Ascanius a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and either Creusa, daughter of Priam, or Lavinia, daughter of Latinus. He is a character in Roman mythology, has a divine lineage, being the son of Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the hero Anchises, a relative of the king Priam, he is an ancestor of Romulus and the Gens Julia. Together with his father, he is a major character in Virgil's Aeneid, he is depicted as one of the founders of the Roman race. In Greek and Roman mythology, Ascanius was the son of the Trojan prince Aeneas and Creusa, daughter of Priam. After the Trojan War, as the city burned, Aeneas escaped to Latium in Italy, taking his father Anchises and his child Ascanius with him, though Creusa died during the escape. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Ascanius' original name was Euryleon and this name was changed to Ascanius after his flight from Troy. According to Virgil, Ascanius was called Iulus or Julus; the Gens Julia, or the Julians, the clan to which Julius Caesar belonged, claimed to have been descended from Ascanius/Iulus, his father Aeneas, the goddess Venus, the mother of Aeneas in myth, his father being the mortal Anchises.
According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Julus was a son of Ascanius who disputed the succession of the kingdom of Alba Longa with Silvius, upon the death of Ascanius. According to another legend mentioned by Livy, Ascanius may have been the son of Aeneas and Lavinia and thus born in Latium, not Troy. Ascanius fought in the Italian Wars along with his father Aeneas. After the death of Aeneas, Ascanius became king of Lavinium and an Etruscan king named Mezentius took advantage of the occasion to besiege the city. Mezentius agree to pay a yearly tribute. Upon his retirement, Ascanius fell upon him and his army unaware and defeated Mezentius and killed his son Lausus. Mezentius was forced to agree to pay a yearly tribute. Subsequent to this thirty years after the founding of Lavinium, Ascanius founded the city of Alba Longa and became its first king, he left Lavinia, in charge of the city of Lavinium. Ascanius was succeeded by Silvius, either the younger brother of Ascanius or his son. Ascanius died in the 28th year of his reign.
However, in the Aeneid, Virgil claims that Mezentius fought in the Italian Wars at the time Aeneas was alive. In the Aeneid, it is Aeneas who kills Lausus after harming Mezentius, who escaped while his son faced the Trojan king; when the news about Lausus' death reaches Mezentius, he comes back to face Aeneas, is killed too. In this account Ascanius does not participate in these deaths. Virgil shows Ascanius' first experience at war. In the Aeneid, Ascanius is a teenager without real war experiences, but while besieged by the Italians, Ascanius launches an arrow against Numanus, the husband of the youngest sister of Turnus. After killing Numanus, Apollo comes and says to Ascanius: Macte nova virtute, puer: sic itur ad astra, dis genite et geniture deos; this phrase can be translated into English as: "Go forth with new value, boy: thus is the path to the stars. Or "Blessings on your fresh courage, scion of gods and ancestor of gods yet to be, so it is man rises to the stars." In this verse, Virgil makes a clear reference to the offspring of Iulus, from whom Augustus Caesar claimed descent.
Therefore, in this verse Virgil refers to the Gens Julia, the family of Augustus and Julius Caesar, deified after his death. The sic itur ad astra become proverbial and several mottos use an ad astra phrase. After this episode, Apollo orders to the Trojans to keep Ascanius away from the war. In this same episode Ascanius, before launching the fatal arrow in Numanus, prays to Jupiter, saying: Jupiter omnipotens, audacibus annue cœptis The translation is: "Omnipotent Jupiter, please favour my audacity" or "All-powerful Jupiter, assent to my bold attempt"; the last part of the hexameter became. The name Iulus was popularised by Virgil in the Aeneid: replacing the Greek name Ascanius with Iulus linked the Julian family of Rome to earlier mythology; the emperor Augustus, who commissioned the work, was a great patron of the arts. As a member of the Julian family, he could claim to have four major Olympian gods in his family tree:, so he encouraged his many poets to emphasize his supposed descent from Aeneas.
