimulate substantial transactional demand for dollar coins, the requirement that the Mint nonetheless produce Sacagawea dollars would result in costs to the taxpayer without any offsetting benefits."
In that event, the Federal Reserve indicated that it would "strongly recommend that Congress reassess the one-third requirement." The one-third requirement was changed to one-fifth by the Native American $1 Coin Act, passed on September 20, 2007. Previous versions of the act called for removing from circulation dollar coins issued before the Sacagawea dollar, most notably the Susan B. Anthony dollar, but the version of the act which became law directs the Secretary of the Treasury to study the matter and report back to Congress; the act required federal government agencies, businesses operating on federal property, federally funded transit systems to accept and dispense dollar coins by January 2008, to post signs indicating that they do so. On March 8, 2007, the United States Mint announced, that on February 15, 2007, an unknown number of George Washington
Certified Guaranty Company known as CGC, is a Sarasota, Florida comic book grading service. CGC is an independent member of the Certified Collectibles Group of companies, it is the first impartial third party grading service for comic books. The company was launched in early 2000 and has since gone on to become a notable part of the comic book collecting community; as of 2019 they have graded over 5 million comic books. Comic books are sent to CGC for grading and encapsulation either directly by the owner through CGC's website or through an authorized dealer. People sending in comics themselves can get a 10% discount from CGC by using the "Internet Partners" links on their submission page. Comics may be submitted to the company from an individual who signs up for one of their two membership options, associate or premium, pays an annual membership fee. A person does not need to be a member of anything CGC-related to send books in, nor is a comic dealer middleman required to submit books; the company accepts submissions in person by sending representatives to several comic book conventions.
Upon receipt, the comics are inspected by 1 pre-grader for obvious defects and are graded by 3 graders in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. The grades are not averaged together, the Head Grader determines the final grade. So for example, if 2 graders rated a book at 7.0 and the Head Grader decided it was a 7.5, the book is a 7.5. The graders look for damage and signs of restoration; the comic books are graded on a scale from 0.5 to 10. These numbers correspond with more traditional descriptive grades such as "very fine", "near mint", "mint", with the higher numbers indicating a better grade. In addition to the numeric grade, CGC uses color-coded labels to categorize comics: After grading, the comics are placed in an inner well - a sealed sleeve of Barex, a gas-impermeable plastic polymer; the comics are sonically sealed in a hard plastic, tamper-evident holder. This process is referred to in comics jargon as "slabbing". A label is affixed at the top indicating the title, grade, page quality, any notes, such as notable creators.
Books which would be damaged by encapsulation are returned without this process. Prior to advent of CGC grading and authentication services, collectors and sellers were at the mercy of the marketplace. There was a clear possibility of a conflict of interest as a seller would benefit from exaggeration of the condition to inflate the value and thus increase profits. A buyer could dispute the condition of a book with the intention of purchasing at a lower price. CGC's primary service is to provide a reliable and non-partial comic books grading and authentication, which can mitigate all these challenges and pitfalls that are inherent with comic book collecting. Signatures CGCs gold label Signature Series is a signature validation service in which a CGC representative witnesses a comic being signed by a specific individual as requested by the comic books owner. Furthermore they CGC establishes a chain of custody of that specific comic until it is “slabbed” and subsequently returned to the individual who ordered the signature series grading and verification.
This mitigates signature forgery concerns. Condition is a significant factor in the valuation of a comic book. An example is the first published appearance of Superman. In 2010, 2 copies sold on the comic book auction website comicconnect.com for record prices. One copy was CGC graded 8.0 and sold for $1 million USD. The second book at a auction, a copy CGC graded at 8.5 sold for a record-setting $1.5 million, the most paid up to that time for a comic book. A 9.0-rated version sold at a 2014 auction for $3.2 million. So with CGC's ability to provide a grading service as a neutral third party from a transaction, this created a degree of impartiality that did not exist before; this has shown that there is a demand for graded books as these books have set sales records. For valued comics, a higher grade can result in a price difference of thousands of dollars. A comic book marked by CGC with the purple "Restored" label can suffer a significant price reduction. Similar as with other collectible markets such as classic cars and counterfeiting can at times be a problem.
