An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
Land reclamation known as reclamation, known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from oceans, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation land fill. In a number of other jurisdictions, including parts of the United States, the term "reclamation" can refer to returning disturbed lands to an improved state. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the provincial government as "The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses." In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods; the most simple method involves filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called "infilling" and the material used to fill the space is called "infill". Draining of submerged wetlands is used to reclaim land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated and hence needs to be contained.
Land dredging is another method of land reclamation. It is the removal of sediments and debris from the bottom of a body of water, it is used for maintaining reclaimed land masses as sedimentation, a natural process, fills channels and harbors naturally. Instances where the creation of new land was for the need of human activities. Notable examples include: Some of the coastlines of Saadiyat Island, in the UAE. Used for commercial purposes. Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India, it took over 150 years to join the original Seven Islands of Bombay. These seven islands were lush, thickly wooded, dotted with 22 hills, with the Arabian Sea washing through them at high tide; the original Isle of Bombay was only 24 km long and 4 km wide from Dongri to Malabar Hill and the other six were Colaba, Old Woman's Island, Parel and Mazgaon.. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and South Korea, it is estimated. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai and Wuhan.
Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. The shore of Jakarta Bay. Land is reclaimed to create new housing areas and real estate properties, for the expanding city of Jakarta. So far, the largest reclamation project in the city is the creation of "Golf Island", still ongoing. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres; the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in Qatar. Haikou Bay, Hainan Province, where the west side of Haidian Island is being extended, off the coast of Haikou City, where new land for a marina is being created; the Cotai Strip in Macau, where most of the major casinos are located Nagoya Centrair Airport, Japan Incheon International Airport, Korea Beirut Central District, Lebanon The southern Chinese city of Shenzhen The shore of Manila Bay in the Philippines along Metro Manila, has attracted major developments such as the Mall of Asia Complex, Entertainment City and the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in short supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation.
The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Hulhumalé Island, Maldives, it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. Giant Sea Wall Jakarta Colombo International Financial City, Sri Lanka Airport of Nice, France Large parts of the Netherlands Almost half of the microstate of Monaco Parts of Dublin, Ireland Most of Belfast Harbour and areas of Belfast, Northern Ireland Parts of Saint Petersburg, such as the Marine Facade Helsinki Barceloneta area, Barcelona, in Spain The port of Zeebrugge in Belgium The southwestern residential area in Brest, Belarus Majority of left-bank and some right-bank residential areas of Kiev were built on a reclaimed fens and floodplains of the Dnieper river. Most of Fontvieille, Monaco Parts surrounding Port Hercules in La Condamine, Monaco The airport peninsula, the industrial area of Cornigliano, the PSA container terminal and other parts of the port in Genoa, Italy The Fens in East Anglia Venice, Italy Rione Orsini, part of Borgo Santa Lucia, Naples A big part of Kavala, city in Greece Fucine Lake, ItalyWaterfront Centre, Jersey The Foreshore in Cape Town The Hassan II Mosque in Morocco is built on reclaimed land.
The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, Nigeria. Large parts of Rio de Janeiro, most notably several blocks in the new docks area, the entire Flamengo Park and the neighborhood of Urca Parts of Florianópolis. Parts of New Orleans Parts of Montevideo, Rambla Sur and several projects still going on in Montevideo's Bay. Much of the urbanized area adjacent to San Francisco Bay, including most of San Francisco's waterfront and Financial District, San Francisco International Airport, the Port of Oakland, large portions of the city of Alameda has been reclaimed from the bay. Mexico City. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, using material extracted from Panama Canal excavations; the Chicago shoreline The Northwestern University Lakefill, part of the campus of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois Back Bay, Massachusetts Battery Park City, Ma
Champlain Bridge, Montreal
The Champlain Bridge is a steel truss cantilever bridge with approach viaducts constructed of prestressed concrete beams supporting a prestressed concrete deck paved with asphalt. The bridge crosses the Saint Lawrence River and Saint Lawrence Seaway, connecting the Montreal boroughs of Verdun and Le Sud-Ouest to Brossard on the South Shore; the bridge, with approaches, is 6 km long. When the project began, it was designated as the "Nuns' Island Bridge" because it crosses over Nuns' Island. In 1958, it was named the Champlain Bridge in honour of the explorer Samuel de Champlain, who founded Quebec City in 1608; the bridge was opened on June 28, 1962. Together with the Jacques Cartier Bridge, it is administered by the Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Incorporated, a Canadian Crown Corporation which reports to Infrastructure Canada. Since December 21, 1978, JCCBI has been responsible for the management and monitoring of the Champlain Bridge; the bridge sees about 50 million crossings per year.
