Yarmouth, Isle of Wight
Yarmouth is a town and civil parish in the west of the Isle of Wight, off the south coast of England. The town is named for its location at the mouth of the small Western Yar river; the town grew near the river crossing a ferry, replaced with a road bridge in 1863. Yarmouth has been a settlement for over a thousand years, is one of the earliest on the island; the first account of the settlement is in Ethelred the Unready's record of the Danegeld tax of 991, when it was called Eremue, meaning "muddy estuary". The Normans laid out the streets on a plan which can still be seen today, it grew being given its first charter as a town in 1135. The town became a parliamentary borough in the Middle Ages, the Yarmouth constituency was represented by two members of Parliament until 1832; until the castle was built, raids by the French hurt the town. Legend has it that the church bells were carried off to Boulogne. Yarmouth Castle was built in 1547, is now in the care of English Heritage, it is a gun platform, built by Henry VIII to fortify the Solent and protect against any attempted invasion of England.
For many years Yarmouth was the seat of the Governor of the Island. It has a quaint Town Hall, rebuilt in 1763. In St. James's Church there is a monument to the 17th century admiral Sir Robert Holmes, at Yarmouth, he obtained it in a raid on a French ship, when he seized an unfinished statue of Louis XIV of France and forced the sculptor to finish it with his own head rather than the king's. In 1784 most of Yarmouth's ancient charters were lost: A ship's captain, drunk after a court dinner, stole what he thought was a case of wine, as he returned to his ship; when he discovered it was a case of books, he threw it overboard. Yarmouth Pier was opened in 1876, it received Grade 2 listed status in 1975. 685 ft long, it's now 609 ft but is still the longest timber pier in England open to the public, a docking point for the MV Balmoral and PS Waverley. Several Sites of Special Scientific Interest lie close to Yarmouth, including Yar Estuary SSSI & Bouldnor And Hamstead Cliffs SSSI; as a port and market town Yarmouth has had local commercial significance.
It still has some boat yards and chandlery, although small it still supports a number of shops, hotels and restaurants, supported by passing trade from the ferry terminal and visiting boat owners. The Wightlink car ferry sails from Yarmouth to Lymington in Hampshire. Southern Vectis operate bus services from Yarmouth bus station, a small building near the ferry terminal, the main route being route 7 serving Totland, Alum Bay, Freshwater and Shalfleet as well as Yarmouth. To reach Yarmouth, route 7 uses Pixley Hill, which has caused some controversy amongst local residents who do not believe the road is large enough for buses; the controversy was started by former route 11 being extended to serve Yarmouth and using the lane in September 2008. In the spring and summer, Southern Vectis operate an open top bus called "The Needles Tour" that runs through Freshwater Bay to Alum Bay and onto the Needles Battery down a bus and pedestrian-only road along the cliff edge. For the more athletic, Yarmouth is on the Isle of Wight Coastal Path.
The parish was once served with services to Newport. Passenger services ended in 1953, the track has long since been removed. In August 2014 the converted and expanded railway station opened as a restaurant. Yarmouth is one of the smallest towns in the United Kingdom; the 2011 census reported the parish of Yarmouth having 865 usual residents. In 2001 the population was just 791. Yarmouth hosted the popular biannual Old Gaffers festival which included several days of entertainment and shows, but in September 2018 it was announced that the event would no longer be held. Yarmouth marina is the landing point for the Royal Navy's Solent Amphibious Challenge, held in June each year.. Official website of Yarmouth Harbour Commissioners Yarmouth Town Council
The Jacobean style is the second phase of Renaissance architecture in England, following the Elizabethan style. It is named after King James I of England. At the start of James' reign there was little stylistic break in architecture, as Elizabethan trends continued their development; however his death in 1625 came as a decisive change towards more classical architecture, with Italian influence, was in progress, led by Inigo Jones. Courtiers continued to build large prodigy houses though James spent less time on summer progresses round his realm than Elizabeth had; the influence of Flemish and German Northern Mannerism increased, now executed by immigrant craftsmen and artists, rather than obtained from books as in the previous reign. There continued to be little building of new churches, though a considerable amount of modifications to old ones, but a great deal of secular building; the reign of James VI of Scotland, a disciple of the new scholarship, saw the first decisive adoption of Renaissance motifs in a free form communicated to England through German and Flemish carvers rather than directly from Italy.
