Released in late 1997 by Nvidia, the RIVA 128, or "NV3", was one of the first consumer graphics processing units to integrate 3D acceleration in addition to traditional 2D and video acceleration. Its name is an acronym for Real-time Interactive Animation accelerator. Following the less successful "NV1" accelerator, RIVA 128 was the first product to gain Nvidia widespread recognition, it was a major change in technological direction for Nvidia. Nvidia's "NV1" chip had been designed for a fundamentally different type of rendering technology, called quadratic texture mapping, a technique not supported by Direct3D; the RIVA 128 was instead designed to accelerate Direct3D to the utmost extent possible. It was built to render within OpenGL API specifications; the graphics accelerator consists of 3.5 million transistors built on a 350 nm fabrication process and is clocked at 100 MHz. RIVA 128 has a single pixel pipeline capable of 1 pixel per clock, it is specified to output pixels at a rate of 100 million per second and 25-pixel triangles at 1.5 million per second.
There is 12 KiB of on-chip memory used for vertex caches. The chip was limited to a 16-bit pixel format when performing a 16-bit Z-buffer; the 2D accelerator engine within RIVA 128 is 128 bits wide and operates at 100 MHz. In this "fast and wide" configuration, as Nvidia referred to it, RIVA 128 performed admirably for GUI acceleration compared to competitors. A 32-bit hardware VESA-compliant SVGA/VGA core was implemented as well. Video acceleration aboard the chip is optimized for MPEG-2 but lacks full acceleration of that standard. Final picture output is routed through an integrated 206 MHz RAMDAC. RIVA 128 had the advantage of being a combination 2D/3D graphics chip, unlike Voodoo Graphics; this meant that the computer did not require a separate 2D card for output outside of 3D applications. It allowed 3D rendering within a window; the ability to build a system with just one graphics card, still have it be feature-complete for the time, made RIVA 128 a lower-cost high-performance solution. Nvidia equipped RIVA 128 with 4 MiB of SGRAM, a new memory technology for the time, clocked at 100 MHz and connected to the graphics processor via a 128-bit memory bus.
This provides memory bandwidth of 1.60 gigabytes per second. The memory was used in a unified memory architecture that shared the whole RAM pool with both framebuffer and texture storage; the main benefit of this, over a split design such as that on Voodoo Graphics and Voodoo², was support for 3D resolutions of 800×600 and 960×720, higher than Voodoo's 640×480. RIVA 128 was one of the early AGP 2X parts, giving it some more marketing headroom by being on the forefront of interface technology; the graphics processor was built around Intel's AGP specification targeting the Intel 440LX chipset for the Pentium II. Nvidia designed the RIVA 128 with a maximum memory capacity of 4 MiB because, at the time, this was the cost-optimal approach for a consumer 3D accelerator; this was the case because of the chip's capability to store textures in off-screen system RAM in both PCI or AGP configurations. In early 1998, Nvidia released a refreshed version called RIVA 128 ZX; this refreshed design of NV3 increased memory support to 8 MiB and increased RAMDAC frequency to 250 MHz.
These additions allowed RIVA 128 ZX to refresh rates. The next major chip from Nvidia would be the RIVA TNT. At the time of RIVA 128's release, 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics had established itself as the 3D hardware benchmark against which all newcomers were compared. Voodoo was the first 3D game accelerator to offer exceptional performance and quality in emerging PC 3D gaming. RIVA 128 was scorned for its lower quality rendering errors. With initial drivers, RIVA 128 used per-polygon mipmapping instead of the much higher-quality, but more demanding, per-pixel variety; this caused the different texture detail levels to "pop" into place as the player moved through a game and approached each polygon, instead of allowing a seamless, gradual per-pixel transition. Nvidia released drivers that allowed a per-pixel mode. Another issue with the card's texturing was its use of automated mipmap generation. While this improves visual quality and performance in games without mipmaps, it caused unforeseen problems because it forced games to render in a way that they were not programmed for.
NV3's bilinear filtering was "sharper" than that of 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics. But, while it didn't blur textures as much as Voodoo, it did instead add some light noise to textures, because of a lower-fidelity filtering algorithm. There were problems with noticeable seams between polygons. While initial drivers did present these image-quality problems drivers offered image quality arguably matching that of Voodoo Graphics. In addition, because RIVA 128 can render at resolutions higher than 640×480, the card can offer quality superior to that of Voodoo Graphics, as shown in the above Quake II screenshot; the final drivers released for RIVA 128 support per-pixel mipmapping, full-scene anti-aliasing, a number of options to fine-tune features in order to optimize quality and performance. Drivers were, for a significant portion of the card's life. Not only were the aforementioned Direct3D issues apparent, but the card lacked good OpenGL support. With RIVA 128, Nvidia began their quest for top-quality OpenGL support resulting in the board being a capable OpenGL performer.