On an average weekday, 66% of users are commuters. It is one of the busiest single-span bridges in Canada; the concrete structure has been degraded by the use of de-icing salt, requiring expensive mitigation. In 2015, construction began on a replacement bridge designed to handle higher volumes of traffic. Under construction a hundred metres downstream from the original bridge, the new Samuel de Champlain Bridge should be completed in 2019; the Champlain Bridge project was undertaken in 1955 and construction proceeded between 1957 and 1962. The bridge carries six lanes of vehicle traffic. During rush hour one lane of those heading off the island in the morning, onto the island in the evening, is used as a reserved bus lane for buses to be able to head in the opposite direction; the bridge was opened to traffic in stages as the approaches were completed between June 1962 and September 1964. It was subsequently connected to the Bonaventure Expressway, part of the north approach to the bridge; the expressway was opened to traffic on April 21, 1967.
It is one of North America's busiest highways with 59 million crossings annually. Total length of crossing complex: 14.5 km Total bridge length including approaches: 7,412 m Length: abutment to abutment: 3,440 m Link of viaduct to Section 1: 2,195 m Center main cantilevered span: 215 m Wellington Street approach: 365 m Bonaventure Expressway: 4,573 m Just upstream from the bridge there is an ice boom, the Champlain Bridge Ice Control Structure. On August 17, 1955, federal Transport Minister George Marler first announced the planned construction of a new bridge connecting Montreal to the South Shore via Nun's Island; the city's existing bridges had become inadequate to support the amount of traffic that carried residents from the growing South Shore suburbs into Montréal. The National Harbours Board was placed in charge of the project. Through several lengthy meetings and consultations in the fall of 1955, the location for the bridge and its approaches were selected; the plan had been to build the bridge with only 4 lanes, with room for further expansion to 6 lanes.
During the design phase, however, it was decided to go with an initial 6-lane design immediately. The bridge was opened on June 1962 at 4 p.m.. At the time, the bridge had only one approach from Montreal, via Wellington Street; the section of the bridge that includes the approaches to and from Atwater Street and La Vérendrye Boulevard were opened two years on December 7, 1964. In 1967, the final approach to the bridge on the Montréal side was completed when the Bonaventure Expressway was opened to traffic. A $0.25 toll was charged to finance the $35 million cost of the Champlain Bridge. The toll was collected until 1990, when the Jacques Cartier and Champlain Bridges Incorporated, which took over jurisdiction of the bridge a dozen years earlier, removed the toll plaza. Montreal's climate subjects the Champlain Bridge to wintry cold and windy conditions, as well as contrasting hot and humid summer conditions, all of which accelerate damage to the bridge; because of the potential danger from ice accumulation during winter, the bridge has been salted every season for decades.
But salt attacks both the concrete and steel rebar used in girders and other parts. The problems associated with the design and maintenance of the Champlain Bridge have thus advanced the useful life of several structural components; the design and construction of the structure prevent the isolation of outdated elements and replace them with new ones, as can be done on other structures. Given the state of advanced deterioration of the bridge, it is monitored by 300 sensors. To remain in place until its replacement, several reinforcement measures and rehabilitation programs have been deployed over time by JCCBI. In 1992, the concrete deck of the cantilever metal part was replaced by an orthotropic steel deck. Gutters to channel the corrosive runoff to the river appeared in 1994; the pressure exerted by the reinforced beams on the ends of the trimmers required the reinforcement of the latter by steel rods under tension. In 2009, the Government of Canada announced in its 2009 Economic Action Plan that it would be allocating $212 million to renew the bridge.
