Openclipart is a community and collection of vector clip art, free content dedicated to the public domain. The project's slogan is, "Openclipart is the largest community of artists making the best free original clipart for you to use for any reason." The Openclipart library, sometimes abbreviated as OCAL, was started in early 2004 by Jon Phillips and Bryce Harrington, developers for vector graphics software Sodipodi, its fork, Inkscape. Openclipart grew out of a project started by Christian Schaller, who on October 26, 2003 issued a challenge on the Gnome Desktop website for users of Sodipodi to create a collection of flags in SVG format; the flag project progressed well, resulting in a collection of over 90 flags made publicly available in SVG format, which lead to a broadening of the project goals to include generic clipart. The project became known as Openclipart by April 2004, with the stated aim of all contributed images being dedicated to the public domain. In the early stages of the Openclipart project, a website was created that lacked thumbnails and was hard to browse.
To help propagate the images in the library, downloadable Openclipart packages were released. These packages were available directly from the Openclipart website, or as an add-on for various Linux distributions including Fedora, or an NSIS installer for Windows; each package included most of the clipart to date and were manually sorted into categories, a laborious process. The Openclipart package version 0.20 was released in 2010. The Openclipart packages received only a few more incremental updates during 2010 for seasonal clipart. An overhauled Openclipart 2.0 website went live as a beta in February 2010 with a full release in March 2010. The site introduced a change from the old ccHost software to the new AGPL-based Aiki Framework, a content management system made for Openclipart 2.0. The new site allowed anyone to browse and add to the Openclipart collection and image thumbnails and improved search functions made the Openclipart library more accessible; these features contributed to increased use of the site, soon receiving over 5,000 unique visitors and 50,000 page views daily, soon made the old packages redundant.
This release culminated the work of Jon Phillips, Andy Fitzsimon, Bassel Safadi, Ronaldo Barbachano, Brad Phillips who assisted in the launch of the new system. The 3.0 website release incorporated a "favoriting" feature, allowing members to make note of their favorite clip art, an image-editing option that makes the remixing of images easier. On April 15, 2013, Openclipart launched a new logo and updated website design using a "scissors" logo. On March 12, 2014, Openclipart announced that Inkpad, an open source drawing app for Apple iPad, released library integration so that the entire collection is available to artists; as of late January 2017, Openclipart displays the works of over 5,800 artists who have contributed over 118,000 SVG graphics. The entire collection is available for free to download. All images are dedicated to the public domain by their contributors and are stored in Scalable Vector Graphics format, with thumbnails in Portable Network Graphics format; as of September 4, 2018, the Open Clip Art library displays over 147,000 artworks from over 5,178 artists over a 6-year period.
Inkpad for iPad, with Openclipart Integration. The vector graphics editor Inkscape can import vector graphics online from Openclipart to your current workspace. (Note that for Inkscape on Windows you need the latest build Microsoft Office app Google Docs Add-on LibreOffice extension iOS Clipart, iOS PosterMaker Clipart Search, Openclipart for Android Clipart plugin for WordPress Clipart plugin for Moodle Linux distributionsSome Linux distributions, including Mandriva and Ubuntu, include many of the Openclipart collection releases, packaged as SVG, PNG or OpenDocument format files. These distributions are based on the 2005 pre-ccHost release, since regular releases stopped after the switch to ccHost software. Openclipart 0.19, the first version released after switch, was released in March 2009. With the recent release of version 2.0 and updated packages, distributions have bugs filed in their respective bug trackers to begin packaging Openclipart once more. Openclipart was included on the cover discs in Linux Format issues 123 and 132 as a package of browseable SVG's from the Openclipart collection.
Libre Graphics Meeting Fontlibrary Official website
In computing, an icon is a pictogram or ideogram displayed on a computer screen in order to help the user navigate a computer system. The icon itself is a comprehensible symbol of a software tool, function, or a data file, accessible on the system and is more like a traffic sign than a detailed illustration of the actual entity it represents, it can file shortcut to access the program or data. The user can activate an icon using a mouse, finger, or voice commands, their placement on the screen in relation to other icons, may provide further information to the user about their usage. In activating an icon, the user can move directly into and out of the identified function without knowing anything further about the location or requirements of the file or code. Icons as parts of the graphical user interface of the computer system, in conjunction with windows, menus and a pointing device, belong to the much larger topic of the history of the graphical user interface that has supplanted the text-based interface for casual use.
The computing definition of "icon" can include three distinct semiotical elements: Icon, which resembles its referent. This category includes stylized drawings of objects from the office environment or from other professional areas such as printers, file cabinets and folders. Index, associated with its referent; this category includes stylized drawing used to refer to an actions printer" and "print", "scissors" and "cut" or "magnifying glass" and "search". Symbol, related to its referent only by convention; this category includes standardized symbols found across many electronic devices, such as the power on/off symbol and the USB icon. The majority of icons are encoded and decoded using Metonymy and Metaphor. An example of metaphorical representation characterizes all the major desktop-based computer systems including desktop that uses an iconic representation of objects from the 1980s office environment to transpose attributes from a familiar context/object to an unfamiliar one. Metonymy is in itself a subset of metaphors that use one entity to point to another related to it such as using a fluorescent bulb instead of a filament one to represent power saving settings.