One major disadvantage for Nvidia was that many games during RIVA 128's lifetime used 3Dfx's proprietary Glide API. Only 3Dfx cards could use 3Dfx's Glide API. Like the competing ATI Rage Pro, RIVA 128 was never able
GeForce 3 series
The GeForce 3 is the third generation of NVIDIA's GeForce graphics processing units. Introduced in February 2001, it advanced the GeForce architecture by adding programmable pixel and vertex shaders, multisample anti-aliasing and improved the overall efficiency of the rendering process; the GeForce 3 was unveiled during the 2001 Macworld conference and powered realtime demos of Pixar's Junior Lamp and id Software's Doom 3. Apple would announce launch rights for its new line of computers; the GeForce 3 family comprises 3 consumer models: the GeForce 3, the GeForce 3 Ti200, the GeForce 3 Ti500. A separate professional version, with a feature-set tailored for computer aided design, was sold as the Quadro DCC. A derivative of the GeForce 3, known as the NV2A, is used in the Microsoft Xbox game console. Introduced three months after NVIDIA acquired 3dfx and marketed as the nFinite FX Engine, the GeForce 3 was the first Microsoft Direct3D 8.0 compliant 3D-card. Its programmable shader architecture enabled applications to execute custom visual effects programs in Microsoft Shader language 1.1.
It is believed that the fixed-function T&L hardware from GeForce 2 was still included on the chip for use with Direct3D 7.0 applications, as the single vertex shader was not fast enough to emulate it yet. With respect to pure pixel and texel throughput, the GeForce 3 has four pixel pipelines which each can sample two textures per clock; this is the same configuration excluding the slower GeForce 2 MX line. To take better advantage of available memory performance, the GeForce 3 has a memory subsystem dubbed Lightspeed Memory Architecture; this is composed of several mechanisms that reduce overdraw, conserve memory bandwidth by compressing the z-buffer and better manage interaction with the DRAM. Other architectural changes include EMBM support and improvements to anti-aliasing functionality. Previous GeForce chips could perform only super-sampled anti-aliasing, a demanding process that renders the image at a large size internally and scales it down to the end output resolution. GeForce 3 adds multi-sampling anti-aliasing and Quincunx anti-aliasing methods, both of which perform better than super-sampling anti-aliasing at the expense of quality.
With multi-sampling, the render output units super-sample only the Z buffers and stencil buffers, using that information get greater geometry detail needed to determine if a pixel covers more than one polygonal object. This saves the pixel/fragment shader from having to render multiple fragments for pixels where the same object covers all of the same sub-pixels in a pixel; this method fails with texture maps. Quincunx anti-aliasing is a blur filter that shifts the rendered image a half-pixel up and a half-pixel left in order to create sub-pixels which are averaged together in a diagonal cross pattern, destroying both jagged edges but some overall image detail; the GeForce 3's texture sampling units were upgraded to support 8-tap anisotropic filtering, compared to the previous limit of 2-tap with GeForce 2. With 8-tap anisotropic filtering enabled, distant textures can be noticeably sharper; the GeForce 3 GPU has the same theoretical pixel and texel throughput per clock as the GeForce 2. GeForce 2 Ultra is clocked 25% faster than the original GeForce 3 and 43% faster than the Ti200.
The GeForce 2 Ultra has considerable raw memory bandwidth available to it, only matched by the GeForce 3 Ti500. However, when comparing anti-aliasing performance the GeForce 3 is superior because of its MSAA support and memory bandwidth/fillrate management efficiency; when comparing the shading capabilities to the Radeon 8500, reviewers noted superior precision with the ATi card. NVIDIA refreshed the lineup in October 2001 with the release of the GeForce 3 Ti200 and Ti500; this coincided with ATI's releases of the Radeon 8500 and Radeon 7500. The Ti500 has higher core and memory clocks than the original GeForce 3, matches the Radeon 8500; the Ti200 was the slowest, lowest-priced GeForce3 release. It is clocked lower yet it surpasses the Radeon 7500 in speed and feature set besides dual-monitor implementation; the original GeForce3 was only released in 64 MiB configurations, while the Ti200 and Ti500 were released as 128 MiB versions. Nvidia has ceased driver support for GeForce 3 series; the GeForce 4 Series, introduced in April 2002, was a revision of the GeForce 3 architecture.
