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Nuremberg Charter

The Charter of the International Military Tribunal – Annex to the Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis was the decree issued by the European Advisory Commission on 8 August 1945 that set down the rules and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. The charter stipulated. Three categories of crimes were defined: crimes against peace, war crimes, crimes against humanity. Article 8 of the charter stated that holding an official position was no defense to war crimes. Obedience to orders could only be considered in mitigation of punishment if the Tribunal determined that justice so required; the criminal procedure used by the Tribunal was closer to civil law than to common law, with a trial before a panel of judges rather than a jury trial and with wide allowance for hearsay evidence. Defendants who were found guilty could appeal the verdict to the Allied Control Council. In addition, they would be permitted to present evidence in their defense and to cross-examine witnesses.

The Charter was developed by the European Advisory Commission under the authority of the Moscow Declaration: Statement on Atrocities, agreed at the Moscow Conference. It was drawn up following the surrender of Germany on VE Day, it was drafted by Robert H. Jackson, Robert Falco, Iona Nikitchenko of the European Advisory Commission and issued on 8 August 1945; the Charter and its definition of crimes against peace was the basis of the Finnish law, approved by the Finnish parliament on 11 September 1945, that enabled the war-responsibility trials in Finland. The Agreement for the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis and the annexed Charter were formally signed by France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States on 8 August 1945; the Agreement and Charter were subsequently ratified by 20 other Allied states. Cases before the International Criminal Court Carl Schmitt Command responsibility Crime against humanity Crime against peace Geneva Conventions Genocide International humanitarian law International Law Jus ad bellum Jus in bello List of war crimes Nuremberg Principles Nuremberg Trials Peace Palace Superior orders War crimes War Crimes Act of 1996 Links to the International Conference on Military Trials: London, 1945.

These documents helps to shows how the Charter reached its final form: Aide-Mèmoire from the Soviet Government June 14, 1945 contained in the Avalon Project archive at Yale Law School. 1945 Amendments Proposed by the United Kingdom June 28, 1945. Contained in the Avalon Project archive at Yale Law School. Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 1 Charter of the International Military Tribunal contained in the Avalon Project archive at Yale Law School Judgement: The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity contained in the Avalon Project archive at Yale Law School, contains the stated expansion of customary law "the Convention Hague 1907 expressly stated that it was an attempt'to revise the general laws and customs of war,' which it thus recognised to be existing, but by 1939 these rules laid down in the Convention were recognised by all civilised nations, were regarded as being declaratory of the laws and customs of war which are referred to in Article 6 of the Charter."

Heinrich Böschen

Heinrich Böschen was a German Communist politician and trades unionist. During the Nazi period he disappeared. In the continuing absence of information on what had happened to him, 1959 it was deemed for the administrative convenience of government authorities that he had died on 31 December 1945. Böschen trained to follow his father into the building trade and in 1906 joined the Building Workers' League of the Free Trade Unions, he joined the left-wing SPD party. War broke out in 1914 and in 1917 the SPD split in two over the issue of continuing support for the war. Böschen went with the Independent Social Democratic Party; the political left in Germany continued to fracture during the revolutionary year that followed military defeat. In October 1920 Böschen was a USPD delegate at the Danzig meeting which resulted in his party's left wing majority merging itself into the German Communist Party, he relocated to the Rhineland, where he worked as an official of the Metal Workers' Union. Between 1921 and 1926 he was a membership of the KPD leadership team in the Solingen subdistrict.

From 1921 till 1923 he was an elected member of the party national committee. In 1926 he became party secretary for trades union matters in the Lower Rhine region. In 1928 regional elections he was elected a member of the Prussian regional legislative assembly, representing the Düsseldorf-East electoral district. In 1929 he took charge of party organisation in the Lower Rhine district, he took part as a delegate in the 1929 Communist Party Conference. As the economic and political situation in Germany deteriorated, in 1930 he gave up his regional job in charge of party organisation. Instead, in 1931, he became the Policy Head of the Unity Association of Building Workers in the Revolutionary Trades Union Opposition movement. January 1933 saw the beginning of Germany's twelve Nazi years. A priority for the new government was the rapid establishment in Germany of one-party government, the new Chancellor had, in opposition, been vitriolic about the Communist Party. Böschen was one of many German communists to find themselves arrested.

He was given a 33-month prison sentence, following which he would be held for a longer period in concentration camps. War returned in 1939 and he was conscripted into Organisation Todt. By May 1945, when the war formally ended, Heinrich Böschen had disappeared. In 1959 he was declared dead, deemed for official purposes to have died on 31 December 1945

Karl Bélanger

Karl Bélanger is the President of the Douglas-Coldwell Foundation. He was the interim National Director of the New Democratic Party of Canada from January 23, 2016 to September 12, 2016, he was principal secretary to NDP Leader Tom Mulcair during his tenure as Leader of the Official Opposition. Bélanger was a member of NDP Leader Jack Layton's team, serving as senior press secretary, he was his principal secretary for Quebec in spring 2009, ahead of the Quebec Orange Crush. He remained senior press secretary under the interim leadership of Nycole Turmel, who gave him one of the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee medals every member of parliament was allowed to hand out, he was the spokesman for Alexa McDonough when she was NDP Leader and has worked for the party since the 1997 federal election. Bélanger is a native of Quebec City, he was a candidate in the 1993 federal election in the riding of Jonquière, in the 1996 federal by-election in Lac-Saint-Jean. He was president of the New Democratic Youth of Québec from 1994 to 1998 and vice-president of the New Democratic Youth of Canada from 1995 to 1997.