And in March 2011, the Government of Canada announced $158 million would be spent on a major repair and maintenance program as concerns mount it is at risk of collapse. Montreal's La Presse newspaper cited two leaked engineering reports prepared for a federal bridge agency that suggest sections of the structure are in a s
Quebec Autoroute 10
Autoroute 10 is an Autoroute of Quebec in Canada that links greater Montreal to key population centres in Montérégie and Estrie, including Brossard, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Sherbrooke. The A-10 provides access to popular winter resorts at Bromont, Owl's Head, Mont Sutton and Mont Orford. Motorists travelling on the A-10 can see eight of nine Monteregian Hills: Mount Royal, Mont Saint-Bruno, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Mont Saint-Grégoire, Mont Rougemont, Mont Yamaska, Mont Shefford and Mont Brome. (The ninth, Mont Mégantic is located beyond the eastern terminus of the autoroute. At 147 km long, the A-10 is the seventh longest autoroute in Quebec; the A-10 carries the name Autoroute Bonaventure from its start in Montreal's city centre to the Champlain Bridge. From there until its terminus in Sherbrooke, the A-10 is called the Autoroute des Cantons-de-l'Est, a reference to the historic name given to the region east of Montreal and north of the U. S. border. The road's main material is asphalt concrete, many parts of the highway are bordered with gravel.
The A-10 begins in Downtown Montreal as an extension of University Street near Place Bonaventure. Two underground ramps provide an interchange with the A-720. At km 1, the A-10 crosses the Lachine Canal travels along the St. Lawrence River to an interchange with the A-15 and A-20; this interchange is on the Island of Montreal and on Nuns' Island. At km 2, it crosses Route 112 at the north end of Victoria Bridge; the A-10 has three lanes in each direction on the majority of its length and the speed limit is 70 km/h. The A-10 is multiplexed with the A-20 across the Champlain Bridge. All three autoroutes diverge soon after reaching the southern edge of the bridge; the A-10 serves as an important link for commuters travelling to downtown Montreal from suburban South Shore communities via the Champlain Bridge. It provides access to the Montreal Technoparc and the Concordia Bridge; the A-10 in Montreal is jointly owned by the city of Montreal, the Société Les Ponts Jacques Cartier, Federal Bridge Corporation.
At km 8, the A-10 crosses Taschereau Boulevard. Bus lanes run in both directions along the median for four kilometers between the southern end of the Champlain Bridge and Milan Boulevard. Crossing Brossard, the A-10 runs along the northern edge of the Quartier DIX30 shopping complex before reaching interchanges with the A-30 at km 11 and the A-35 at km 22; the A-10 enters a rich agricultural region. Between Bromont and Magog the A-10 passes through a mountainous region, close to two of Quebec's major ski centres. Near the northern end of Lake Memphremagog, the A-10 reaches an interchange with the A-55 at km 121; the A-10 continues east as a concurrency with A-55. Between km 123 and 128, Route 112 functions as a frontage road. A-10 and A-55 bypass the city of Sherbrooke to the east and north, reaching interchanges with spur routes A-410 at km 140 and A-610 at km 143; the A-10 reaches its terminus at the junction with A-610, while A-55 continues north to Drummondville. The portion east of Autoroute 55 was renumbered as Autoroute 610 on September 29, 2006.
