The sod house or "soddy" was an used alternative to the log cabin during frontier settlement of the Great Plains of Canada and the United States. Used at first for animal shelters and fences, if the prairie lacked standard building materials such as wood or stone, or the poverty of the settlers precluded purchasing standard building materials, sod from thickly-rooted prairie grass was abundant and could be used for house construction. Prairie grass has a much tougher root structure than a modern lawn. A type in Alaska is a barabara. Construction of a sod house involved cutting patches of sod in rectangles 2'×1'×6", piling them into walls. Builders employed a variety of roofing methods. Sod houses accommodated normal windows; the resulting structure featured less expensive materials, was quicker to build than a wood frame house. However, sod houses required frequent maintenance and were vulnerable to rain damage if the roof was primarily of sod. Stucco was sometimes used to protect the outer walls.
Canvas or stucco lined the interior walls. While the influence of the sod house cannot be overlooked, stone or timber was preferred when available. In addition, where railroads existed, framed houses and buildings were used extensively during the settlement period. Sod houses that are individually notable and historic sites that include one or more sod houses or other sod structures include: IcelandSkagafjordur Folk Museum, turf/sod houses of the burstabær style in Glaumbær. Arbaer Folk Museum. CanadaAddison Sod House, a Canadian National Historic Landmark building, in Saskatchewan. L'Anse aux Meadows, the site of the pioneering 10th-11th century CE Norse settlement near the northern tip of Newfoundland, has reconstructions of eight sod houses in their original locations, used for various purposes when built by Norse settlers there a millennium ago. United StatesCottonwood Ranch, Sheridan County, Kansas; the ranch site, listed in the National Register of Historic Places, included a sod stable.
Dowse Sod House, near Comstock, Nebraska. Heman Gibbs Farmstead, Falcon Heights, Minnesota. Jackson-Einspahr Sod House, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Leffingwell Camp Site, Flaxman Island, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Minor Sod House, McDonald, Kansas, NRHP-listed. Page Soddy, Harper County, Oklahoma, NRHP-listed. Pioneer Sod House, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, NRHP-listed. Gustav Rohrich Sod House, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Sod House known as Marshall McCully Sod House, NRHP-listed. Sod House Ranch, Oregon. Wallace W. Waterman Sod House, Big Springs, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Burdei Canadian Prairies Dugout Earth structure Icelandic turf houses Rammed earth Sod roof Vernacular architecture Two books by Solomon D. Butcher, Nebraska photographer of the homestead era, whose works include over 1,000 photos of sod houses: Pioneer History of Custer County and Short Sketches of Early Days in Nebraska, Sod Houses, or the Development of the Great American Plains Dick, Everett; the Sod-House Frontier, 1854-1890: A Social History of the Northern Plains from the Creation of Kansas and Nebraska to the Admission of the Dakotas.
University of Nebraska
Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska
Anaktuvuk Pass is a city in North Slope Borough, United States. The population was 282 at the 2000 census and 324 as of the 2010 census. Anaktuvuk Pass was named after the Anaktuvuk River. Anaktuvuk is the English way of spelling annaqtugvik place of caribou droppings in Inupiaq, the language of the Inupiat. There was a nomadic group of Inupiat called Nunamiut that lived inland in northern Alaska and lived by hunting caribou instead of the marine mammals and fish hunted by the rest of the Inupiat, who live on the coast; the Nunamiut traded with the coastal people for other items. A decline in caribou populations in about 1900 and in the 1920s caused many Nunamiut to move to the coastal villages. In 1938, several families of Nunamiut moved back to the Brooks Range, around Tulugak and the Killik River. In 1949 the Killik River group moved to Tulugak Lake, fifteen miles north of where the village lies today. Anaktuvuk Pass is the only Nunamiut settlement; this settlement attracted Inupiaq people from many other locations, villagers today lead a somewhat more sedentary lifestyle than in earlier nomadic times.