Augustan literature Gens Julia Kingdom of Rome The Golden Bough Livy, Ab urbe condita Book 1. Virgil, Book IX; the Aeneid in Latin The Aeneid in English
Latinus was a figure in both Greek and Roman mythology. He is associated with the heroes of the Trojan War, namely Odysseus and Aeneas. Although his appearance in the Aeneid is irreconcilable with his appearance in Greek mythology, the two pictures are not so different that he cannot be seen as one character. In Hesiod's Theogony, Latinus was the son of Odysseus and Circe who ruled the Tyrsenoi the Etruscans, with his brothers Ardeas and Telegonus. Latinus is referred to, by much authors, as the son of Pandora II and brother of Graecus, although according to Hesiod, Graecus had three brothers, Hellen and Macedon, with the first being the father of Doros and Aeolus. In Roman mythology, Latinus, or Lavinius, was a king of the Latins, he is sometimes described as the son of Faunus and Marica, father of Lavinia with his wife, Amata. He hosted Aeneas's army of exiled Trojans and offered them the chance to reorganize their life in Latium, his wife Amata wished his daughter Lavinia to be betrothed to Turnus, king of the Rutuli, but Faunus and the gods insisted that he give her instead to Aeneas.
Ascanius, the son of Aeneas founded Alba Longa and was the first in a long series of kings leading to Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome. This version is not compatible with the Greek one: the Trojan War had ended only eight years earlier, Odysseus only met Circe a couple of months so any son of the pair could only be seven years old, whereas the Roman Latinus had an adult daughter by then. Latium Latin kings of Alba Longa Aborigines Virgil, Aeneid, VII, 45, 52, 69, 96. Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:1-2
Anchises was a member of the royal family of Troy in Greek and Roman legend. He was said to have been the son of King Capys of Dardania and Themiste, daughter of Ilus, son of Tros, he is most famous for his treatment in Virgil's Aeneid. Anchises' brother was father of the priest Laocoon, he was a mortal lover of the goddess Aphrodite. One version is that Aphrodite seduced him, she revealed herself and informed him that they would have a son named Aeneas. Aphrodite had warned him that if he boasted of the affair, he would be blasted by the thunderbolt of Zeus, he did not heed her warning and was struck with a thunderbolt, which in different versions either blinds him or kills him. The principal early narrative of Aphrodite's seduction of Anchises and the birth of Aeneas is the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite. According to the Bibliotheca and Aphrodite had another son, who died childless, he had a mortal wife named Eriopis, according to the scholiasts, he is credited with other children beside Aeneas and Lyrus.
Homer, in the Iliad, mentions a daughter named Hippodamia, their eldest, who married her cousin Alcathous. After the defeat of Troy in the Trojan War, the elderly Anchises was carried from the burning city by his son Aeneas, accompanied by Aeneas' wife Creusa, who died in the escape attempt, small son Ascanius; the subject is depicted in several paintings, including a famous version by Federico Barocci in the Galleria Borghese in Rome. The rescue is mentioned in a speech in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar when Cassius attempts to persuade Brutus to murder Caesar. Anchises himself was buried in Sicily many years later. Aeneas visited Hades and saw his father again in the Elysian Fields. Homer's Iliad mentions another Anchises, a wealthy native of Sicyon in Greece and father of Echepolus; the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite details how Aphrodite seduced Anchises. It begins by describing, she has made goddesses fall in love with mortals. Not Zeus was able to escape her powers and to put her in her place, he caused her to lust after the handsome mortal Anchises.
Aphrodite first happens upon Anchises on the hills of Mount Ida. Anchises is described as having the beauty of an immortal. Aphrodite bathes, she returns to the Troad disguised as a mortal, finds Anchises alone in a hut. When Anchises first sees Aphrodite, he is convinced that she is a grace, or a nymph, she convinces him that she is a Phrygian princess and that Hermes brought her there to marry Anchises. Anchises is overcome with desire for her and declares that he must have her and the two of them make love. After they have sex, Aphrodite dresses herself; when she is finished dressing, she reveals herself to him. When Anchises realizes her identity he is terrified and full of regret, says that no good comes from sleeping with a goddess. Aphrodite comforts him by telling him that she will bear him a son by the name of Aeneas, who will be respected among the Trojans and whose offspring will prosper. To further comfort Anchises she goes on to tell him about two relationships: the relationship between Zeus and Ganymede and the relationship between Eos and Tithonus.
Both relationships are between a mortal who survives the relationship. She details how their son will be raised by nymphs until he is five years old, at which time she will bring Aeneas to him, she leaves, warning him not to reveal that she is the mother of his child or Zeus will smite him. The Aeneid by Virgil describes the journey of Aeneas after the fall of Troy. Anchises, the father of Aeneas, is a character in the epic. Though Anchises is dead for most of the epic, he still makes multiple appearances in it, oftentimes to advise Aeneas. Anchises' first major appearance comes in Book 2, he is mentioned. During the fall of Troy, Aeneas makes his way home to save Anchises, his wife Creusa, his son Ascanius. At first Anchises tells Aeneas to leave without him. Aeneas declares that they will all die in Troy. Creusa argues with Aeneas over his decision and while they are arguing a painless flame appears on Ascanius' head. Anchises notices prays to Jupiter for a sign that they must leave. Just they hear thunder and see a falling star.