Synecdoche is considered as a special case of metonymy, in the usual sense of the part standing for the whole such as a single component for the entire system, speaker driver for the entire audio system settings. Additionally, a group of icons can be categorised as brand icons, used to identify commercial software programs and are related to the brand identity of a company or software; these commercial icons serve as functional links on the system to the program or data files created by a specific software provider. Although icons are depicted in graphical user interfaces, icons are sometimes rendered in a TUI using special characters such as MouseText or PETSCII; the design of all computer icons is constricted by the limitations of the device display. They are limited in size, with the standard size about a thumbnail for both desktop computer systems and mobile devices, they are scalable, as they are displayed in different positions in the software, a single icon file such as the Apple Icon Image format can include multiple versions of the same icon optimized to work at a different size, in colour or grayscale as well as on dark and bright backgrounds.
The colors used, of both the image and the icon background, should stand out on different system backgrounds and among each other. The detailing of the icon image needs to be simple, remaining recognizable in varying graphical resolutions and screen sizes. Computer icons are by definition language-independent but not culturally independent; these visual parameters place rigid limits on the design of icons requiring the skills of a graphic artist in their development. Because of their condensed size and versatility, computer icons have become a mainstay of user interaction with electronic media. Icons provide rapid entry into the system functionality. On most systems, users can create and delete, select, click or double-click standard computer icons and drag them to new positions on the screen to create a customized user environment. A series of recurring computer icons are taken from the broader field of standardized symbols used across a wide range of electrical equipment. Examples of these are the power symbol and the USB icon, which are found on a wide variety of electronic devices.
The standardization of electronic icons is an important safety-feature on all types of electronics, enabling a user to more navigate an unfamiliar system. As a subset of electronic devices, computer systems and mobile devices use many of the same icons. On the hardware, these icons identify the functionality of specific plugs. In the software, they provide a link into the customizable settings. System warning icons belong to the broader area of ISO standard warning signs; these warning icons, first designed to regulate automobile traffic in the early 1900s, have become standardized and understood by users without necessity of further verbal explanations. In designing software operating systems, different companies have incorporated and defined these standard symbols as part of their graphical user interface. For example, the Microsoft MSDN defines the standard icon use of error, warning and question mark icons as part of their software development guidelines. Different organizations ar
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Everaldo Coelho is a Brazilian graphic designer and illustrator. He specializes in iconography and user interface design. Everaldo's works include general illustrations, children's books, corporate design and many other areas, he is known in Linux circles for his "Crystal" icon theme. Everaldo worked for Conectiva and LindowsOS, as a freelance artist for SUSE, KDE, Mozilla and many other Linux-related projects, he has worked on various projects for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows XP platforms. In 2004, he joined Lindows.com as a full-time Lindows.com employee. He is the head of UX at Movile and consultant at Yellowicon Studio. Everaldo started out as an illustrator, he has illustrated many children's books, school books, magazines. In 1998, when Everaldo purchased his first PC, he saw a Mac in the computers store. Not understanding much about operating systems at the time, he searched the Internet for an OS to install on his new machine, coming across Linux, he installed Linux and WindowMaker, began making themes.
In 2000 he made a few icons for Conectiva as a freelancer. He was hired to work at their creation department, he designed Conectiva Linux's interface. His first KDE job was a splash screen, done in free time. Helio Castro sent it to KDE-Look, introducing KDE community to each other. In the beginning he used CorelDRAW 9, running in Linux and GIMP, he moved to Adobe Illustrator. Everaldo's signature style is the distinctive "crystal" look consisting in icons that appear to be made of reflective surfaces; the Crystal Icons theme that he created for KDE has been used in many different applications and websites. Crystal made a large impact on KDE and boosted the mindshare of SVG icons on the desktop. Coelho would create the Crystal Clear icon set, where the icons appear to have a certain transparent quality; when Everaldo started to work on Conectiva Linux 8, his intention was to create customized icons. Conectiva wanted to attract both Windows Mac OS X users; this inspired him to focus on an intermediate concept of icons, "between realism of Mac OS X and cartoon colored style of XP".
The result was the Crystal Icon set. Before 2001, the default icon theme for KDE was Torsten Rahn's HiColor. In 2001, Frank Karlitschek came up with the website "KDE-Look", which introduced Rahn to Everaldo's Crystal, he joined Everaldo's work on Crystal. Crystal SVG became the default icon theme in KDE 3.1. Official website Yellowicon Studios Crystal icons
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
KDE is an international free software community developing Free and Open Source software. As a central development hub, it provides tools and resources that allow collaborative work on this kind of software. Well-known products include the Plasma Desktop, KDE Frameworks and a range of cross-platform applications like Krita or digikam designed to run on Unix and Unix-like desktops, Microsoft Windows and Android. Being one of KDE's most recognized projects, the Plasma Desktop is the official / default desktop environment on many Linux distributions, such as openSUSE, Mageia, OpenMandriva, Kubuntu, KaOS and PCLinuxOS; the KDE community and its work can be measured in the following figures: KDE is one of the largest active Free Software communities. More than 2500 contributors participate in developing KDE software. About 20 new developers contribute their first code each month. KDE software consists of over 6 million lines of code. KDE software has been translated into over 108 languages. KDE software is available on more than 114 official FTP mirrors in over 34 countries.