The budget variant, dubbed the GeForce 4 MX, was closer in terms of design to the GeForce 2. Windows 9x & Windows Me: 81.98 released on December 21, 2005. Windows 2000, 32-bit Windows XP & Media Center Edition: 93.71 released on November 2, 2006. The Windows 2000/XP drivers may be installed on versions of Windows, such as Windows 7, they do not support the "Aero"-effects of Windows 7, however. Windows 95/98/Me Driver ArchiveWindows XP/2000 Driver Archive Graphics card Graphics processing unit Nvidia: GeForce3 - The Infinite Effects GPU ForceWare 81.98 drivers, Final Windows 9x/ME driver release ForceWare 93.71 drivers, Final Windows XP driver release Anandtech: Nvidia GeForce3 Anandtech: Nvidia's Fall Product Line: GeForce3 Titanium
GitHub is a web-based hosting service for version control using Git. It is used for computer code, it offers all of the distributed version control and source code management functionality of Git as well as adding its own features. It provides access control and several collaboration features such as bug tracking, feature requests, task management, wikis for every project. GitHub offers plans for enterprise, team and free accounts which are used to host open-source software projects; as of January 2019, GitHub offers unlimited private repositories to all plans, including free accounts. As of June 2018, GitHub reports having over 28 million users and 57 million repositories, making it the largest host of source code in the world. GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, started in February 2008; the company, GitHub, Inc. is located in San Francisco. On February 24, 2009, GitHub team members announced, in a talk at Yahoo! headquarters, that within the first year of being online, GitHub had accumulated over 46,000 public repositories, 17,000 of which were formed in the previous month alone.
At that time, about 6,200 repositories had been forked at least. On July 5, 2009, GitHub announced. On July 27, 2009, in another talk delivered at Yahoo!, Preston-Werner announced that GitHub had grown to host 90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least once, for a total of 135,000 repositories. On July 25, 2010, GitHub announced. On April 20, 2011, GitHub announced. On June 2, 2011, ReadWriteWeb reported that GitHub had surpassed SourceForge and Google Code in total number of commits for the period of January to May 2011. On July 9, 2012, Peter Levine, general partner at GitHub investor Andreessen Horowitz, stated that GitHub had been growing revenue at 300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way". On January 16, 2013, GitHub announced it had passed the 3 million users mark and was hosting more than 5 million repositories. On December 23, 2013, GitHub announced. In June 2015, GitHub opened an office in Japan, its first office outside of the U. S. On July 29, 2015, GitHub announced it had raised $250 million in funding in a round led by Sequoia Capital.
The round valued the company at $2 billion. In 2016, GitHub was ranked No. 14 on the Forbes Cloud 100 list. On February 28, 2018, GitHub fell victim to the second largest distributed denial-of-service attack in history, with incoming traffic reaching a peak of about 1.35 terabits per second. On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced it had reached an agreement to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion. The purchase closed on October 26, 2018. On June 19, 2018, GitHub expanded its GitHub Education by offering free education bundles to all schools. On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion, the deal closed on Oct. 26, 2018. GitHub will continue to operate independently as a community and business. Under Microsoft, the service will be led by Xamarin's Nat Friedman, reporting to Scott Guthrie, executive vice president of Microsoft Cloud and AI. Current CEO Chris Wanstrath will be retained as a "technical fellow" reporting to Guthrie. Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, Visual Studio Code, has backed other open source projects such as Linux, developed Git Virtual File System—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories.
GitHub, Inc. was a flat organization with no middle managers. Employees can choose to work on projects. However, salaries are set by the chief executive. In 2014, GitHub, Inc. introduced a layer of middle management. GitHub.com was a start-up business, which in its first years provided enough revenue to be funded by its three founders and start taking on employees. In July 2012, four years after the company was founded, Andreessen Horowitz invested $100 million in venture capital. In July 2015 GitHub raised another $250 million of venture capital in a series B round. Investors were Andreessen Horowitz, Thrive Capital and other venture capital funds; as of August 2016, GitHub was making $140 million in Annual Recurring Revenue. GitHub's m
GeForce is a brand of graphics processing units designed by Nvidia. As of the GeForce 20 series, there have been fifteen iterations of the design; the first GeForce products were discrete GPUs designed for add-on graphics boards, intended for the high-margin PC gaming market, diversification of the product line covered all tiers of the PC graphics market, ranging from cost-sensitive GPUs integrated on motherboards, to mainstream add-in retail boards. Most GeForce technology has been introduced into Nvidia's line of embedded application processors, designed for electronic handhelds and mobile handsets. With respect to discrete GPUs, found in add-in graphics-boards, Nvidia's GeForce and AMD's Radeon GPUs are the only remaining competitors in the high-end market. Along with its nearest competitor, the AMD Radeon, the GeForce architecture is moving toward general-purpose graphics processor unit. GPGPU is expected to expand GPU functionality beyond the traditional rasterization of 3D graphics, to turn it into a high-performance computing device able to execute arbitrary programming code in the same way a CPU does, but with different strengths and weaknesses.
The "GeForce" name originated from a contest held by Nvidia in early 1999 called "Name That Chip". The company called out to the public to name the successor to the RIVA TNT2 line of graphics boards. There were over 12,000 entries received and 7 winners received a RIVA TNT2 Ultra graphics card as a reward. Launched on August 31, 1999, the GeForce 256 was the first consumer-level PC graphics chip shipped with hardware transform and shading although 3D games utilizing this feature did not appear until later. Initial GeForce 256 boards shipped with SDR SDRAM memory, boards shipped with faster DDR SDRAM memory. Launched in April 2000, the first GeForce2 was another high-performance graphics chip. Nvidia moved to a twin texture processor per pipeline design, doubling texture fillrate per clock compared to GeForce 256. Nvidia released the GeForce2 MX, which offered performance similar to the GeForce 256 but at a fraction of the cost; the MX was a compelling value in the low/mid-range market segments and was popular with OEM PC manufacturers and users alike.
The GeForce 2 Ultra was the high-end model in this series. Launched in February 2001, the GeForce3 introduced programmable vertex and pixel shaders to the GeForce family and to consumer-level graphics accelerators, it had good overall performance and shader support, making it popular with enthusiasts although it never hit the midrange price point. The NV2A developed for the Microsoft Xbox game console is a derivative of the GeForce 3. Launched in February 2002, the then-high-end GeForce4 Ti was a refinement to the GeForce3; the biggest advancements included enhancements to anti-aliasing capabilities, an improved memory controller, a second vertex shader, a manufacturing process size reduction to increase clock speeds. Another member of the GeForce 4 family, the budget GeForce4 MX, was based on the GeForce2, with the addition of some features from the GeForce4 Ti, it lacked pixel shaders. Most of these models used the AGP 4× interface, but a few began the transition to AGP 8×. Launched in 2003, the GeForce FX was a huge change in architecture compared to its predecessors.
The GPU was designed not only to support the new Shader Model 2 specification but to perform well on older titles. However, initial models like the GeForce FX 5800 Ultra suffered from weak floating point shader performance and excessive heat which required infamously noisy two-slot cooling solutions. Products in this series carry the 5000 model number, as it is the fifth generation of the GeForce, though Nvidia marketed the cards as GeForce FX instead of GeForce 5 to show off "the dawn of cinematic rendering". Launched in April 2004, the GeForce 6 added Shader Model 3.0 support to the GeForce family, while correcting the weak floating point shader performance of its predecessor. It implemented high dynamic range imaging and introduced SLI and PureVideo capability; the seventh generation GeForce was launched in June 2005 and was the last Nvidia video card series that could support the AGP bus. The design was a refined version of GeForce 6, with the major improvements being a widened pipeline and an increase in clock speed.
The GeForce 7 offers new transparency supersampling and transparency multisampling anti-aliasing modes. These new anti-aliasing modes were enabled for the GeForce 6 series as well; the GeForce 7950GT featured the highest performance GPU with an AGP interface in the Nvidia line. This era began the transition to the PCI-Express interface. A 128-bit, 8 ROP variant of the 7950 GT, called the RSX'Reality Synthesizer', is used as the main GPU in the Sony PlayStation 3. Released on November 8, 2006, the eighth-generation GeForce was the first GPU to support Direct3D 10. Manufactured using a 90 nm process and built around the new Tesla microarchitecture, it implemented the unified shader model. Just the 8800GTX model was launched, while the GTS variant was released months into the product line's life, it took nearly six months for mid-range and OEM/mainstream cards to be integrated into the 8 series; the die shrink down to 65 nm and a revision to the G80 design, codenamed G92, were implemented into the 8 series with the 8800GS, 8800GT and 8800GTS-512, first released on October
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Nvidia Corporation, more referred to as Nvidia, is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California. It designs graphics processing units for the gaming and professional markets, as well as system on a chip units for the mobile computing and automotive market, its primary GPU product line, labeled "GeForce", is in direct competition with Advanced Micro Devices' "Radeon" products. Nvidia expanded its presence in the gaming industry with its handheld Shield Portable, Shield Tablet and Shield Android TV. Since 2014, Nvidia has shifted to become a platform company focused on four markets – gaming, professional visualization, data centers and auto. Nvidia is now focused on artificial intelligence. In addition to GPU manufacturing, Nvidia provides parallel processing capabilities to researchers and scientists that allow them to efficiently run high-performance applications, they are deployed in supercomputing sites around the world. More it has moved into the mobile computing market, where it produces Tegra mobile processors for smartphones and tablets as well as vehicle navigation and entertainment systems.
In addition to AMD, its competitors include Intel and Arm. In the early 1990s, the three co-founders hypothesized that the proper direction for the next wave of computing would be accelerated or graphics based, they believed that this model of computing could solve problems that general-purpose computing fundamentally couldn't. They observed that video games were some of the most computationally challenging problems, but would have high sales volume. With a capital of $40,000, the company was born; the company had no name and the co-founders named all their files NV, as in "next version". The need to incorporate the company prompted the co-founders to review all words with those two letters, leading them to "invidia", the Latin word for "envy". Three people co-founded Nvidia in April 1993: Jensen Huang, a Taiwanese American director of CoreWare at LSI Logic and a microprocessor designer at Advanced Micro Devices Chris Malachowsky, an electrical engineer who worked at Sun Microsystems Curtis Priem a senior staff engineer and graphics chip designer at Sun MicrosystemsThe company received $20 million of venture capital funding from Sequoia Capital and others.
The release of the RIVA TNT in 1998 solidified Nvidia's reputation for developing capable graphics adapters. In late 1999, Nvidia released the GeForce 256, most notably introducing on-board transformation and lighting to consumer-level 3D hardware. Running at 120 MHz and featuring four pixel pipelines, it implemented advanced video acceleration, motion compensation and hardware sub-picture alpha blending; the GeForce outperformed existing products by a wide margin. Due to the success of its products, Nvidia won the contract to develop the graphics hardware for Microsoft's Xbox game console, which earned Nvidia a $200 million advance. However, the project took many of its best engineers away from other projects. In the short term this did not matter, the GeForce2 GTS shipped in the summer of 2000. In December 2000, Nvidia reached an agreement to acquire the intellectual assets of its one-time rival 3dfx, a pioneer in consumer 3D graphics technology leading the field from mid 1990s until 2000; the acquisition process was finalized in April 2002.
In July 2002, Nvidia acquired Exluna for an undisclosed sum. Exluna made the personnel were merged into the Cg project. In August 2003, Nvidia acquired MediaQ for US$70 million. On April 22, 2004, Nvidia acquired iReady a provider of high performance TCP/IP and iSCSI offload solutions. In December 2004, it was announced that Nvidia would assist Sony with the design of the graphics processor in the PlayStation 3 game console. On December 14, 2005, Nvidia acquired ULI Electronics, which at the time supplied third-party southbridge parts for chipsets to ATI, Nvidia's competitor. In March 2006, Nvidia acquired Hybrid Graphics. In December 2006, along with its main rival in the graphics industry AMD, received subpoenas from the U. S. Department of Justice regarding possible antitrust violations in the graphics card industry. Forbes named Nvidia its Company of the Year for 2007, citing the accomplishments it made during the said period as well as during the previous five years. On January 5, 2007, Nvidia announced that it had completed the acquisition of Inc..
In February 2008, Nvidia acquired Ageia, developer of the PhysX physics engine and physics processing unit. Nvidia announced. In July 2008, Nvidia took a write-down of $200 million on its first-quarter revenue, after reporting that certain mobile chipsets and GPUs produced by the company had "abnormal failure rates" due to manufacturing defects. Nvidia, did not reveal the affected products. In September 2008, Nvidia became the subject of a class action lawsuit over the defects, claiming that the faulty GPUs had been incorporated into certain laptop models manufactured by Apple Inc. Dell, HP. In September 2010, Nvidia reached a settlement, in which it would reimburse owners of the affected laptops for repairs or, in some cases, replacement. On January 10, 2011, Nvidia signed a six-year, $1.5 billion cross-licensing agreement with Intel, ending all litigation between the two companies. In November 2011, after unveiling it at Mobile World Congress, Nvidia released its Tegra 3 ARM system-on-chip for mobile devices.
Nvidia claimed that the chip featured the