Although the general lines of Elizabethan design remained, there was a more consistent and unified application of formal design, both in plan and elevation. Much use was made of columns and pilasters, round-arch arcades, flat roofs with openwork parapets; these and other classical elements appeared in a free and fanciful vernacular rather than with any true classical purity. With them were mixed the prismatic rustications and ornamental detail of scrolls and lozenges characteristic of Elizabethan design; the style influenced other decorative arts. Reproductions of the classic orders had found their way into English architecture during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I based upon John Shute's The First and Chief Grounds of Architecture, published in 1563, with two other editions in 1579 and 1584. In 1577, three years before the commencement of Wollaton Hall, a copybook of the orders was brought out in Antwerp by Hans Vredeman de Vries. Although nominally based on the description of the orders by Vitruvius, the author indulged not only in his rendering of them, but in suggestions of his own, showing how the orders might be employed in various buildings.
Those suggestions were of a most decadent type, so that the author deemed it advisable to publish a letter from a canon of the Church, stating that there was nothing in his architectural designs, contrary to religion. It is to publications of this kind that Jacobean architecture owes the perversion of its forms and the introduction of strap work and pierced crestings, which appear for the first time at Wollaton Hall. Hatfield House, built in its entirety by Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, between 1607 and 1611, is an example of the extension of the Elizabethan prodigy house, with turreted Tudor-style wings at each end with their mullioned windows but the two wings linked by an Italianate Renaissance facade; this central facade an open loggia, has been attributed to Inigo Jones himself. Inside the house, the elaborately carved staircase demonstrates the Renaissance influence on English ornament. Other Jacobean buildings of note are Cheshire. Although the term is employed of the style which prevailed in England during the first quarter of the 17th century, its peculiar decadent detail will be found nearly twenty years earlier at Wollaton Hall, in Oxford and Cambridge examples exist up to 1660, notwithstanding the introduction of the purer Italian style by Inigo Jones in 1619 at Whitehall.
In 1607 and 1620, England founded her first successful colonies: Jamestown and Plymouth, Massachusetts. As with other settlers in the New World, the men and women that built the homes and buildings that formed the infrastructure of these towns and the others that followed over the coming century built edifices that were consistent with Jacobean vernacular architecture in the portion of England that they originated from: for example, the clapboard common to houses in New England and Nova Scotia to this day are derived from a local style of architecture popular in Northeast England in the early to mid 17th century. Historians classify this architecture as a subtype of colonial American architecture, called First Period architecture, however there is an enormous amount of overlap between the architecture of the commoner class in early 17th century England and colonial America architecture, where some of the key features of the Jacobean era outlived James I and VI owing to less contact between the American colonists and the fashions of England.
When the Puritans arrived in the winter of 1620 in New England, there was little time to waste owing to the bitterly cold weather and the fact that many of the occupants of the ship that brought them, the Mayflower, were ill and needed to get into housing before circumstances could allow the diseases on board to spread further. Those that were still able bodied had
Alum Bay is a bay near the westernmost point of the Isle of Wight, within close sight of the Needles rock formation. Of geological interest and a tourist attraction, the bay is noted for its multi-coloured sand cliffs; the waters and adjoining seabed form part of the Needles Marine Conservation Zone and the shore and heath above are part of the Headon Warren and West High Down Site of Special Scientific Interest. Alum Bay is the location of a classic sequence of upper Paleocene and Eocene beds of soft sands and clays, separated by an unconformity from the underlying Cretaceous Chalk Formation that forms the adjoining headland of West High Down. Due to geological folding of the Alpine orogeny, the strata in the main section of the bay are near vertical, with younger rocks with progressively lower dips to the west; the sands are coloured due to oxidised iron compounds formed under different conditions. Alum Bay Chine begins as a small wooded valley descending eastward from the junction of the B3322 and the road to Headon Hall.