This convinces Anchises to go willingly with Aeneas. Aeneas carries Anchises on his back, Anchises carries their household gods, Ascanius walks beside his father as they all flee Troy. Creusa is killed during the escape; as they leave Troy they meet up with other fleeing Trojans. Anchises is mentioned in Book 3 while Aeneas continues his tale of how the Trojans came to be in Carthage. Anchises serves as a advisor for the fleeing Trojans. After leaving Troy, the refugees make their way to Thrace and to Delos. In Delos. Apollo tells them. Anchises misinterprets this to mean Crete and so the Trojans head for Crete. There they establish a city but they are soon overwhelmed by a plague. Anchises instructs Aeneas to seek out the Delian oracle. Before he does, he is visited in his dreams by their household gods who inform him they are in the wrong place and they must go to Italy. Aeneas tells Anchises of this dream. Anchises realizes that Apollo must have meant for them to establish a ho
The Aeneid is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter; the first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas's wanderings from Troy to Italy, the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. The hero Aeneas was known to Greco-Roman legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad. Virgil took the disconnected tales of Aeneas's wanderings, his vague association with the foundation of Rome and his description as a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous pietas, fashioned the Aeneid into a compelling founding myth or national epic that tied Rome to the legends of Troy, explained the Punic Wars, glorified traditional Roman virtues, legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty as descendants of the founders and gods of Rome and Troy.
The Aeneid is regarded as Virgil's masterpiece and one of the greatest works of Latin literature. The Aeneid can be divided into two halves based on the disparate subject matter of Books 1–6 and Books 7–12; these two halves are regarded as reflecting Virgil's ambition to rival Homer by treating both the Odyssey's wandering theme and the Iliad's warfare themes. This is, however, a rough correspondence, the limitations of which should be borne in mind. Virgil begins his poem with a statement of his theme and an invocation to the Muse, falling some seven lines after the poem's inception, he explains the reason for the principal conflict in the story: the resentment held by the goddess Juno against the Trojan people. This is consistent with her role throughout the Homeric epics. In the manner of Homer, the story proper begins in medias res, with the Trojan fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, heading in the direction of Italy; the fleet, led by Aeneas, is on a voyage to find a second home. It has been foretold that in Italy he will give rise to a race both noble and courageous, a race which will become known to all nations.
Juno is wrathful, because she had not been chosen in the judgment of Paris, because her favorite city, will be destroyed by Aeneas's descendants. Ganymede, a Trojan prince, was chosen to be the cupbearer to her husband, Jupiter—replacing Juno's daughter, Hebe. Juno proceeds to Aeolus, King of the Winds, asks that he release the winds to stir up a storm in exchange for a bribe. Aeolus agrees to carry out Juno's orders. Neptune takes notice: although he himself is no friend of the Trojans, he is infuriated by Juno's intrusion into his domain, stills the winds and calms the waters, after making sure that the winds would not bother the Trojans again, lest they be punished more harshly than they were this time; the fleet takes shelter on the coast of Africa, where Aeneas rouses the spirits of his men, reassuring them that they have been through worse situations before. There, Aeneas's mother, Venus, in the form of a huntress similar to the goddess Diana, encourages him and recounts to him the history of Carthage.
Aeneas ventures into the city, in the temple of Juno he seeks and gains the favor of Dido, queen of the city. The city has only been founded by refugees from Tyre and will become a great imperial rival and enemy to Rome. Meanwhile, Venus has her own plans, she goes to her son, Aeneas's half-brother Cupid, tells him to imitate Ascanius. Disguised as such, Cupid offers the gifts expected from a guest. With Dido's motherly love revived as she cradles the boy during a banquet given in honour of the Trojans, Cupid secretly weakens her sworn fidelity to the soul of her late husband, murdered by her brother, Pygmalion. In books 2 and 3, Aeneas recounts the events, he begins the tale shortly after the war described in the Iliad. Cunning Ulysses devised a way for Greek warriors to gain entry into the walled city of Troy by hiding in a large wooden horse; the Greeks pretended to sail away, leaving a warrior, Sinon, to mislead the Trojans into believing that the horse was an offering and that if it were taken into the city, the Trojans would be able to conquer Greece.