Counterfeit comics pose a problem as someone could be paying a high price for something, worthless. A part of CGC's service is to identify the authenticity of a comic. One of the first steps CGC takes upon receipt of a book is a pre-grader makes determinations if a book has been restored. An original book will be of more value than a restored book. CGC labels a comic book. Another grade that CGC implemented in 2008 is a NG or no-grade label, that identifies a comic missing cover or an authentic piece/page of a comic, authenticated. Authentication is part of the grading process to determine if a submitted book is genuine and not counterfeit; this is another valuable service as a good counterfeit can be hard to detect by a trained eye. Herman, Eric. "Comic Value". Chicago Sun-Times
Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey
Parsippany-Troy Hills Township called Parsippany, is a township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 53,238, reflecting an increase of 2,589 from the 50,649 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,171 from the 48,478 counted in the 1990 Census; the name Parsippany comes from the Lenape Native American sub-tribe, which comes from the word parsipanong, which means "the place where the river winds through the valley". Parsippany-Troy Hills is the most populous municipality in Morris County; the name Troy Hills was changed from Troy, to avoid confusion of mail being sent erroneously to Troy, New York. Parsippany-Troy Hills was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 12, 1928, from portions of Hanover Township, based on the results of a referendum held on May 9, 1928, that split off both East Hanover Township and Parsippany-Troy Hills from Hanover Township. Since 2006.
Parsippany-Troy Hills has been recognized by Money magazine as one of the Best Places to Live in the United States. That year Parsippany was ranked 17th on the highest-ranked location in New Jersey. In 2008, it moved up to 13th position. Parsippany returned to Money magazine's "Best Places" list in 2012, in the 15th position, again in 2014, where it ranked 16th with Money citing its "Arts and leisure". Parsippany's ranking improved to the 5th-ranked position on the "Best Places" list in 2016, but in 2017 dropped to 33rd. In 2018, Parsippany again made the list, at the 23rd-ranked position. After the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 BC, half of Parsippany was filled with water as this was Lake Passaic. Around the area grasses grew, as the area was tundra and turned into a taiga/boreal forest as the area warmed. Paleo-Indians moved in small groups into the area around 12,500 years ago, attracted by the diversity of plant and animal life. Native Americans settled into the area several thousand years ago, dwelling in the highlands and along the Rockaway River and the Whippany River, where they hunted and fished for the various game that lived in the area and migrated through the area in autumn.
Paintings in a rock cave were found in the late 1970s in western Parsippany in the highlands. From 1611 to 1614, the Dutch established the colony of New Netherland, which claimed territory between the 40th and 45th parallel north, a zone which included northern New Jersey; the Native Americans traded furs and food with the Dutch for various goods. In return the Dutch gave the Native Americans metal pots, guns and blankets. Trading with the Native Americans occurred until 1643 when a series of wars broke out between the Dutch and Native Americans. There were hostile relations between the Dutch and Native Americans between 1643 and 1660; this prevented colonization by the Dutch of the Morris County region, technically included in their claimed "New Netherland." On August 27, 1664, three English ships approached Fort Amsterdam and the fort was surrendered to the English. The English now controlled New Netherland and Morris County was now under control of the colony of New York. Relations with the Native Americans improved for a while.
There was a war with the Dutch ten years later. The Dutch re-took control of New Amsterdam but after a year returned it to the English. Relations with the Native Americans and English improved for a while. English settlers started to move into the area around 1700; the Parsippany area had flat land and fertile soil, a fresh water supply, allowing them to succeed at farming. All types of game waterfowl, provided colonists a chance to succeed. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 25.394 square miles, including 23.563 square miles of land and 1.831 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Greystone Park, Lake Hiawatha, Lake Intervale, Lake Parsippany, Mount Tabor, Powder Mill, Rainbow Lakes, Rockaway Neck and Troy Hills. Lake Hiawatha and Mount Tabor are neighborhoods with their own ZIP codes. In 2000, 55% of Parsippany residents had a 07054 ZIP code. In 2011, Parsippany residents could live in one of 12 ZIP codes.
Until 2000, there was a 13th ZIP code within Parsippany, eliminated with changes at the Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital. The township has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm-to-hot summers, it is cooler than Manhattan at night and in the early morning. The record low temperature is −26 °F, the record high is 104 °F. Parsippany-Troy Hills lies in the Newark Piedmont Basin. Around 500 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands crashed into proto North America, riding over the North American Plate and creating the New Jersey Highlands, which start in the western portion of the township; this strike created land formations in the rest of eastern New Jersey. Around 450 million years ago, a small continent and thin, collided with North America, creating folding and faulting in western New Jersey and southern Appalachia; the swamps and meadows of Parsippany were created when the North American Plate separated from the African Plate. An aborted rift system or half gruben was created.
The land area lowered between a fault west of Paterson. The Ramapo Fault goes though western part of the township; the Wisconsin Glacier came into the area around 21,000 BC and left around 13,000 BC due to a warming in climate. As the glacier melted, this created rivers and lakes, leaving most of the township under Lake Passaic, the biggest lake