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Nyaya

Nyāya means "rules", "method" or "judgment". It is the name of one of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism; this school's most significant contributions to Indian philosophy was systematic development of the theory of logic and its treatises on epistemology. Nyaya school's epistemology accepts four out of six Pramanas as reliable means of gaining knowledge – Pratyakṣa, Anumāṇa, Upamāṇa and Śabda. In its metaphysics, Nyaya school is closer to Vaisheshika school of Hinduism than others, it holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge. Moksha, is gained through right knowledge; this premise led Nyaya to concern itself with epistemology, the reliable means to gain correct knowledge and to remove wrong notions. False knowledge is not ignorance to Naiyyayikas, it includes delusion. Correct knowledge is discovering and overcoming one's delusions, understanding true nature of soul and reality. Naiyyayika scholars approached philosophy as a form of direct realism, stating that anything that exists is in principle humanly knowable.

To them, correct knowledge and understanding is different from reflexive cognition. An influential collection of texts on logic and reason is the Nyayasutras, attributed to Aksapada Gautama, variously estimated to have been composed between 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE. Nyaya school shares some of its methodology and human suffering foundations with Buddhism. Nyaya is a Sanskrit word which means method, specially a collection of general or universal rules. In some contexts, it means model, plan, legal proceeding, judicial sentence, or judgment. In the theory of logic, Indian texts discussing it, the term refers to an argument consisting of an enthymeme or sometimes for any syllogism. In philosophical context, Nyaya encompasses propriety and method. Nyaya is related to several other concepts and words used in Indian philosophies: Hetu-vidya, Pramana-sastra, Tattva-sastra, Tarka-vidya and Phakkika-sastra; some of these subsume or deploy the tools of Nyaya. The historical development of Nyaya school is unclear, although Nasadiya hymns of Book 10 Chapter 129 of Rigveda recite its spiritual questions in logical propositions.

In early centuries BCE, states Clooney, the early Nyaya scholars began compiling the science of rational, coherent inquiry and pursuit of knowledge. By 2nd century CE, Aksapada Gautama had composed Nyayasutras, a foundational text for Nyaya school, that discusses logic and epistemology; the Nyaya scholars that followed refined it, expanded it, applied it to spiritual questions. While the early Nyaya scholars published little to no analysis on whether supernatural power or God exists, they did apply their insights into reason and reliable means to knowledge to the questions of nature of existence, spirituality and moksha. Nyaya scholars, such as Udayana, examined various arguments on theism and attempted to prove existence of God. Other Nyaya scholars offered arguments to disprove the existence of God; the most important contribution made by the Nyaya school to Hindu thought has been its treatises on epistemology and system of logic that, has been adopted by the majority of the other Indian schools.

The Nyaya metaphysics recognizes sixteen padarthas or categories and includes all six categories of the Vaisheshika in the second one of them, called prameya. These sixteen categories are pramāṇa, prameya, saṁśaya, prayojana, dṛṣṭānta, siddhānta, tarka, nirṇaya, vāda, vitaṇḍā, hetvābhāsa, chala, jāti and nigrahasthāna; the Nyaya school of Hinduism developed and refined many treatises on epistemology that influenced other schools of Hinduism. Nyaya treated it as theory of knowledge, its scholars developed it as Pramana-sastras. Pramana, a Sanskrit word is "means of knowledge", it encompasses one or more reliable and valid means by which human beings gain accurate, true knowledge. The focus of Pramana is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired; the Naiyayikas accepted four valid means of obtaining valid knowledge - perception, inference and word/testimony of reliable sources. The Nyaya scholars, along with those from other schools of Hinduism developed a theory of error, to methodically establish means to identify errors and the process by which errors are made in human pursuit of knowledge.

These include Saṁśaya (समस्या, prob

1. X. 1905

1. X. 1905 known as Piano Sonata 1. X.1905, is a two-movement piano sonata in E-flat minor composed by Leoš Janáček in 1905. It is known as From the Street. Janáček intended the composition to be a tribute to a worker named František Pavlík, who on 1 October 1905 was bayoneted during demonstrations in support for a Czech university in Brno. In the work, Janáček expresses his disapproval of the violent death of the young carpenter, he started to compose it after the incident occurred and finished its composition in January 1906. The première took place with Ludmila Tučková at the piano. Janáček wrote a third movement, a funeral march, which he cut out and burned shortly before the first public performance of the piece in 1906, he was not satisfied with the rest of the composition either and tossed the manuscript of the two remaining movements into the river Vltava. He commented with regret about his impulsive action: "And it floated along on the water that day, like white swans"; the composition remained lost until 1924.

