Special administrative regions of China
Article 31 reads, The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National Peoples Congress in the light of the specific conditions. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the United Nations, and their Basic laws, there is additionally the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, which is however not established according to Article 31 of the Constitution. Generally, two SARs does not constitute the part of Mainland China by both Chinese and SAR authorities and it was envisioned as the model for the eventual reunification with Taiwan and other islands, where the Republic of China has resided since 1949. Special administrative regions should not be confused with special economic zones, Special administrative regions should be distinguished from the constituent countries system in the United Kingdom or Kingdom of the Netherlands.
There are currently two special administrative regions established according to Article 31 of the Chinese Constitution, for the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, please see the section below. The two special regions of Hong Kong and Macau each have a codified constitution called Basic Law. The law provides the regions with a degree of autonomy, a separate political system. Currently, the two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for all affairs except those regarding diplomatic relations, however, in some diplomatic talks involving a SAR, the SAR concerned may choose to send officials to be part of the Chinese delegation. The Government of Hong Kong has established Hong Kong Economic and Trade Offices in few countries as well as Greater China Region, HKETOs serve as a quasi-interests section in favor of Hong Kong. For regions with no HKETOs, Chinese diplomatic missions take charge of protecting Hong Kong-related interest, some countries which have a diplomatic relation with central Chinese government maintain Consulate-General in Hong Kong.
The Peoples Liberation Army is garrisoned in both SARs, PRC authorities have said the PLA will not be allowed to interfere with the local affairs of Hong Kong and Macau, and must abide by its laws. In 1988, scholar Chen Fang of the Academy of Military Science even tried to propose the One military, the PLA does not participate in the governance of the SAR but the SAR may request them for civil-military participation, in times of emergency such as natural disasters. Defence is the responsibility of the PRC government, a 1996 draft PRC law banned Peoples Liberation Army-run businesses in HK, but loopholes allow them to operate while the profits are ploughed back into the military. There are many PLA-run corporations in Hong Kong, the PLA have sizable land-holdings in Hong Kong worth billions of dollars. Each of the SARs issues passports on its own to its permanent residents who are concurrently Chinese citizens, due to their colonial past, many inhabitants of the SARs hold some form of non-Chinese nationality.
However, SAR residents who are Chinese descent have always considered as Chinese citizens by the PRC authorities. However, such travel documents cannot be used to travel to mainland China, master nationality rule applies so the holder may not enjoy consular protection while in mainland China
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese, because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects. Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones, the final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop. Many Mandarin varieties, including the Beijing dialect, retain retroflex initial consonants, the capital has been within the Mandarin area for most of the last millennium, making these dialects very influential. Some form of Mandarin has served as a lingua franca since the 14th century. In the early 20th century, a form based on the Beijing dialect. Standard Chinese is the language of the Peoples Republic of China and Taiwan.
It is one of the most frequently used varieties of Chinese among Chinese diaspora communities internationally, the English word mandarin originally meant an official of the Ming and Qing empires. Since their native varieties were often mutually unintelligible, these officials communicated using a Koiné language based on various northern varieties, when Jesuit missionaries learned this standard language in the 16th century, they called it Mandarin, from its Chinese name Guānhuà, or language of the officials. In everyday English, Mandarin refers to Standard Chinese, which is called simply Chinese. Standard Chinese is based on the particular Mandarin dialect spoken in Beijing, with some lexical and it is the official spoken language of the Peoples Republic of China, the official language of the Republic of China, and one of the four official languages of the Republic of Singapore. It functions as the language of instruction in Mainland China and it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, under the name Chinese.
