Iran, known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars and thinkers.
During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris and Lurs.
Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
Romanization, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, There are many consistent or standardized romanization systems. They can be classified by their characteristics, source, or donor language – A system may be tailored to romanize text from a particular language, or a series of languages, or for any language in a particular writing system. A language-specific system typically preserves language features like pronunciation, while the one may be better for cataloguing international texts. Target, or receiver language – Most systems are intended for an audience that speaks or reads a particular language and this affects the ease of creation, digital storage and transmission and reading of the romanized text. Reversibility – Whether or not the original can be restored from the converted text, some reversible systems allow for an irreversible simplified version.
Most romanizations are intended to enable the reader who is unfamiliar with the original script to pronounce the source language reasonably accurately. Such romanizations follow the principle of phonemic transcription and attempt to render the significant sounds of the original as faithfully as possible in the target language, the popular Hepburn romanization of Japanese is an example of a transcriptive romanization designed for English speakers. The International Phonetic Alphabet is the most common system of phonetic transcription, for most language pairs, building a usable romanization involves tradeoffs between the two extremes. In modern times the chain of transcription is usually spoken foreign language, written language, written native language. Reducing the number of processes, i. e. removing one or both steps of writing, usually leads to more accurate oral articulations. In general, outside a limited audience of scholars romanizations tend to lean more towards transcription, Romanization standards include the following, Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, Adopted by the International Convention of Orientalist Scholars in Rome.
It is the basis for the very influential Hans Wehr dictionary, qalam, A system that focuses upon preserving the spelling, rather than the pronunciation, and uses mixed case ISO 233-2, Simplified transliteration. Buckwalter transliteration, Developed at Xerox by Tim Buckwalter, doesnt require unusual diacritics ALA-LC Arabic chat alphabet There are romanization systems for both Modern and Ancient Greek. ALA-LC Beta Code Greeklish ISO843 The Hebrew alphabet is romanized using several standards, ANSI Z39.25 UNGEGN ISO259, ALA-LC The Brahmic family of abugidas is used for languages of the Indian subcontinent and south-east Asia. There is a tradition in the west to study Sanskrit. Various transliteration conventions have been used for Indic scripts since the time of Sir William Jones, ISO15919, A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO15919 standard. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants, see Transliteration of Indic scripts, how to use ISO15919
Torbat-e Heydarieh County
Torbat-e Heydarieh County is a county in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Torbat-e Heydarieh, at the 2006 census, its population was 261,917, in 67,735 families, excluding such portions, the population was 195,711 in 51,917 families. The county is subdivided into four districts, the Central District, Bayg District, Kadkan District, the county has four cities, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Bayg and Robat-e Sang. Torbat - Heydarieh city is 1005 km. far from Tehran and is located in a region on the skirt of mountain having different weathers in different areas. In the past, this city was called Zaveh, According to a narrative in 13th century AD, sheikh Haydar -famous Gnostic- was living there. The change of its name from Zaveh to Torbat-Haydarieh is related to the life and tomb of this great Gnostic
Razavi Khorasan Province
Razavi Khorasan Province is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the center and capital of the province, Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan Province in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 with Mashhad as the location of the regions secretariat, the Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of the Arabs, Kurds, ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among cities of the province, was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran. The Parthian empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years, during the Sassanid dynasty the province was governed by a Spahbod called Padgošban and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province. Khorasan was divided into four parts during the Muslim conquest of Persia, each section being named after the four largest cities, Merv, Herat, in the year 651, the army of Islamic Arabs invaded Khorasan.
The territory remained in the hands of the Abbasid clan until 820, followed by the rule of the Iranian Taherid clan in the year 896, mahmud of Ghazni conquered Khorasan in 994, and Tuğrul in the year 1037. In 1507, Khorasan was occupied by Uzbek tribes, after the death of Nader Shah in 1747, it was occupied by the Afghan Durrani Empire centered in Qandahar. During the Qajar period, Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company, Herat was thus separated from Persia, and Nasser-al-Din Shah was unable to defeat the British to take back Herat. Finally, the Paris Treaty was concluded in 1903 and Iran was compelled not to challenge the British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan. Finally Khorasan was divided into two parts, the part, which was the most densely populated region came under British occupation. Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on September 29,2004, the provinces approved by the parliament of Iran and the Council of Guardians were Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan.
The Metropolitan Museum of Arts publications document its own Nishapur ceramics from those excavations, for half a century after 1945 the site of Nishapur was ransacked to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art. Nowadays, the Kohandezh hills reveal the remains from those excavations, Shadiyakh was an important palace in old Nishapur up to the 7th century, and became more important and populated after that. The palace was completely ruined in the 13th century and it was the home of notables such as Farid al-Din Attar, whose tomb is found in Shadiyakh. The major ethnic group in this region are Persians, there are sizeable communities such as Kurds, Khorasani Turks. There is an Afghan community in the due to the influx of Afghan refugees coming from Afghanistan in recent years
Torbat-e Heydarieh is a city in and capital of Torbat-e Heydarieh County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 119,390, the name Torbat in Persian means Burial place, thus the name of the city means Burial Place of Heydar named after Qotboddin Heydar a Sufi mystic whose tomb lies in the heart of the city. It is located in the center of Khorasan province in Iran and this city is famous for its Zafaran lands. It has the first rank in the world for producing Saffron or Zafaran in Persian
Provinces of Iran
Iran is subdivided into thirty one provinces, each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital of that province. The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-General, who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior subject to approval of the cabinet, from 1960 to 1981 the governorates were raised to provincial status one by one
Counties of Iran
The counties of Iran, called shahrestan, are administrative divisions of larger provinces. The word shahrestan comes from the Persian words shahr and stān, therefore, is a near equivalent of shahrestan. Iranian counties are divided into one or more bakhsh, or districts, a typical county includes both cities and rural agglomerations, which are groupings of adjacent villages. One city within the county serves as the capital of that county, in 2005, Iran had 324 shahrestans. To better understand these subdivisions, the table is useful. Assume that province P is divided into two counties, A and B, county A has 3 districts, Central, X, and Y. The Central district is the district that contains City M, the capital of the county, each district contains one or more cities and/or one or more RAs. The minimal county consists of one city as the only district, named Central. The county B in the table is of such type