The 116 km long Autoroute de l'Est was opened to traffic in December 1964. Extending from the southern end of the Champlain Bridge to Magog, the highway replaced the old Quebec Route 1 as the main road link between these two points. An official opening for the highway came one year in 1965; the A-10 was the second autoroute, after the Laurentian Autoroute outside Montreal, to be commissioned. Both were opened as toll highways by a Quebec government agency; the A-10 featured five toll stations. Motorists were charged $1.50 to make the entire trip. The Autoroute Bonaventure through Montreal opened in 1967 to link approach roads to Expo 67 with the Champlain Bridge; the Autoroute des Cantons de l'Est was the first autoroute in Quebec to use exit numbers based on distance instead of in sequential order, as had been the case. As Canada had not yet adopted the Metric system, exit numbers referenced the distance in miles from the southern end of the Champlain Bridge; the A-10 did not have a route number.
Instead, route marker signs featured a red triangular shield featuring the name of the route. Unusually, the directional signs were originally red. Blue shields and signs replaced the red versions. In 1985, the toll system was abolished, the use of the triangular shields was discontinued. Blue directional signs have been converted to standard green signs used elsewhere in North America. In 2013, motorists could still see blue signs at exits of the autoroute. Between 1988 and 2006, A-10 departed its multiplex with A-55 at km 143 and continued eastward for 11 km to a final terminus with Route 112. In October 2006, that section of A-10 was renumbered as A-610. Under a project started in 2016, the Autoroute Bonaventure will be reconfigured by 2018; the Société du Havre de Montréal is transforming the autoroute into an urban thoroughfare as part of a broader project to redevelop Montreal's harbourfront. The city of Montreal announced in January 2013 that it would take over the SHM's responsibilities, citing concerns over transparency.
A current proposal to build the East-West Highway across central and northern Maine calls for the A-10 to be extended to the U. S. border at Coburn Gore. Doing so would create a new and more direct limited-access highway link between
Nuns' Island gas station
The Nun's Island gas station was a modernist-style filling station designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1969, one of four buildings by Mies in Nuns' Island, an island in the city of Montreal. It is no longer a working gas station after being converted to a community centre, it was the first gas station on the island, the first designed by Mies, who had worked in collaboration with local architect Paul H. Lapointe on the project; the station was commissioned by Imperial Oil. The borough of Verdun transformed the building into La Station. Eric Gauthier was the lead architect on the project, which saw the two glass pavilions rebuilt to their original 3,000- and 1,000-square-foot sizes. La Station is a community centre for people over 50 years of age; the two main buildings are called the salle salle noire, after their floor colours. The original glass-enclosed attendant's booth serves as a display case of Mies' and the building's history, with the former fuel dispensers marked by ventilation shafts.
The centre uses geothermal energy. Westmount Square Construction underway to transform famed Nuns’ Island gas station, May 10, 2011 at the Wayback Machine Montreal Architects Rescue Mies Van Der Rohe Gas Station from Obscurity, The Architizer Blog Conversion of Mies van der Rohe gas station on Nuns Island, e-architect.co.uk, Feb 21, 2012, updated March 6, 2014
Boroughs of Montreal
The city of Montreal is divided into 19 boroughs, each with a mayor and council. The borough council is responsible for: Fire prevention Removal of household waste and residual materials Funding of community Social and local economic development agencies Planning and management of parks and recreational facilities Cultural and sports facilities, organization of recreational sports and sociocultural activities Maintaining local roads Issuing permits Public consultations for amendments to city planning bylaws Public consultations and dissemination of information to the public Land use planning and borough development. Districts of Montreal History of Montreal Montreal Merger Municipal reorganization in Quebec Official portal of Montréal
Fort Ville-Marie was a French fortress and settlement established in May, 1642 by a company of French settlers led by Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve of Champagne on the Island of Montreal in the St. Lawrence Seaway at the confluence of the Ottawa River, in what is today the Province of Quebec, Canada, its name was French for "City of Mary", a reference to the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is the historic nucleus. Ville Marie became a centre for the fur trade and French expansion into New France until the Treaty of Paris in 1763 which ended the French and Indian War, ceding the territory of New France to Britain. Given its importance, the site of the fort was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1924. Extensive archaeological work in Montreal has revealed the 1,000-year history of human habitation in the area. In his second expedition to North America in 1535, Jacques Cartier observed the indigenous village of Hochelaga in the vicinity of modern-day Montreal. Cartier’s description suggests that the village of Hochelaga was linked to the occupation of the area by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, a group of Indigenous sedentary farmers who inhabited the St. Lawrence Valley between 1200 and 1600 CE.