Chinese speakers refer to the standard language as Pǔtōnghuà in Mainland China, Guóyǔ in Taiwan, or Huáyǔ in Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines. Linguists use the term Mandarin to refer to the group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China. The alternative term Běifānghuà, or Northern dialects, is used less and less among Chinese linguists, by extension, the term Old Mandarin or Early Mandarin is used by linguists to refer to the northern dialects recorded in materials from the Yuan dynasty. Native speakers who are not academic linguists may not recognize that the variants they speak are classified in linguistics as members of Mandarin in a broader sense, the hundreds of modern local varieties of Chinese developed from regional variants of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese. Traditionally, seven groups of dialects have been recognized
Standard Zhuang is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages. The official standard covers both spoken and written Zhuang and it is the national standard of the Zhuang languages, though in Yunnan a local standard is used. Standard Zhuang is a mixture of several Zhuang languages. The lexicon is based on various Northern Zhuang dialects, the phonology is essentially that of Shuangqiao, with the addition of ny, ei, ou from Fuliang, both located in Wuming County. Zhang, along with other Chinese scholars, classifies Shuangqiao dialect as Northern Tai, while Pittayaporn places it outside of Northern Tai proper, Shuangqiao was chosen for the standard pronunciation in the 1950s because it was considered to be Northern Zhuang but with characteristics of Southern Zhuang. Standard Zhuang is used most frequently in domains where written Zhuang was previously used, such as newspapers, translations of communist literature. It is one of the languages of China that appears on bank notes, all Chinese laws must be published in it.
Whilst used for adult literacy programs, it is only taught in a very small percent of primary and secondary schools in Zhuang-speaking areas. In 2012 the first Zhuang Proficiency Test took place which 328 people took, the alphabet included a mixture of modified Cyrillic and IPA letters. A spelling reform in 1982 replaced both the Cyrillic and IPA letters with Latin letters to facilitate printing and computer use and these alphabetical scripts are part of Standard Zhuang. The Old Zhuang script, Sawndip, is a Chinese character–based writing system, some Sawndip logograms were borrowed directly from Chinese, while others were created from the existing components of Chinese characters. Sawndip has been used for one thousand years for various Zhuang dialects. Unlike Chinese, Sawndip has never been standardized, and authors may differ in their choices of characters, first article of the Declaration of Human Rights
Yunnan is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country. It spans approximately 394,000 square kilometres and has a population of 45.7 million in 2009, the capital of the province is Kunming, formerly known as Yunnan. The province borders Vietnam and Burma, Yunnan is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the peaks to river valleys as much as 3,000 metres. Yunnan is rich in resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of plants in China. Yunnans reserves of aluminium, lead and tin are the largest in China, the Han Empire first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Sino-Tibetan-speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th centuryAD, Nanzhao was multi-ethnic, but the elite most-likely spoke a northern dialect of Yi.
The Mongols conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s, as with other parts of Chinas southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of majority Han people into the region. These two wave of migration contributed to Yunnan being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, major ethnic groups include Yi, Hani, Zhuang and Miao. The Yuanmou Man, a Homo erectus fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic period, there were settlements in the area of Lake Dian. These people used tools and constructed simple wooden structures. Around the 3rd century BC, the area of Yunnan around present day Kunming was known as Dian. The Chu general Zhuang Qiao entered the region from the upper Yangtze River and he and his followers brought into Yunnan an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion.
In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang unified China and extended his authority south and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan – the Five Foot Way – was extended south to present day Qujing
Hong Kong English
Hong Kong English is the dialect of the English language used in Hong Kong. The dialect is a result of Hong Kongs British oversea territory history, Hong Kong predominantly uses British spellings. Pronunciations and words are predominantly British, although influences from American and Australian English do exist as a result of western TV, Cantonese English, in theory, refers to the accent and characteristics of English spoken by native Hong Kongers and other Cantonese people. Overall, it is spoken by native Hong Kong language speakers. Therefore, although it is called Hong Kong English, it is not only spoken in Hong Kong, people who come from Macau, Guangzhou, or whose first language is Cantonese speak it. Since many of the characteristics of Hong Kong English are perceived as erroneous, the majority of Hong Kongers and Macau people with English proficiency tend to follow British English, American English or a mixture of the two. English is one of the languages in Hong Kong, and is used widely in the Government, academic circles, business.