A read-only mirror of all repositories can be found on Github. There are many free software projects maintained by the KDE community; the project known as KDE or KDE SC nowadays consists of three parts: KDE Plasma, a platform UI that provides the base for different workspaces like Plasma Desktop or Plasma Mobile KDE Frameworks, a collection of more than 70 free-to-use libraries built on top of Qt KDE Applications KDE Plasma is a user interface technology that can be adjusted to run on various form factors like desktops, netbooks and smartphones or embedded devices. The brand Plasma for the graphical workspaces has been introduced from KDE SC 4.4 onwards. During the fourth series there have been two additional workspaces besides the Plasma 4 Desktop called Plasma Netbook and Plasma Active; the latest KDE Plasma 5 features the following workspaces: Plasma Desktop for any mouse or keyboard driven computing devices like desktops or laptops Plasma Mobile for smartphones Plasma Minishell for embedded and touch-enabled devices, like IoT or automotive Plasma Media Center for TVs and set-top boxes KDE Frameworks provide more than 70 free and open-source libraries built on top of Qt.
Starting with Qt 5, this platform was transformed into a set of modules, now referred to as KDE Frameworks. These modules include: Solid, Phonon, etc. and are licensed either under the LGPL, BSD license, MIT License or X11 license. KDE Applications is a bundle of software, part of the official KDE Applications release. Like Okular, Dolphin or KDEnlive, they are built on KDE Frameworks and released on a 4 months schedule with the version numbering consisting of YY. MM. Software, not part of the official KDE Applications bundle can be found in the "Extragear" section, they feature their own versioning numbers. There are many standalone applications like KTorrent, Krita or Amarok that are designed to be portable between operating systems and deployable independent of a particular workspace or desktop environment; some brands consist of multiple applications, such as KDE Kontact. KDE neon is a software repository, it aims to provide the users with updated Qt and KDE software, while updating the rest of the OS components from the Ubuntu repositories at the normal pace.
KDE maintains that it is not a "KDE distribution," but rather an up-to-date archive of KDE and Qt packages. There is two "Developer" editions of KDE Neon. WikiToLearn, abbreviated WTL, is one of KDE's newer endeavors, it is a wiki that provides a platform to share open source textbooks. The idea is to have a massive library of textbooks for anyone and everyone to create, its roots lay in University of Milan, where a group of physics majors wanted to share notes—then decided that it was for everyone and not just their internal friend group. They have become an official KDE project with several universities backing it. Like many free/open source projects, developing KDE software is a volunteer effort, although various companies, such as Novell, Nokia, or Blue Systems employ or employed developers to work on various parts of the project. Since a large number of individuals contribute to KDE in various ways (e.g. code
In computing, a theme is a preset package containing graphical appearance details. A theme comprises a set of shapes and colors for the graphical control elements, the window decoration and the window. Themes are used to customize the look and feel of a piece of computer software or of an operating system. Themes are used to change the look and feel of a wide range of things at once, which makes them much less granular than allowing the user to set each option individually. For example, you might want the window-borders from a particular theme, but installing it would alter your desktop background. One method for dealing with this is to allow the user to select which parts of the theme they want to load. Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows supported themes since Windows 98; this operating system and its successor, Windows ME, came with themes that customized desktop backgrounds, user interface colors, Windows sounds and mouse cursors. A separate application package called Plus! for Windows 95 added the same features to Windows 95.
Windows XP expanded Windows theme support by adding Windows XP visual styles and allowing each theme to specify one. This feature was carried over to Windows Vista, which added Windows Aero, but was removed again with Windows 8. Third-party apps such as WindowBlinds, TuneUp Utilities and Desktop Architect enhance theme capabilities. Support for custom themes can be added by patching system files, which Microsoft does not endorse. Linux Linux operating systems may support themes depending on their window managers and desktop environments. IceWM uses themes to customize its taskbar, window borders, time format. WindowMaker can store colors for icons and window-borders in a theme, but this is independent of the wallpaper settings. GNOME and KDE use two independent sets of themes: one to alter the appearance of user interface elements, another theme to customize the appearance of windows. MacOS MacOS does not natively support themes. Third-party apps such as Kaleidoscope and ShapeShifter may add this.
Android Although Android OS does not support themes, the forked CyanogenMod OS has native theme support. The CM theme engine is in turn used on many other forked Android ROMs like Paranoid. Firefox and Google supported a form of theme. Firefox supports themes either through complete themes. While lightweight themes are background images for toolbar Firefox toolbars, complete themes have more power to modify Firefox's appearance. Google Chrome version 3.0 or allows themes to alter the appearance of the browser. Internet Explorer 5 and its immediate successor allowed the background picture of their toolbars to be customized. Skin Computer wallpaper Look and feel User interface engineering Industrial design Aqua