It soon broadens into the clay ravine through which the path and chairlift from Needles Park descend to the beach. On the clifftop there is an amusement park with souvenir shops and a cafe. During the summer season a chair lift takes tourists to and from the pebble beach below. Alternatively, a footpath leads to the beach via Alum Bay Chine. From the beach boat trips leave to tour the Needles. A traditional product of Alum Bay, a fixture of Isle of Wight tourist shops, was the creation of ornaments using the coloured sands layered in vials and jars; the sands were were used for sand painting pictures, a popular craft in Victorian times known as marmotinto. In the past, visitors to the bay could dig out the sand themselves; the removal of minerals from the site is now prohibited by law under provisions laid out in notices attached to the Headon Warren and West High Down SSSI designation. The Needles Park has a facility where people could make bottles of sand, using sand gathered from the frequent rockfalls.
In the past it was possible to buy Alum Bay coloured sand by mail order and make one's own sand pictures and bottles at home. Southern Vectis run bus services from Alum Bay. There are two summer only services, namely the Needles Tour, the Island Coaster service; the Needles Tour is on an open top bus. On a map of the area produced around 1590, the bay is named Whytfylde Chine, it is possible. Alum Bay sand includes pure white silica, once extracted for glass and pottery manufacture. Guglielmo Marconi moved to Alum Bay in 1897 to experiment with radio, he installed a 40-metre radio antenna outside the Needles Hotel in Alum Bay. Establishing communication with ships offshore, by early 1898 he had communicated with stations at Madeira House and the Haven Hotel, Poole 20 miles away. Whitecliff Bay Needles Park official website Grimkie, Jacob Abbott, Sheldon, 1860 - novel with description of Alumn Bay ornaments and sand pictures
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Newport, Isle of Wight
Newport is a civil parish and the county town of the Isle of Wight, an island off the south coast of England. The civil parish had a population of 23,957 at the time of the 2001 census, which rose to 25,496 at the 2011 census; the town lies to the north of the centre of the Island. It has a quay at the head of the navigable section of the River Medina, which flows northward to Cowes and the Solent. Mousterian remains, featuring tools made by Neanderthals at least 40,000 years ago, were found at Great Pan Farm in the 1970s. There are signs of Roman settlement in the area, known as Medina, including two known Roman villas, one of which, Newport Roman Villa, has been excavated and is open to the public. Information about the area resumes after the Norman Conquest; the first charter was granted in the late 12th century. In 1377 an invading French force burnt down much of the town while attempting to take Carisbrooke Castle under the command of Sir Hugh Tyrill. A group of Frenchmen were captured and killed buried in a tumulus nicknamed Noddies Hill, a "noddy" being medieval slang for a body.
This was corrupted to Nodehill, the present-day name for a part of central Newport – a name confusing to many as the area is flat. In 1648 Charles I and a group of Parliamentary Commissioners concluded the Treaty of Newport, an attempt at reaching a compromise in the Civil War, undermined by Charles's negotiations with the French and Scots to intervene on his behalf; the Treaty was repudiated by Oliver Cromwell upon returning from defeating the Scots at the Battle of Preston. This led to Charles's execution; the town had been incorporated as a borough in 1608. The town's position as an area of trade accessible to the sea meant it took over from nearby Carisbrooke as the main central settlement absorbing the latter as a suburb; the borough ceased to exist in 1974 when it was incorporated into the larger Borough of Medina, itself superseded in 1995 by a single unitary authority covering the whole of the Isle of Wight. The Drill hall in Newport opened as the headquarters of the Isle of Wight Rifle Volunteers in 1860.
Newport since the 1960s has acquired new shopping facilities, a pedestrianised central square, through road traffic redirected off many of the narrow streets. Newport Quay has been redeveloped with art galleries such as the Quay Arts Centre and new flats converted from old warehouses; the Queen Victoria Memorial was designed by local architect Percy Stone. Geographically located in the centre of the Island at 50.701°N, 1.2883°W, Newport is the principal town in the Isle of Wight, to which there are transport connections from all the island's major towns. It is the island's main shopping location for public services; the main A3020 and A3054 roads converge as Medina Way between the busy roundabouts at Coppins Bridge and St Mary's Hospital. Newport railway station was the hub of the Island's rail network until the mid-20th century, but it closed in 1966 and the site is now occupied by the A3020 Medina Way dual carriageway; the nearest city to the town is Portsmouth, about 13 miles north-east on Portsea Island, adjoining the mainland.