All road and government signs are bilingual and English is as valid as Chinese on legal. Accent and spelling preference may vary person to person, depending on the people they have interacted with. For instance and slang are not used, and many idioms are alien to Hong Kongers because the terms pertain more to the cultures of English-speaking countries, the falling English proficiency of local English language teachers has come under criticism. Since the handover, English in Hong Kong remains primarily a second language, consonants in Cantonese are all voiceless except nasals and semivowels, as a result, /d/, /z/, and /dʒ/ are pronounced, and. There is a tendency for /θ/ to undergo fronting and become /f/, so through may be pronounced as /fu/, this is variable, so some speakers pronounce thin as /θɪn/ while others pronounce it as /fin/. /ð/ tends to become unaspirated /t/, so though is /tou/ and this is reported to be very widespread, so this is nearly always /tis/, and brother is /ˈbata/. Most people do not distinguish voiced and voiceless word-final stops, making bat and bad homonyms.
Some do not distinguish /ʃ/ and /s/, in Cantonese these sounds are allophonic and this new condition does not appear on nearly all the younger, or even the middle-aged Hongkongers. Corruption of /tr/ to /tʃ/ often occurs and train are pronounced both /t͡sʰe̝ŋ/, but some speakers pronounce the word train as, like many places in Britain, Hong Kong English is non-rhotic, which means /ɹ/ is not pronounced except before a vowel. However, with the influence of American programmes shown in TV, Some people pronounce /ɹ/ as /w/, except when followed by a consonant other than g or k, rain sounds like wing, and free like fee. Some people pronounce /ɹ/ as /l/ before rounded vowels, road sounds like low, wh is pronounced as /w/, as in English English and most American dialects
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages. It is based on the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang dialect, for this reason, Standard Tibetan is often called Lhasa Tibetan. Tibetan is a language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. The written language is based on Classical Tibetan and is highly conservative, like many languages, Standard Tibetan has a variety of language registers, Phal-skad, the vernacular speech. Zhe-sa, the spoken style, particularly prominent in Lhasa. Chos-skad, the style in which the scriptures and other classical works are written. In scientific and astrological works, the numerals, as in Vedic Sanskrit, are expressed by symbolical words, Tibetan is written with an Indic script, with a historically conservative orthography that reflects Old Tibetan phonology and helps unify the Tibetan-language area. Wylie transliteration is the most common system of romanization used by Western scholars in rendering written Tibetan using the Latin alphabet, Tibetan pinyin, however, is the official romanization system employed by the government of the Peoples Republic of China.
Certain names may retain irregular transcriptions, such as Chomolungma for Mount Everest, the following summarizes the sound system of the dialect of Tibetan spoken in Lhasa, the most influential variety of the spoken language. These sounds normally occur in closed syllables, because Tibetan does not allow geminated consonants, the result is that the first is pronounced as an open syllable but retains the vowel typical of a closed syllable. For instance, zhabs is pronounced and pad is pronounced, but the compound word and this process can result in minimal pairs involving sounds that are otherwise allophones. Sources vary on whether the phone and the phone are distinct or basically identical, phonemic vowel length exists in Lhasa Tibet but in a restricted set of circumstances. Assimilation of Classical Tibetans suffixes, normally ‘i, at the end of a word produces a long vowel in Lhasa Tibetan, in normal spoken pronunciation, a lengthening of the vowel is frequently substituted for the sounds and when they occur at the end of a syllable.