As a party spokesperson, he appears on CPAC's political panels and on CTV's Power Play, is a regular columnist in The Hill Times. He is a regular guest on radio stations including CJAD, CFRA and CINW, he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Université Laval in Quebec City in 1997. He had received a college degree in arts and media technology at the Jonquière CEGEP in 1995. Alan Kellogg of the Edmonton Journal called Bélanger "a Great Canadian" for his longtime work as assistant to the NDP leader. Bélanger placed numerous times on the Terrific Twenty-Five Staffers List, as put together by the Hill Times, based on a survey of parliamentary staff, he was listed as #3 in 2014. He is portrayed by Joel S. Keller in the 2013 CBC Television film Jack. Bélanger lives in Chelsea, Quebec


WOI – branded Iowa Public Radio – is a non-commercial educational radio station licensed to serve Ames, Iowa. Owned by Iowa State University, the station covers the Des Moines metropolitan area. Broadcasting a mix of public radio and talk radio, WOI is the flagship station for Iowa Public Radio's News Network and the market member station for NPR, Public Radio International, the BBC World Service; the WOI studios are located at Iowa State University's Communications Building, while the station transmitter resides southwest of Ames. Besides a standard analog transmission, WOI broadcasts a digital signal utilizing the HD in-band on-channel standard, is relayed over low-power Ames FM translator K234CN and is available online. WOI is among one of the oldest radio stations in the United States, one of the oldest surviving stations in North America, having begun experimental transmissions in 1911; the history of WOI can be traced back to 1911 when physics professor "Dad" Hoffman set a transmission line between the Campus Water Tower and the Engineering Building and set up a wireless telegraph station.

By 1913 this was known as experimental station 9YI and it was sending and receiving weather reports by Morse code on a regular basis. The first sound broadcast was an hour of concert music on November 21, 1921; the Commerce Department issued a full radio license for station WOI in April 1922 and the first regular broadcast took place on April 28, 1922. The original call sign 9YI is now W0YI and is retained by the ISU Campus Radio Club, with the amateur radio station in the Electrical Engineering building. WOI may be the oldest licensed noncommercial station west of the Mississippi River. Another university radio station in Iowa, WSUI at the University of Iowa in Iowa City began telegraph transmissions in 1911 and has claims to being the earliest educational station west of the Mississippi. Other Midwestern universities started experimental stations in the 1910s: the University of Minnesota's KUOM and St. Louis University's WEW in 1912 and the University of Wisconsin's WHA in 1915; the first regular programming on WOI was farm market reports gathered by ticker tape and Morse code, broadcast throughout the state.

Another early staple was sporting events by Iowa State's athletic teams. In 1925, "The Music Shop" aired for the first time. One of the longest-running programs in the history of radio, it moved to WOI-FM in the 1970s before going off the air in 2006. In 1927. Another longtime favorite, "The Book Club" was added. On December 1, 1949, Iowa State launched an FM adjunct to WOI-FM at 90.1 MHz. WOI-TV was subsequently launched in 1950 as the first television station in central Iowa, it was the first commercial TV station in the country owned by an educational institution. It was affiliated with all four networks of its time before it became an ABC affiliate in 1955. WOI-TV was sold by the Iowa Board of Regents on March 1, 1994. WOI-AM-FM became a charter member of National Public Radio when it began its regular schedule of afternoon news program All Things Considered in 1971. Today WOI's programming consists of both NPR and locally produced talk shows along with local news and BBC news updates; the classical music of the early years migrated to WOI-FM in the 1960s.

When the radio services of Iowa's state universities were merged into Iowa Public Radio in 2004, WOI became the flagship of IPR's Operations and IT services. Due to its location near the bottom of the AM dial and Iowa's flat landscape, WOI's non-directional 5,000 watt daytime signal reaches most of the state of Iowa, similar to 50,000 watt WHO. With a good radio, WOI can be heard in parts of Missouri, Minnesota and South Dakota. A single tower is used during the day. At night, because of the nighttime propagation the signal is reduced to 1,000 watts at night and two towers are used in a phased array configuration to protect KFI in Los Angeles, concentrating the signal eastward around Des Moines and Cedar Rapids. Official website Query the FCC's AM station database for WOI Radio-Locator Information on WOI Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WOIIowa Public Radio – IPR News Spark to Voice - History of 9YI and early WOI

The Mail (Cumbria)