More locally, the island's largest town, is to the north-east. The River Medina runs through Newport. North of its confluence with the Lukely Brook at the town's quay it becomes a navigable tidal estuary. Distance from surrounding settlements Cowes – 4.5 miles, 7 km East Cowes – 5 miles, 8 km Ryde – 7 miles, 11 km Shanklin – 9 miles, 15 km Sandown – 10 miles, 16 km Ventnor – 11 miles, 18 km Yarmouth, Isle of Wight – 10 miles, 16 km The town's suburb of Parkhurst is home to two prisons: the notorious Parkhurst Prison and Albany. Parkhurst and Albany were once among the few top-security prisons in the United Kingdom. Camp Hill was another prison in the area, but closed in 2013. Seaclose Park in Newport, on the east bank of the River Medina, has since 2002 been the location for the revived Isle of Wight Music Festival, held once a year. Newport is home to the Postal Museum the largest private collection of vintage postal equipment and post boxes in the world. Newport bus station is the town's central bus terminus and acts as the hub of the Southern Vectis network, with routes from across the Island terminating there.
St George's Park is the home of Newport Football Club, the most successful of the Island's football teams playing in the Wessex League. The stadium has a capacity of 3,000; the town is represented by Newport Cricket Club, which plays at Victoria recreational ground. Newport CC have two teams which compete in Harwoods Renault Divisions 1 and 2; the Isle of Wight County Cricket Ground is located on the outskirts of the town. The town of Newport and adjoining village of Carisbrooke together have seven primary schools, three secondary schools, a sixth-form campus, a further education college and two special schools; the primary schools located close to the town centre are Newport C of E Primary and Nine Acres Community Primary. Barton Primary is located on Pan estate, whilst Summerfields Primary is nearby on the Staplers estate, both to the east of the town. Hunnyhill Primary is situated on Forest Road to the north of the town, there are two primary schools in Carisbrooke: Carisbrooke C of E Primary on Wellington Road and St Thomas of Canterbury Catholic Primary in the High Street in the village centre.
The three secondary schools are Medina College and Christ the King College. Carisbrooke College is located on a large site on the outskirts of Carisbrooke village, whilst Christ the King is just down the road occupying two former middle school sites on
Cowes is an English seaport town and civil parish on the Isle of Wight. Cowes is located on the west bank of the estuary of the River Medina, facing the smaller town of East Cowes on the east bank; the two towns are linked by a chain ferry. The population was 9,663 in the 2001 census; the population at the 2011 census was 10,405. Charles Godfrey Leland's 19th century verses describe the towns poetically as "The two great Cowes that in loud thunder roar/This on the eastern, that the western shore". Cowes has been seen as a home for international yacht racing since the founding of the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1815, it gives its name to the world's oldest regular regatta, Cowes Week, which occurs annually in the first week of August. Powerboat races are held. Much of the town's architecture is still influenced by the style of ornate building that Prince Albert popularised; the name Westcowe was attested in 1413 as the name of one of two sandbanks, on each side of the River Medina estuary, so-called after a supposed likeness to cows.
The name was subsequently transferred to fortifications built during the reign of Henry VIII on the east and west banks of the river to dispel a French invasion, referred to as cowforts or cowes. They subsequently gave their names to the towns of Cowes and East Cowes, replacing the earlier name of Shamblord; the town's name has been subject to dispute in the past, sometimes being called Cowes, West Cowes. For example, a milestone from the 17th century exists, calling the town Cowes, but up until the late 19th Century the Urban District Council bore the name West Cowes. In 1895 West Cowes Urban District Council applied for permission to change the name of the town to Cowes and this was granted on 21 August 1895. Whilst the name Cowes has become well established on infrastructure related to the town, the name West Cowes remained on Admiralty charts, used by sailors, until 2015, when it was corrected following a letter from a Cowes resident. Red Funnel, the Southampton-based ferry company that provides routes from Southampton to both Cowes and East Cowes, has continued to use the name West Cowes for the town in information and publicity and as the name for the town's terminal.