The vowels, and each have nasalized forms, respectively, in some unusual cases, the vowels, and may be nasalised. The Lhasa dialect is described as having two tones and low. However, in words, each tone can occur with two distinct contours. It is normally safe to only between the two tones because there are very few minimal pairs that differ only because of contour. The difference occurs only in words ending in the sounds or, for instance
Autonomous regions of China
An autonomous region is a first-level administrative subdivision of China. Like Chinese provinces, a region has its own local government. An autonomous region is a minority entity which has a population of a particular minority ethnic group. The Inner Mongolia autonomous region was established in 1947, Xinjiang was made autonomous in 1955, Guangxi and Ningxia in 1958, and Tibet in 1965. The designation of Guangxi and Ningxia as Zhuang and Hui autonomous areas, was protested by the local Han Chinese. Although Mongols made up less than a percentage of Inner Mongolia. Note, In the Third Largest Ethnic Group column is the group given in brackets, after the names of the autonomous regions. Administrative divisions of China Provinces of China Special administrative regions of China Autonomous prefectures of China
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Macanese Portuguese is a Portuguese dialect spoken in Macau, where Portuguese is co-official with Cantonese. Portuguese is the first language of roughly 3% of the population and it is distinct from the Macanese language, a Portuguese Creole in Macau. Macau had its first contact with the Portuguese language in 1557 when the territory was established as a center of Portugal to other parts of Asia. The language largely entered Macau in the 19th century when China ceded Macau to Portugal, at that time, it was made an official language along with Cantonese. Currently, there is one school in Macau where Portuguese is the medium of instruction. Macau was transferred sovereignty from Portugal to Peoples Republic of China in 1999, the Macanese dialect is traditionally an Old Portuguese variety, in some aspects similar to Brazilian Portuguese in pronunciation. For example, the word pôde is pronounced in most part of Brazil, the only Portuguese-medium school teaches Standard European Portuguese, as with most of the CPLP.
These phonological differences do not apply to Chinese who have higher education in Portuguese, Macanese grammar was Old Portuguese similar to Brazilian Portuguese, but it now follows the European grammar. Vocabulary is the same as in Portugal and Brazil, but there are some differences due to Cantonese influence and these include tim sam, dim sum, goh lor, goh low and, shu tiu, si tiu. Vocabulary even went to Brazil through leaving Portuguese settlers with some Macanese and Chinese settlers
Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai Autonomous County
Jinping Miao and Dai Autonomous County is located in Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China. Jinping is home to the Red-headed Yao minority group who wear a red hat on their heads after they get married. The Jinping County Almanac lists the ethnic groups. 235 households and 965 persons as of 2005, Lahu Lahu Na 拉祜纳 Lahu Xi 拉祜西 Lahu Pu 拉祜普 An alternate list gives the following ethnic minorities and subgroups. 10,323 households and 42,325 persons as of 2005 and it is spoken in Hanitian 哈尼田. Nongbi 弄毕, in Jinhe Town 金河镇 and Tongchang Township 铜厂乡,2,358 households and 9,902 persons as of 2005. It is spoken in Hanitian 哈尼田, duoni 多尼, in Laojizhai Township 老集寨乡. 793 households and 3,329 persons as of 2005, asuo 阿梭, in Laojizhai Township 老集寨乡. 356 households and 1,425 persons as of 2005, lami 腊咪, in Laojizhai Township 老集寨乡 and Zhemi Township 者米乡. 2,135 households and 9,180 persons as of 2005, gehe 格合, in Tongchang 铜厂, Yingpan 营盘, and Laomeng 老勐 townships. 2,563 households and 10,510 persons as of 2005, gehuo 格活 is spoken in Baima Shangzhai, Yingpan Township, Jinping County 金平县营盘乡白马上寨村.
Guozuo 国昨, in Zhemi 者米, Mengla 勐拉, and Jinshuihe 金水河 townships,1,953 households and 8,398 persons as of 2005. Habei 哈备, in Habei village 哈备村, Zhemi Township 者米乡,56 households and 231 persons as of 2005. Yi Nisu 尼苏, in Jinhe 金河镇, Mengqiao 勐桥乡,1,134 households and 5,519 persons as of 2005. Alu 阿鲁, in Yakouzhe Village 丫口遮村, Laojizhai Township 老集寨乡,1,264 households and 5,307 persons as of 2005. Pula 仆拉 Muji 姆基, widely distributed across Jinping County Laowu 老乌, in Laojizhai 老集寨, Laomeng 老勐, Yingpan 营盘,2,222 households and 9,342 persons as of 2005. 110 households and 682 persons as of 2005, the Lahu of Jinping County reside in the following villages. District 3 三区, Lijiazha 里加扎, Naniupuma 那纽普玛, Naniuzha 那纽扎 District 4 四区, Gouqiezha 苟切扎, Silouqiuzha 斯楼丘扎, Dapuzha 达普扎, Qiemazha 切玛扎, Wupuzha 吴普扎 Jinping County Official Website