The Trojan priest Laocoön saw through the Greek plot and urged the horse's destruction, but his protests fell on deaf ears, so he hurled his spear at the horse. In what would be seen by the Trojans as punishment from the gods, two serpents emerged from the sea and devoured Laocoön, along with his two sons; the Trojans took the horse inside the fortified walls, after nightfall the armed Greeks emerged from it, opening the city's gates to allow the returned Greek army to slaughter the Trojans. In a dream, the fallen Trojan prince, advised Aeneas to flee with his family. Aeneas saw with horror what was happening to his beloved city. At first he tried to fight the enemy, but soon he lost his comrades and was left alone to fend off the Greeks, he witnessed the murder of Priam by Achilles' son Pyrrhus. His mother, appeared to him and led him back to his house. Aeneas tells of his escape with his son, his wife Creusa, his father, after the occurrence
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars was the god of war and an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him, in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars, but the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus, the latter of whom, as a guardian of the Roman people, had no Greek equivalent. Mars' altar in the Campus Martius, the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa, the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome.
Although the center of Mars' worship was located outside the sacred boundary of Rome, Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum. Although Ares was viewed as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, was a father of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia, his love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome's founding. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity in the Western provinces. Mars may be a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European god Perkwunos, having a thunderer character. At least etymological Etruscan predecessors are present in Maris, though this is not universally agreed upon. Like Ares, the son of Zeus and Hera, Mars is considered to be the son of Jupiter and Juno.
However, in a version of his birth given by Ovid, he was the son of Juno alone. Jupiter had usurped the mother's function. Flora tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once, she plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno's belly, impregnated her. Juno withdrew to the shore of Marmara for the birth. Ovid tells this story in his long-form poetic work on the Roman calendar, it may explain why the Matronalia, a festival celebrated by married women in honor of Juno as a goddess of childbirth, occurred on the first day of Mars' month, marked on a calendar from late antiquity as the birthday of Mars. In the earliest Roman calendar, March was the first month, the god would have been born with the new year. Ovid is the only source for the story, he may be presenting a literary myth of his own invention, or an otherwise unknown archaic Italic tradition. The consort of Mars was Nerio or Neriene, "Valor." She represents the vital force and majesty of Mars. Her name was regarded as Sabine in origin and is equivalent to Latin virtus, "manly virtue".
In the early 3rd century BC, the comic playwright Plautus has a reference to Mars greeting Nerio, his wife. A source from late antiquity says that Mars and Neriene were celebrated together at a festival held on March 23. In the Roman Empire, Neriene came to be identified with Minerva. Nerio originates as a divine personification of Mars' power, as such abstractions in Latin are feminine, her name appears with that of Mars in an archaic prayer invoking a series of abstract qualities, each paired with the name of a deity. The influence of Greek mythology and its anthropomorphic gods may have caused Roman writers to treat these pairs as "marriages." The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus caught them in the act by means of a magical snare. Although not part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BC Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium, a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating.
Scenes of Venus and Mars in Roman art ignore the adulterous implications of their union, take pleasure in the good-looking couple attended by Cupid or multiple Loves. Some scenes may imply marriage, the relationship was romanticized in funerary or domestic art in which husbands and wives had themselves portrayed as the passionate divine couple; the uniting of deities representing Love and War lent itself to allegory since the lovers were the parents of Concordia. The Renaissance philosopher Marsilio Ficino notes that "only Venus dominates Mars, he never dominates her". In ancient Roman and Renaissance art, Mars is shown disarmed and relaxed, or sleeping, but the extram
In Roman mythology, Lavinia is the daughter of Latinus and Amata and the last wife of Aeneas. Lavinia, the only child of the king and "ripe for marriage", had been courted by many men who hoped to become the king of Latium. Turnus, ruler of the Rutuli, was the most of the suitors, having the favor of Queen Amata. King Latinus is warned by his father Faunus in a dream oracle that his daughter is not to marry a Latin. "Propose no Latin alliance for your daughter,Son of mine. Men from abroad will come And be your sons by marriage. Blood so mingled Lifts our name starward. Children of that stock Will see all earth turned Latin at their feet, Governed by them, as far as on his rounds The Sun looks down on Ocean, East or West." Lavinia has what is her most, or only, memorable moment in Book 7 of the Aeneid, lines 69–83: during sacrifice at the altars of the gods, Lavinia's hair catches fire, an omen promising glorious days to come for Lavinia and war for all Latins. Aeneas and Lavinia had Silvius. Aeneas named the city Lavinium for her.
