Nur-Sultan named Astana from 1998 to 2019, is the capital city of Kazakhstan. In March 2019, it was renamed to Nur-Sultan after the departing Kazakh president, Nursultan Nazarbayev, it stands on the banks of the Ishim River in the northern portion of Kazakhstan, within the Akmola Region, though administered separately from the region as a city with special status. A 2017 official estimate reported a population of 1,029,556 within the city limits, making it the second-largest city in the country, behind Almaty, the capital from 1991 to 1997. Akmola became the capital of Kazakhstan in 1997, since has developed economically into one of the most modernized cities in Central Asia. On 23 March 2019, following a unanimous vote in Kazakhstan's parliament, the city was renamed Nur-Sultan, after former Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev. Modern Nur-Sultan is much like other planned capitals. After it became the capital of Kazakhstan, the city cardinally changed its shape; the Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa designed the master plan of Astana.

As the seat of the Government of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan is the site of the Parliament House, the Supreme Court, the Ak Orda Presidential Palace and numerous government departments and agencies. It is home to many futuristic buildings and skyscrapers. Founded in 1830 as a settlement of Akmoly or Akmolinsky prikaz, it served as a defensive fortification for the Siberian Cossacks. In 1832, the settlement was renamed Akmolinsk. On 20 March 1961, the city was renamed Tselinograd to mark the city's evolution as a cultural and administrative center of the Virgin Lands campaign. In 1992, it was renamed Akmola, the modified original name meaning "white grave" or "holy city". On 10 December 1997, Akmola replaced Almaty as the capital of Kazakhstan. On 6 May 1998, it was renamed Astana. On 20 March 2019, the capital again was renamed from Astana to its current name Nur-Sultan in honor of the long-ruling Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev; the settlement of Akmoly known as Akmolinsky prikaz, was established on the Ishim River in 1830 as the seat of an okrug by a unit of the Siberian Cossacks headed by Fyodor Shubin.

The name was given after a local landmark—Akmola means "a white grave" in Kazakh—although this theory is not universally accepted. In 1832, the settlement was named Akmolinsk; the advantageous position of the town was clear as early as 1863 in an abstract from the Geographic and Statistical Dictionary of the Russian Empire. It describes how picket roads and lines connected this geographic center to Kargaly in the East, Aktau fort in the South and through Atbasar to Kokchetav in the West. In 1838, at the height of the great national and liberation movement headed by Kenesary Khan, Akmolinsk fortress was burned. After the repression of the liberation movement, the fortress was rebuilt. On 16 July 1863, Akmolinsk was declared an uyezd town. During the rapid development of the Russian capitalist market, the huge Saryarka areas were exploited by the colonial administration. To draft regulation governing the Kazakh Steppe the Government of the Russian Empire formed Steppe Commission in 1865. On 21 October 1868, Tsar Alexander II signed a draft Regulation on governing Turgay, Ural and Semipalatinsk Oblasts.

In 1869, Akmolinsk external district and department were cancelled, Akmolinsk became the center of the newly established Akmolinsk Oblast. In 1879, Major General Dubelt proposed to build a railway between Tyumen and Akmolinsk to the Ministry of Communications of Russia. In the course of the first 30 years of its existence, the population of Akmola numbered a trifle more than 2,000 people. However, over the next 30 years the city's population increased by three times according to volosts and settlements of the Akmolinsk Oblast. In 1893, Akmolinsk was an uyezd with a 6,428 strong population, 3 churches, 5 schools and colleges and 3 factories. During World War II, Akmolinsk served as a route for the transport of engineering tools and equipment from evacuated plants in the Ukrainian SSR, Byelorussian SSR, Russian SFSR located in the oblasts of the Kazakh SSR. Local industries were appointed to respond to war needs, assisting the country to provide the battle and home fronts with all materials needed.

In the post-war years, Akmolinsk became a beacon of economic revival in the west of the Soviet Union ruined by the war. Additionally, many Russian-Germans were resettled here after being deported under Joseph Stalin's rule. In 1954, Northern Kazakh SSR oblasts became a territory of the Virgin Lands Campaign led by Nikita Khrushchev, in order to turn the region into a second grain producer for the Soviet Union. In December 1960, Central Committee made a resolution to create the Tselinniy Krai, which comprised five regions of the Northern Kazakh SSR oblasts. Akmolinsk Oblast was ceased to exist as a separate administrative entity, its districts were directly subordinated to the new krai administration, Akmolinsk became the krai capital, as well as the administrative seat of the new Virgin Lands economic region. On 14 March 1961, Khrushchev suggested the city should have a name corresponding to its role in the Virgin Lands Campaign. On 20 March 1961, the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR renamed Akmolinsk to Tselinograd.