The Mail, known as the North-West Evening Mail, is a daily, local newspaper in the United Kingdom, printed every morning. It is based in Barrow-in-Furness; the Mail was founded as the North-Western Daily Mail in 1898, becoming the North-Western Evening Mail in 1941 and the North-West Evening Mail in 1987. Although its title suggests a larger area, it in fact only covers news in the South Lakes and Furness; this is Barrow, Dalton-in-Furness, Grange-Over-Sands, Windermere and some of the more notable stories from Kendal and Copeland. It is in a tabloid style, has three separate editions, though the only difference is the story on the front page. Before changes to printing arrangements it had four - Barrow Early, Barrow Late Final and South Lakes, Millom: although the only difference was on the front page and page six. Articles range between important local news items, to more personal stories about residents of the area; the Mail is printed and published by Furness Newspapers Ltd. a subsidiary of Carlisle-based media company CN Group Ltd.

The current circulation is within South Cumbria. Market penetration is at its highest in its core area of Barrow and Dalton, at 10 per cent of households and at its lowest in Ambleside. James Higgins assistant editor of The Bolton News, edited the paper from July 2014 to March 2018 and having spent the previous four years as deputy editor. During his tenure, the newspaper won the coveted Newspaper of the Year award at the Society of Editors' UK press Awards, O2 North West Media Awards Scoop of the Year for an exposé on animal deaths at the South Lakes Safari Zoo, Front Page of the Year for what became an iconic edition of the newspaper, he left the role in 2018 following Newsquest's acquisition of the CN Group. He was preceded by Jonathan Lee, who joined in 2008. Lee was editor of the Shetland Times, but left after a vote of no confidence from colleagues. Previous editors of The Mail include Steve Brauner, Sara Hadwin, Donald Martin, Keith Sutton, Tom Welsh and Joe Gorman. Former Lancashire Telegraph news editor Vanessa Sims is the editor of the paper.

The Mail

The Trees and the Bramble

The Trees and the Bramble is a composite title which covers a number of fables of similar tendency deriving from a Western Asian literary tradition of debate poems between two contenders. Other related plant fables include The Fir and the Bramble. One of Aesop's Fables, numbered 213 in the Perry Index, concerns a pomegranate and an apple tree debating, the most beautiful. In the midst of it, a bramble bush in a nearby hedge appeals to them,'Dear friends, let us put a stop to our quarrel.' The account is brief and leads to the humorous moral that'when there is a dispute among sophisticated people riff-raff try to act important'. The story was for a long time limited to Greek sources and, though versions of a similar debate between other trees gained some currency in the 16th and 17th centuries, it soon fell out of favour again. In 1564 the Neo-Latin poet Hieronymus Osius versified the story under the title "The Apple and the Pear", with the moral that the humble become overweening when the great fall out.

Charles Hoole's influential Aesop's fables English and Latin included it under the title "Of the Peach-tree and the Apple-tree" with the moral that "meaner men do oftentimes settle the controversies of their betters", is followed more or less by Roger L'Estrange, who concludes that "Every thing would be thought greater in the World than it is". An idea of what such a debate would have been like is gained from a related poem of 116 lines by the Alexandrian poet Callimachus, given the separate number of 439 in the Perry Index. There a laurel and an olive tree are in dispute concerning their relative importance and when a bramble attempts to bring peace it is rebuked by the furious laurel, it has been observed that the poem is in the tradition of poetical disputes of Sumerian origin that spread throughout the Near East. In the oldest form of these, the two in debate call for a judgment on, superior from a presiding god. An echo of that tradition, in which the trees instance their chief useful characteristics, is found in the earliest evidence of a fable among Jews occurring in the Hebrew Bible.

The story is told to illustrate the folly of electing a ruler rather than relying on non-hereditary'judges'. When the trees decide to seek a king, they offer the throne to the fig and the vine. Only the bramble accepts, makes threats of what will happen to those that do not accept him; the story began to be included in European fable collections in the Middle Ages. It appears among Giovanni Maria Verdizotti's Cento favole morali and Robert Dodsley placed it at the start of his Select fables of Esop and other fabulists with the comment at the end that ‘the most worthless persons are the most presumptuous’. Dating from the time of Aesop in about 500 BCE, what appears to be an excerpt of an actual West Asian literary debate between a bramble and a pomegranate is inserted in the Aramaic story of Ahiqar, only discovered at the start of the last century. There the bramble reproaches the pomegranate for the thorns that hinder people reaching its fruit in a display of pot calling the kettle black, but a commentator on the text remarks that its context in the midst of a discussion of the distinction between the bad and the just man gives it a new meaning.

The pomegranate, bearing the fruits of righteousness, arms itself against those who would misuse them, for'a man knows not what is in his fellow's heart. So when a good man sees a wicked man, let him not join with him on a journey or be a neighbour to him - a good man with a bad man; the bramble sent to the pomegranate tree saying, “What good is the multitude of thy thorns to him that toucheth thy fruit?" The pomegranate tree answered and said to the bramble, "Thou art all thorns to him that toucheth thee." All perish that assault the righteous man.' Illustrations from books