By Samuel de Champlain's arrival and in 1608, he found no trace of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians and settlements visited by Cartier some 75 years earlier. Historians and other scholars have developed several theories about their disappearance: devastating wars with the Iroquois tribes to the south, the impact of epidemics of Old World diseases, or their migration westward toward the shores of the Great Lakes. Harold Innis surmised that the northern hunting Indians around Tadoussac traded furs for European weapons and used these to push the farming Indians south. By the time Champlain arrived, the Algonquins and Mohawks were both using the Saint-Lawrence Valley for hunting grounds, as well as a route for war parties and raiding. Neither nation had any permanent settlements upriver above Tadoussac. Samuel de Champlain built a temporary fort in 1611, he established a fur-trading post where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands as part of a project to create a French colonial empire. He and his crew spent a few weeks clearing a site that he named Place Royale, dug two gardens and planted seed that grew well, confirming the fertility of the soil.
In 1613, Samuel de Champlain returned to Place Sault-au-Récollet. In 1641, some fifty French settlers, both men and women - recruited in France by Jérôme Le Royer de la Dauversière, of Anjou, on behalf of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal - set sail for New France, they hoped to create a model Catholic community. After a long crossing and a number of stops, the small group, led by Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve, of Champagne, arrived in Quebec with 40 men, three arriving with their wives; the Godés are referred to as the "First Family of Montreal". There was an unmarried woman, Catherine Lezeau. Winter was spent on the land of Pierre de Puiseaux near Sillery. Between 1642 and 1676, this was the location of annual fur-trading meets, as Amerindians brought their pelts to trade for various goods with the French; when the settlement was being laid out by the Sulpicians in the late 1600s, they reserved a small plot of land along the river’s shore for use as a public market, it was known as the Place du Marché.
In May 1642, the group left Quebec to go to the Island of Montreal in spite of the efforts by the Montmagny governor to have them settle on the Island of Orleans. They arrived on May 17. Mrs. De la Peltrine, her lady-in-waiting Charlotte Barre, as well as Jeanne Mance, were part of this trip. Francois Godé did not make the inaugural journey to Montreal; the new arrivals set to work to build the Ville-Marie fort on the spot where Champlain had once stayed. The fort housed as many as 50 early colonists; the first governor was Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve. The French and the Dutch were interested in fur trading; the Iroquois had allied with the Dutch of New Amsterdam, who supplied arms to them. In 1641 the war with the Iroquois began. By 1643, Ville-Marie had been hit by Iroquois raids. In 1649, the situation was so critical. In 1653, to confront this Iroquois danger, a group of 100 settler-soldiers came to stay in Ville-Marie. With them were 15 King's Daughters placed under the care of Marguerite Bourgeoys.
Jeanne Mance would set up the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal hospital in Montreal. In the first years, the Hôtel-Dieu was hosted inside the fort. By 1685, Ville-Marie had a population of some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses; the parish church and the seminary of the Sulpician fathers, seigneurs of the Island, dominated the little town. Most business was transacted in the Marketplace, located just next to the mouth of the little river. Here Montrealers and Amerindians would meet to trade; the fort, in use between 1642-1674, was demolished in 1688 and the entire settlement was walled and bastioned during the Indian war. The Louis-Hector de Callière residence was built on this place in 1695. In 1705, the settlement was renamed Montreal. In 2007 an archeological dig uncovered the remains of Ville-Marie under a maritime warehouse in Montreal. In 2015, an archaeological dig uncovered one of the corner posts of the fort. History of Montreal La Salle expeditions Old Montreal The Citadel, Montreal "375 years Montreal's lost Fort Ville-Marie resurfaces"