According to an account by Livy, Ascanius was the son of Lavinia. In Ursula K. Le Guin's 2008 novel Lavinia, the character of Lavinia and her relationship with Aeneas is expanded and elaborated, giving insight into the life of a king's daughter in ancient Italy. Le Guin employs a self-conscious narrative device in having Lavinia as the first-person narrator know that she would not have a life without Virgil, being the writer of the Aeneid several centuries after her time, is thus her creator. Lavinia appears with her father Latinus in Dante's Divine Comedy, Canto IV, lines 125–126. Virgil. Aeneid. VII. Livy, Ab urbe condita Book 1
In Roman mythology, Amulius was king of Alba Longa who ordered the death of his infant, twin grandnephews Romulus, the eventual founder and king of Rome, Remus. He was killed by them after they survived and grew to adulthood, he is son of Procas. He was said to have reigned 42 years before his death, his brother, had been king, but Amulius overthrew him, killed his son, took the throne. He forced Rhea Silvia, Numitor's daughter, to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess of Vesta, so that she would never bear any sons that might overthrow him. However, she was seduced by the god Mars, resulting in the birth of the twins. Rhea was thrown into prison and her sons ordered to be thrown into the river Tiber; the twins were found by a she-wolf who suckled them. Their mother was saved by the river god Tiberinus who ended up marrying her. Romulus and Remus went on to found Rome and overthrow Amulius, reinstating their grandfather Numitor as king of Alba Longa. Dionysius was a Greek historian and librarian who wrote in the first century BC.
He writes that King Proca, willed the throne to Numitor but Amulius deposed him. For fear of a threat to his rule, the king had Numitor's son, Aegestus killed; the truth about the crime was known by some, including Numitor. Amulius appointed Numitor's daughter to the Vestal priestesshood, where her vow of chastity would prevent her from producing any further children. Despite this, she became pregnant a few years claiming to have been raped. In one of the sources, Amulius himself commits the rape. Ilia hid her pregnancy with claims of illness so as to avoid her vestal duties, but Amulius was suspicious and employed physicians and his own wife to monitor her for signs of being with child. When he discovered the truth, he placed her under armed guard. After being informed of the delivery of Romulus and Remus, Amulius suspected that she had in fact given birth to triplets; the third child having been concealed from the guards present. Ilia kept secretly in a hidden dungeon for the rest of her life. Citing Fabius Pictor, Cincius and Piso, Dionysius writes that the king ordered the twins to be tossed into the Tiber.
When his servants arrived at the riverbank, high waters had made it impossible to reach the stream. So they left the twin's basket in a pool of standing water on the site of the ficus Ruminalis. After the waters of the Tiber had carried the twins away, their basket was overturned by a rock and they were dumped into the mud, it was there, that a she-wolf famously nursed them in front of her lair. Amulius' servant Faustulus, happened upon the scene, he took the boys home, brought them up with his wife. Quoting Fabius' account of the overthrow of Amulius, Plutarch claims that Faustulus had saved the basket in which the boys had been abandoned. According to Fabius, when the twins were 18, they became embroiled in a violent dispute with some of Numitor's herdsmen. In retaliation, Remus was captured while Romulus was elsewhere. In Aelius Tubero's version, the twins were taking part in the festivities of the Lupercalia, requiring them to run naked through the village when Remus, defenseless as he was, was taken prisoner by Numitor's armed men.
After rounding up the toughest herdsmen to help him free Remus, Romulus rashly set out for Alba Longa. To avoid tragedy, Faustulus revealed the truth about the twins' parentage. With the discovery that Numitor was family, Romulus sets his sights on Amulius instead, he and the rest of his village set out in small groups toward the city so that their arrival would go unnoticed by the guards. Meanwhile, after Amulius turned Remus over to Numitor to determine his punishment, Remus was told of his origins by the former king and eagerly joined with him in their own effort to topple Amulius; when Romulus joined them, they began to plan their next move. Faustulus is caught by the Alban guards trying to sneak the infant twins' basket into the city and is brought before Amulius by none-other-than the servant who had taken the boys to the river those many years before. Amulius questions his insincerely claims he means the twins no harm. Faustulus, trying to protect Romulus and Remus, escape the king's clutches, claimed he had been bringing the basket to the imprisoned Ilia at the twins request and that they were at the moment tending their flocks in the mountains.
Amulius sent some of his men to find the boys. He tried to trick Numitor into coming to the palace so that the former king could be kept under guard until the situation had been dealt with. For the king, when the man he sent to lure Numitor into his clutches arrived at the deposed king's house, he betrayed Amulius and revealed everything that had happened at the palace; the twins and their grandfather led their joint supporters to the palace, killed Amulius, took control of the city