The City was incorporated in 1959. A Presbyterian Church was constructed in 1966. A federally-recognized tribe is located in the community – the Village of Anaktuvuk Pass; the population of the community consists of 88.3% Alaska Natives or part Native. Anaktuvuk Pass is a Nunamiut Eskimo community dependent upon subsistence activities. Sale and possession of alcohol are banned in the village. Anaktuvuk Pass post office was established in May 1951; the first postmaster was Homer Mekiana. As of 2009, its post office was considered to be the most isolated in the United States. Anaktuvuk Pass is north of the Brooks Range on the divide between the Anaktuvuk River and the John River, located at an elevation of 2,200 feet. Anaktuvuk Pass is the last remaining settlement of the Nunamiut Iñupiat Inuit in Alaska; the community lies at 68.143330° North Latitude and 151.735830° West Longitude. It lies in Section 18, Township 15 South, Range 2 East, Umiat Meridian, is located within the Utqiagvik Recording District.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.9 square miles, of which 4.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Anaktuvuk Pass is at the border between a subarctic climate and a tundra climate, with the average temperature in January −12 °F while the warmest month, averages 50 °F. Temperatures have ranged from −47 °F to 91 °F. Anaktuvuk Pass receives about 11 inches of rain a year, with snowfall averaging about 63 inches per year; the area is known for its intense winds and 50-below winters and the generic, framed houses built there in the 1970s. The houses are inefficient according to a Fairbanks Daily News Miner story. On June 28, 1971, the temperature fell to a record low of -11°F. Anaktuvuk Pass first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1957. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 324 people residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 81.2% Native American, 7.1% White, 0.3% Black, 0.3% Pacific Islander and 9.0% from two or more races.
2.2% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 282 people, 84 households, 57 families residing in the city; the population density was 58.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 101 housing units at an average density of 20.8 sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 9.57% White, 1.42% Black or African American, 87.59% Native American, 0.71% from other races, 0.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. There were 84 households out of which 44.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.36 and the average family size was 4.26. In the city, the population was spread out with 38.7% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 5.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 121.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $52,500, the median income for a family was $56,250. Males had a median income of $42,500 versus $32,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,283. About 3.2% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.8% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. The North Slope Borough provides all utilities to Anaktuvuk Pass. Two central wells and a treated watering point at Nunamiut School serve the town for water. Most households have water delivered by truck to holding tanks. A few residents haul their own water. 80% of homes have running water in the kitchen. A $17 million project, to provide piped water and sewer and household plumbing, began construction in 1996 which will provide flush toilets and showers for all residences. A new landfill is near completion.
Electricity is provided by North Slope Borough. There is one school located in the community, the Nunamiut School, attended by 110 students as of August 10, 2017; the only local health clinic is the Anaktuvuk Pass Health Clinic, a primary health care fa
Helge Marcus Ingstad was a Norwegian explorer. After mapping some Norse settlements and his wife Anne Stine, an archaeologist, in 1960 found remnants of a Viking settlement in L'Anse aux Meadows in the province of Newfoundland in Canada, they were thus the first to prove conclusively that the Icelandic Norsemen such as Leif Erickson had found a way across the Atlantic Ocean to North America 500 years before Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. He thought that the mysterious disappearance of the Greenland Viking settlement in the 14/15th century could be explained by their emigration to North America. Helge Ingstad died at Diakonhjemmet Hospital in Oslo at the age of 101. Helge Ingstad was Olga Marie Qvam in Meråker, Nord-Trøndelag, his father held the title of factory supervisor. He was the grandson of Marcus Pløen Ingstad. Helge and his family moved to Bergen in 1915 where he attended the Bergen Katedralskole, after graduating cand. jur. in 1922 he took up a practice of lawyer in Levanger. Helge Ingstad was a lawyer by profession, but an outdoorsman, he sold his successful law practice in Levanger and went to Canada's Northwest Territories as a trapper in 1926.
For the next three years, the Norwegian travelled with the local Indian tribe known as the Caribou Eaters. After returning to Norway, he wrote the bestselling Pelsjegerliv about his time in Canada, published in English as The Land of Feast and Famine. Ingstad was the governor of Erik the Red's Land in 1932–33, when Norway annexed that eastern part of Greenland; the Permanent Court of International Justice in The Hague decided that the lands belonged to Denmark, so the official Norwegian presence had to end. Following the verdict, Ingstad was summoned by the government to the job as governor of Svalbard — a position suiting him uniquely, considering his profession of law and his experience in Arctic living. During his years on Svalbard Helge Ingstad met Anne Stine Moe, nearly twenty years his junior, she had read his books from Canada and Greenland with great admiration, developed a crush on the explorer. In 1946, the Ingstads made themselves a home near the Holmenkollen area of Norway's capital, where they spent the rest of their lives when not travelling the world.