On 24 April 1961, the region was reconstituted as Tselinograd Oblast. In the 1960s, Tselinograd was transformed. In 1963, work on the first three new high-rise housing districts began. In addition, the c

Ballinderry, Kilcronaghan civil parish

Ballinderry is a townland lying within the civil parish of Kilcronaghan, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It lies on the eastern boundary of the parish, it is bounded by the townlands of Ballynahone More, Dromore and Gortamney. It was apportioned to the Vintners company; the townland was part of Tobermore electoral ward of the former Magherafelt District Council, however in 1926 it was part of Tobermore district electoral division as part of the Maghera division of Magherafelt Rural District. It was part of the historic barony of Loughinsholin. Kilcronaghan List of townlands in Tobermore Tobermore

Peter's Rock

Peter's Rock known as Rabbit Rock, Rabbit Hill, Indian Rock and Great Rock, with a high point of 373 feet above sea level, is a trap rock peak located 4 miles northeast of downtown New Haven, Connecticut in the town of North Haven. It is part of the Metacomet Ridge that extends from Long Island Sound near New Haven, north through the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts to the Vermont border. Peter's Rock is known for its scenic views, unique microclimate ecosystems, rare plant communities, columnar basalt rock formations, it is traversed by a number of hiking trails managed by the non-profit Peter's Rock Association. Peter's Rock rises steeply 300 feet above the surrounding landscape, with a high point of 373 feet, it is three quarters of a mile long by a quarter of mile wide. The peak lies near the border of East Haven; the summit is open with a 360° view encompassing Long Island Sound, the Quinnipiac River estuary, New Haven Harbor, the surrounding peaks of the Metacomet Ridge. The Metacomet Ridge continues west from the isolated Peter's Rock as East Rock, east as Totoket Mountain and southeast as Saltonstall Mountain.

Like East Rock, Peter's Rock lies between the main west ridges of the Metacomet Ridge. The east side of Peter's Rock drains into the Farm River, thence to the East Haven River and Long Island Sound; the peak bears a number of competing names. The name Indian Rock was derived from the peak's alleged use as a Native American lookout. Rabbit Rock or Rabbit Hill came about by the peak's notability as a source of cottontail rabbits in the 19th century. According to local folklore the name Peter's Rock is derived from the alleged Peter Brockett, an American Revolutionary War veteran, suffering from a crippling and deforming spinal injury, built a small hut on the peak and lived there as a hermit; the United States Board on Geographic Names and the United States Geological Survey refer to the peak as "Rabbit Rock." A spring on the southwest side of Peter's Rock has been a source of local fresh water since the 19th century when families would travel to the mountain on Sundays to fill up jugs of fresh water.

A group of New Haven businessmen built a hunting lodge on the summit in 1901 called The Hermitage. The only remains of the Hermitage are the ruins of the wine cellar that may be seen on one of the trails leading up to the summit. Peter's Rock, like much of the Metacomet Ridge, is composed of basalt called traprock, a volcanic rock; the mountain formed near the end of the Triassic Period with the rifting apart of the North American continent from Africa and Eurasia. Lava solidified into sheets of strata hundreds of feet thick. Subsequent faulting and earthquake activity tilted the strata, creating the cliffs and ridgeline of Peter's Rock. Of particular note is the large, well-defined columnar basalt formation on the southwest side of Peter's Rock. Hot, dry upper slopes, moist ravines, mineral-rich ledges of basalt talus produce a combination of microclimate ecosystems on the mountain that support plant and animal species uncommon in greater Connecticut. Peter's Rock is an important raptor migration path..

Although Peter's Rock is entirely surrounded by suburban neighborhoods, much of it has been conserved by the town of North Haven and through the volunteer efforts of the Peter's Rock Association, which maintains a network of trails on the property. Parking lots and trailheads are located on Middletown Avenue, just.75 miles north of the New Haven city line, on Hermitage Lane, off Middletown Avenue. Peter's Rock is open to hiking, picnicking and other passive pursuits during daylight hours. Alcoholic beverages and ATV's are not allowed on the property. Metacomet Ridge Lithoprotection Adjacent summits: Farnsworth, Elizabeth J. "Metacomet-Mattabesett Trail Natural Resource Assessment." 2004. PDF wefile cited November 1, 2007. Raymo and Raymo, Maureen E. Written in Stone: A Geologic History of the Northeastern United States. Globe Pequot, Connecticut, 1989. Joan Mazurek "Peter's Rock - A Brief History" Spring 2005. Cited Dec. 31, 2007. Peter's Rock Association Cited. Dec. 31, 2007. United States Board on Geographic Names.

Cited Dec. 31, 2007 Hiking Map of Peter's Rock Peter's Rock at