In earlier centuries the two settlements were much smaller and known as East and West Shamblord or Shamelhorde, the East being the more significant settlement. The Isle of Wight was a target of attempted French invasions, there were notable incursions. Henrician Castles were built in both settlements in the sixteenth century; the west fort in Cowes still survives to this day, albeit without the original Tudor towers, as Cowes Castle. The fort built in East Cowes is believed to have been similar but was abandoned c. 1546 and since destroyed. The seaport at Cowes, Isle of Wight was the first stop on English soil before crossing the Atlantic Ocean with many ships loaded with Germans and Swiss passengers leaving from Rotterdam going to the New World destination of the port City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; these Germans and Swiss passengers where going to become British subjects in Colonial America, the English Captain's made a written record of the stop in Cowes, England. It is believed that the building of an 80-ton, 60-man vessel called Rat o' Wight on the banks of the river Medina in 1589 for the use of Queen Elizabeth I sowed the seed for Cowes to grow into a world-renowned centre of boat-building.
However, seafaring for recreation and sport remained the exception rather than the rule until much later. It was not until the reign of keen sailor George IV that the stage was set for the heyday of Cowes as'The Yachting Capital of the World.' In 1826 the Royal Yacht Squadron organised a three-day regatta for the first time and the next year the king signified his approval of the event by presenting a cup to mark the occasion. This became known as Cowes Regatta and it soon grew into a four-day event that always ended with a fireworks display; the opium clippers Nina and Wild Dayrell were built in Cowes. In Cowes the 18th-century house of Westbourne was home to a collector of customs whose son, born there in 1795, lived to become Dr Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School. Northwood House was the home of the Ward family, it was donated under trust to the town in the grounds becoming Northwood Park. William George Ward was a close friend of the poet Tennyson and in whose memory the poet wrote six lines.
Cowes and East Cowes became a single urban district in 1933. During an air raid of World War II on 4/5 May 1942, the local defences had been fortuitously augmented by the Polish destroyer Błyskawica, which put up such a determined defence that, in 2002, the crew's courage was honoured by a local commemoration lasting several days to mark the 60th anniversary of the event. In 2004 an area of Cowes was named Francki Place in honour of the ship's commander; the Friends of the ORP Błyskawica Society is active in Cowes. There is a Błyskawica Memorial. Industry in both Cowes and East Cowes has always centred on the building and design of marine craft and materials associated with boat-making, including the early flying boats, sail-making, it is the place. Major present-day employers include BAE Systems Integrated System Technologies, which occupies the site of the old Somerton Aerodrome at Newport Road, Cowes; the population of the town increases during Cowes Week, the busiest time of the year for local businesses.
The town was reported to be doing well despite the economic downturn. Cowes has a Non-League football club Cowes Sports F. C. wh
Bouldnor is a hamlet near Yarmouth on the west coast of the Isle of Wight in southern England. It is the location of a gun battery emplacement. Bouldnor is located on the A3054 road, public transport is provided by buses on Southern Vectis route 7. There is some oil exploration being done in Bouldnor. Bouldnor was the site of a brickmaking enterprise; the Current Lord of The manor of Bouldnor is David, Lord Prosser of Bouldnor, holder of the Feudal Title. A soapbox derby was held in Bouldnor in 2005, it was a big success, so the event was repeated in 2006, though moved to Newport and renamed the Isle of Wight Soapbox Derby Challenge. The Bouldnor Cliff Mesolithic Village is an internationally important archaeological site underwater off the coast of the Bouldnor Cliffs. Mesolithic flints and other items have been found; this material dates from 8000 years ago. During the Neolithic this was an active seaport. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Devon. Mining in Cornwall and Devon was of global importance.
Tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export from Bouldnor on the Ferriby Boats and on the Blackfriars Ships; this trade was controlled by the Veneti of Armorica who spoke Breton