They had one daughter, who became a professor in medical anthropology at the University in Oslo. From her teenage years, Benedicte accompanied her parents on their exploration journeys. Helge Ingstad was a popular author, whose books on his visits to remote parts of the world gained him fame in Norway. From Greenland he wrote Øst for den store bre, from Svalbard, he visited the Apache Indians of northwestern Mexico, from which he wrote Apache-indianerne - jakten på den tapte stamme. After World War II he stayed for a period in the Brooks Range in northern Alaska among the Nunamiut Iñupiat, afterwards wrote Nunamiut - blant Alaskas innlandseskimoer. In 1960, he discovered the remains of what proved to be a Viking settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows at the northernmost tip of Newfoundland in Canada, it is the only known site of a Norse or Viking village in Canada, in North America outside of Greenland. Dating to around the year 1000, L'Anse aux Meadows remains the only accepted instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact and is notable for its possible connection with the attempted colony of Vinland established by Leif Ericson around the same time period or, more broadly, with Norse exploration of the Americas.
Archaeological excavation at the site was conducted in the 1960s by an international team led by archaeologist Anne Stine Ingstad and under the direction of Parks Canada of the Government of Canada in the 1970s. Following each period of excavation, the site was reburied to protect and conserve the cultural resources; the settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows has been dated to 1,000 years ago, an assessment that tallies with the relative dating of artifact and structure types. The remains of eight buildings were located, they are believed to have been constructed of sod placed over a wooden frame. Based on associated artifacts, the buildings were variously identified as workshops; the largest dwelling consisted of several rooms. Workshops were identified as an iron smithy containing a forge and iron slag, a carpentry workshop, which generated wood debris, a specialized boat repair area containing worn rivets. Besides those related to iron working and boat repair, other artifacts found at the site consisted of common everyday Norse items, including a stone oil lamp, a whetstone, a bronze fastening pin, a bone knitting needle, part of a spindle.
The presence of the spindle and needle suggests. Food remains included butternuts, which are significant because they do not grow north of New Brunswick, their presence indicates the Norse inhabitants travelled farther south to obtain them. Archaeologists concluded that the site was inhabited by the Norse for a short period of time. Norse sagas are written versions of older oral traditions. Two Icelandic sagas called the Saga of the Greenlanders and the Saga of Eric the Red, describe the experiences of Norse Greenlander
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Avram Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, cognitive scientist, political activist, social critic. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science, he holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and laureate professor at the University of Arizona, is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with libertarian socialism. Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City, he began studying at the University of Pennsylvania at age 16, taking courses in linguistics and philosophy. From 1951 to 1955, he was appointed to Harvard University's Society of Fellows. While at Harvard, he developed the theory of transformational grammar. Chomsky began teaching at MIT in 1957 and emerged as a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his landmark work Syntactic Structures, which remodelled the scientific study of language.
From 1958 to 1959, he was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study. Chomsky is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, he played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, being critical of the work of B. F. Skinner. Chomsky vocally opposed U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War, believing the war to be an act of American imperialism. In 1967, he attracted widespread public attention for his antiwar essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism and was placed on Richard Nixon's Enemies List. While expanding his work in linguistics over late 1960s and 1970s, he became involved in the so-called linguistics wars with generative semantics. In the 1980s, Chomsky helped develop binding theory. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky co-wrote Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, which articulated the propaganda model of media criticism and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor.
Additionally, his defense of freedom of speech—including free speech for Holocaust deniers—generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the early 1980s. In the 1990s, Chomsky started the minimalist program. Since retiring from active teaching, Chomsky has continued his vocal political activism by opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy Movement. One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields, he is recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U. S. foreign policy and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, mainstream news media. His ideas have proved significant within the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements; some of his critics have accused him of anti-Americanism.
Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His mother Elsie emigrated from Belarus to the United States in 1906, while his father William Chomsky left Ukraine for the United States in 1913. William was appointed to the faculty at Gratz College in Philadelphia in 1924. Elsie taught at Gratz. Much William Chomsky was appointed professor of Hebrew at Dropsie College from 1955–77. Noam was the Chomsky family's first child, his younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years in 1934. The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be competitive. Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and discussing the political theories of Zionism; as a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia. Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" who had a center-left position on the political spectrum, he was influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, where Jewish leftists came to debate the issues of the day.
Whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature. He described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident", because it allowed him to become critical of Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism. Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere, it was there, at age 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona to Francisco Franco's fascist army in the Spanish Civil War. At age 12, Chomsky moved on to secondary education at Central High School, where he joined various clubs and societies and excelled academically but was troubled by the hierarchical and regimented teaching methods. During the same time period, Chomsky atten
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti