Langelinie is a pier and park in central Copenhagen and home of the statue of The Little Mermaid. The area has for centuries been a destination for excursions. Most cruise ships arriving in Copenhagen berth at Langelinie Pier, for a long time, the stretch was a military area where civilians were not granted unrestricted access. Under a general order from 1819, soldiers were required to throw water in the head and on the breast, eventually a beach promenade and a park for the Bourgeoisie were made but with access only on the payment of a toll to keep the more common people out. Not until an uprising in 1848 did the area become open to everybody. The expansion of the city and the increasing industrialization soon made it clear that the harbour was becoming too small. In a plan from 1862 it was decided to dig out the area to access for the largest ocean-going vessels. A suggestion to make all of Amager into a zone was abolished. The beginning of the work was prompted by Germanys construction of the Kiel Canal that was begun in 1887, in 1894 the work was completed and Copenhagen had got an entirely new harbourfront.
Langelinie became now a pier on the side of that harbour basin. The Langelinie Park stretches from Esplanaden in the south to Langelinie Marina, formally, it includes Kastellet although this site is generally referred to under its own name. The park contains numerous monuments, buildings, a marina, among these are the Gefion Fountain, the Ivar Huitfeldt Column and The Little Mermaid. Langelinie Marina was established in the 1890s in connection with the foundation of the Free Port, Copenhagen rowing clubs have for many years had their base at the marina. Today only B&Ws and DFDS are left after ØKs passed their premises to Langelinie Marinas Boat Huild, the Langelinie Pier has a water depth allowing big ocean-going vessels to tie up. The area has a number of statues and memorials and these include a cast bronze sculpture polar bear with cubs and memorials for MS Jutlandia, Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen. The polar bear has some bullet holes at the head and they were made by a German soldier under the Occupation of Denmark
In Norse mythology, Thor is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, storms, oak trees, the protection of mankind, and hallowing and fertility. The cognate deity in wider Germanic mythology and paganism was known in Old English as Þunor and in Old High German as Donar, into the modern period, Thor continued to be acknowledged in rural folklore throughout Germanic regions. Thor is frequently referred to in place names, the day of the week Thursday bears his name, in Norse mythology, largely recorded in Iceland from traditional material stemming from Scandinavia, numerous tales and information about Thor are provided. With Sif, Thor fathered the goddess Þrúðr, with Járnsaxa, he fathered Magni, with a mother whose name is not recorded, he fathered Móði, and he is the stepfather of the god Ullr. The same sources list Thor as the son of the god Odin and the earth, Jörð. Thor has two servants, Þjálfi and Röskva, rides in a cart or chariot pulled by two goats and Tanngnjóstr, and is ascribed three dwellings.
Thor wields the mountain-crushing hammer, Mjölnir, wears the belt Megingjörð and the iron gloves Járngreipr, Thor has inspired numerous works of art and references to Thor appear in modern popular culture. Like other Germanic deities, veneration of Thor is revived in the period in Heathenry. The name of the god is the origin of the weekday name Thursday, by employing a practice known as interpretatio germanica during the Roman Empire period, the Germanic peoples adopted the Roman weekly calendar, and replaced the names of Roman gods with their own. Latin dies Iovis was converted into Proto-Germanic *Þonares dagaz, from which stems modern English Thursday, beginning in the Viking Age, personal names containing the theonym Thórr are recorded with great frequency. Prior to the Viking Age, no examples are recorded, thórr-based names may have flourished during the Viking Age as a defiant response to attempts at Christianization, similar to the wide scale Viking Age practice of wearing Thors hammer pendants.
They regard it as a duty to offer to him, on fixed days. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind, in this instance, Tacitus refers to the god Odin as Mercury, Thor as Hercules, and the god Týr as Mars, and the identity of the Isis of the Suebi has been debated. In Thors case, the identification with the god Hercules is likely at least in part due to similarities between Thors hammer and Hercules club. In his Annals, Tacitus again refers to the veneration of Hercules by the Germanic peoples, the southern Germanic form of the gods name. According to an account, the Christian missionary Saint Boniface felled an oak tree dedicated to Jove in the 8th century. Around the second half of the 8th century, Old English mentions of a figure named Thunor are recorded, gabriel Turville-Petre saw this as an invented origin for the placename demonstrating loss of memory that Thunor had been a gods name. Adam details that Thor, they reckon, rules the sky, he governs thunder and lightning and storms, fine weather and fertility and that Thor, with his mace, looks like Jupiter
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
Carl Johan Bonnesen
Carl Johan Bonnesen was a Danish sculptor. Carl Johan Bonnesen specialised in depictions of animals and exotic, primitive subjects as seen in the first sculpture he ever exhibited »A Victorious Group of Huns« from 1889. It was soon followed by »A Barbarian«,1891, »The Period of the Huns«,1893, »A Bedouin«,1897, at the age of 22 in 1891 his first sculpture was acquired by the collector Heinrich Hirschsprung and cast in bronze. His most important patron was the brewer Carl Jacobsen, who among other pieces ordered »Thor Driving Across the Arch of the Sky«, Bonnesen was born on 26 May 1868 in Aalborg. He first trained to become a carpenter for two years before moving to Copenhagen where he was admitted to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in 1887, there he studied under Theobald Stein and Christian Carl Peters before graduating in 1889. After completing his education, Bonnesen travelled extensively through the 1890s, from 1894 to 1895 he stayed in Paris where he was in contact with the circle around Stephan Sinding with whom he had more in common than he had with Stein and Peters, his former teachers.
In 1898 he made a journey to Egypt and East Asia, Bonnesen had a large and diverse production of statues and statuettes. These include Adam and Eve at the body of Abel and Two Lions in the Danish National Gallery as well as several statuettes in The Hirschsprung Collection, many of Bonnesens plaster casts have since 1969 been exhibited in Thingbæk Kalkminer near Rebild Bakker
Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the corner of Copenhagen Municipality, and has a mixture of different types of housing. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the — more central and more urban — neighbouring Vesterbro district, the expression west of Valby Hill is in Danish often used as a metonym for the provinces or outside Copenhagen. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner, the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times.
Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Valby and Vigerslev, the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements probably goes back considerably longer. Valby means village/house on the plain, in the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1682, Valby had 13 farms and 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden, at the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish. In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, in the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened. The first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a merchant who was elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace which was constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new residence for King Frederick IV.
The royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village and it is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI, often rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole. Valby became particularly associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen, the trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, one of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark. He was followed by members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station slightly east of where Valby station lies today
The Gefion Fountain is a large fountain on the harbour front in Copenhagen, Denmark. It features a group of animal figures being driven by the Norse goddess Gefjon. It is located in Nordre Toldbod area next to Kastellet and immediately south of Langelinie and it is the largest monument in Copenhagen and used as a wishing well. The fountain was donated to the city of Copenhagen by the Carlsberg Foundation on the occasion of the brewery’s 50-year anniversary. It was originally supposed to be located in the town square outside city hall. It was designed by Danish artist Anders Bundgaard, who sculpted the naturalistic figures 1897-99, the basins and decorations were completed in 1908. The fountain was first activated on July 14,1908, the fountain underwent extensive renovations starting in 1999. The fountain was out of commission for many years, and was re-inaugurated in September 2004, the fountain depicts the mythical story of the creation of the island of Zealand on which Copenhagen is located.
The legend appears in Ragnarsdrápa, a 9th-century Skaldic poem recorded in the 13th century Prose Edda, according to Ynglinga saga, the Swedish king Gylfi promised Gefjun the territory she could plow in a night. She turned her four sons into oxen, and the territory they plowed out of the earth was thrown into the Danish sea between Scania and the island of Fyn. The hole became a lake called Lögrinn and Leginum, Snorri identifies the lake Löginn, as the lake of Old Sigtuna west of Stockholm, i. e. Lake Mälaren, an identification that he returns to in the Saga of Olaf the Holy. The same identification of Löginn/Leginum as Mälaren appears in Ásmundar saga kappabana, where it is the lake by Agnafit, however, was well acquainted with Vänern as he had visited Västergötland in 1219. The Gefion Fountain is seen in the films Jeg elsker en anden m Mor bag rattet, Min søsters børn vælter byen and The Olsen Gangs Big Score
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Vilhelm Klein was a Danish architect who adopted the Historicist approach, frequently emulating the so-called Rosenborg style and the Italian Renaissance style. Born in Copenhagen, he first trained as a stonemason before studying at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where he was awarded the silver medal in 1856. From 1851 to 1856, he worked as a draftsman for Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll who he considered to have been his main instructor. From 1857 to 1862, he worked as a designer for Ferdinand Meldahl who influenced his style. He worked for Johan Daniel Herholdt during the construction of Selchausdal Manor in Kalundborg, Klein was particularly fond of the Rosenborg style based on the Dutch Renaissance trends under Christian IV, crediting Bindesbøll for its prominent place in Danish architecture. From 1866 to 1872, he undertook substantial extensions to Bindesbølls Lægeforeningens boliger social housing development in Copenhagens Østerbro, vilhelm Klein is listed in the Danish Culture Canon together with Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll in connection with the social housing development in Lægeforeningens boliger—Brumleby
Vestre Cemetery (Copenhagen)
Vestre Cemetery is located in a large park setting in the Kongens Enghave district of Copenhagen, Denmark. With its 54 hectares it is the largest cemetery in Denmark, beautifully landscaped, it serves as an important open space, popular for people to take a stroll, and look at the old graves and monuments. It is located southwest of the city center, between the Enghave, Sydhavn, Sjælør and Valby train stations on Copenhagens S-train system, the cemetery is one of five run by Copenhagen municipality. The other cemeteries are Assistens Cemetery, Brønshøj Cemetery, Sundby Cemetery, the cemetery has a Catholic section, and next to that is a Jewish cemetery. Vestre Kirkegård was opened on 2 November 1870 to accommodate an urgent need for adequate burial places for the population of Copenhagen. Assistens Cemetery, till the cemetery of the city, had long been unable to cope with the increasing number of burials. First a burial place for the poor, Vestre Kirkegaard became the burial place during the 1990s.
The cemetery is noted for its scenery, offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, overgrown tombs, tree-lined avenues, ponds. Many graves have distinctive gravestones, sculptures or large mausoleums and are eclectically placed, the cemeterys grounds boast a huge variety of trees with many rare species and is a heaven to birds and small mammals. Almost all the buildings in the grounds have been designed by Hans Jørgen Holm or Holger Jacobsen who succeeded him as resident architect for the Copenhagen Burial Services, Holm designed both the North Chapel and South Chapel as well as an office building the gate at the main entrance. It is unclear who were responsible for the design of the former inspectors house just inside the main entrance, the East Chapel was inaugurated in 1914 to a design by Holger Jacobsen but only remained in use until 1926. The Crossroads Project, designed by Schønher Landskab, is a project centred on the remains of the West Chapel. The complex is intended to serve a dual purpose both relating to the function as a burial place and as an open space and meeting place in the city.
The complex consists of two intersecting axes with the former Southern Chapel in its centre, the chapel was partly demolished, leaving only the central part as an open pavilion-like domed structure. The building is partly overgrown by ivy, the surrounding garden spaces of the two axes, creating a Greek cross, are confined by tall yew hedges and have a grass surface. Embedded in the lawns of the arms are narrow, rust coloured paths made of oxidized iron plates. At the end of each arm is a 9 metre tall rust coloured iron arch. The design of the project is inspired by Bramantes Tempietto in Rome, the latter is characterized by the garden being contained in the two axes of the garden, instead of the axes being the connecting feature of the surrounding gardens as is normally the case
Sluseholmen is an artificial peninsula in the South Harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. It takes its name from Slusen, a lock immediately to the south and it is connected to Teglholmen by the Teglværk Bridge. Sluseholmen used to be dominated by industry, including a Ford car factory. As industry left the area, a plan was conceived to develop Sluseholmen into a canal district and this was the result of co-operation between Sjoerd Soeters, the Port of Copenhagen and the City of Copenhagen. Construction started in 2004, the first residents arrived in 2007, Sluseholmen today is dominated by the Sluseholmen Canal District development of 1,150 apartments, located on artificial islands and separated by dug-out canals. Its design has been inspired by the tower on Langebro. Along the eastern waterfront of the district lies a row of old, brightly-painted wooden sheds. When the canal district was planned, the intention was to relocate the boat club. Ultimately it was decided to spare the boat club and its premises to preserve the atmosphere, create an appealing juxtaposition of old and new.
The boat club has a restaurant open to the public, in late 2011, the third Copenhagen Harbour Bath opened at Sluseholmen. It was designed by Kasper Danielsen Arkitekter, the Teglværksbroen Bridge connecting Sluseholmen to Teglholmen opened in January 2011. The bridge was designed by the Danish architectural firm Hvidt & Mølgaard, Sluseholmen had a reputation for poor public transport serving the area. This was due to the delay in building a bridge to Teglholmen. Since September 2009, Sluseholmen has been served by Route 901/902 of the Copenhagen Harbour Buses