The renewed premiere took place on 23 November 1924 in Prague, under the title 1. X. 1905. Janáček accompanied the work with the following inscription: "The white marble of the steps of the Besední dům in Brno; the ordinary labourer František Pavlík falls, stained with blood. He came to champion higher learning and has been slain by cruel murderers." The first authorized printed edition of the work was published in 1924 by the Hudební matice in Prague. The Dutch composer Theo Verbey made an orchestral version of 1. X.1905, which premiered on 9 May 2008 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, with the Dutch Radio Filharmonisch Orkest conducted by Claus Peter Flor. The two movements in this sonata are: Foreboding – Con moto Death – Adagio Leoš Janáček: Piano Works. Supraphon 1972. SU 3812-2 Leoš Janáček: Piano Works. Deutsche Grammophon 1972. 429 857–2 Leoš Janáček: Complete Piano Works. ArcoDiva. UP 0071–2132 Leoš Janáček: Piano Music Volume 1. Naxos N 8.553586 Leoš Janáček: Sonata 1. X. In the Mist, On an Overgrown Path.

Nonesuch 79041 Leoš Janáček: The Piano Works of Leoš Janáček. Helicon N 1204928 Leoš Janáček: Piano Sonata 1. X.1905, In the Mists, On the Overgrown Path, Series 1. EMI 724356183926 Leoš Janáček: Returning Paths: Solo Piano Works By Janáček and Suk. CAG 820360180828 Leoš Janáček:'Piano Sonata 1. X.1905. SommCD 028 – Recording by Alon Goldstein 1. X. 1905 for orchestra at Universal Edition, arranger: Theo Verbey 1. X. 1905: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project

Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway

Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway or Guangzhu intercity railway is a dedicated, grade-separated regional railway linking Guangzhou South railway station in Panyu and Zhuhai Jinwan Airport in Zhuhai, via Shunde and Jiangmen, in Guangdong province. It is the first line completed in the under construction Pearl River Delta Rapid Transit network; the railway has started operations in January 2011. It will be divided into three parts with a total of 27 stations, its main line between Guangzhou and Zhuhai City, via Shunde and Zhongshan, is 117 km long, with 17 stations and a maximum speed of 200 km/h. The planned extension from Zhuhai City to Zhuhai Airport is 35.3 km long, with 7 stations and a maximum speed of 160 km/h. Its spur line between Zhongshan and Jiangmen is 26 km long, with 6 stations and a maximum speed of 200 km/h; when completed, passengers traveling on the main line between Zhuhai and Guangzhou South will have a choice between a 46-minute non-stop and a 76-minute, 140 km/h all-stop service.

The non-stop service is offered between Zhuhai and Guangzhou South only, travel between Zhuhai and Zhuhai Airport will be cut down to 25 minutes. It takes 50 minutes to travel by auto from Gongbei, Zhuhai to Zhuhai Airport, 1 hour 30 minutes from Gongbei, Zhuhai to Panyu, Guangzhou; the construction of the railway began in 2005 and it was to be completed by 2010 to cope with the opening of the Guangzhou Asian Games, but missed this deadline. After the opening of the Guangzhu Line, Zhongshan will open nine new bus lines to support operations, according to Zhongshan Public Transportation Corporation. By the end of 2010, more than 100 shuttle buses will be put into operation. Due to the confusing usage of the Chinese term "Qinggui" in the original name of this railway, this line was firstly conceived as a Mass Rapid Transit line; as pointed out by the local media Nanfang Daily, this is a mainline Chinese railway, run by the national Chinese Ministry of Railway, using mainline rolling stock CRH1, with a schedule, unlikely to be a MRT line.

The old term "Guangzhu Qingui" is discarded in favor of "Guangzhu Chengji Tielu." in news media. In April 2004, the ongoing Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway traffic's preliminary feasibility study was finished, resulting in a proposed railway alignments, technical standards, project design details. Soon afterwards, the railway project was included on the list of major projects for 2005 in Zhuhai. At the first Pearl River Dela Regional Economic and Trade Cooperation Fair on July 14, 2004, the Ministry of Railways and Guangdong's provincial government signed an agreement, forming the Guangdong Pearl River Delta Intercity Rail Company and giving each party a 50 percent share in the joint venture. Thus, the Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway was born, incorporating on July 29. On March 16, 2005, China's State Council considered the adoption of the "Bohai Sea, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta Intercity Railway Network Plan" during the May 2005 Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway preliminary design review.

The design of the Guangzhou-Zhuhai project was adjusted, a single alignment was preliminarily determined. Substantial adjustments were made to the alignment south of Jiangmen, resulting in the current "Nanlang Alignment"; the "Nanlang Alignment" runs from Cuiheng Village in Zhongshan to Zhuhai along the east side of Yangangwan Avenue, through the Fenghuangshan Tunnel, along Mingzhu Road, Gangchang Road, Changsheng Road before reaching Zhuhai's Xiangzhou District. On December 18, 2005, construction on the Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway commenced. Construction of elevated lines in the form of aerial structures accounts for 92.25% of the alignment, allowing for minimal changes in slope and grade that provides for a smooth train ride throughout the system. On March 25, 2008, the preliminary feasibility study for the Zhuhai—Zhuhai Airport extension line was released; the 35.3 kilometer westward extension from the original terminus at Zhuhai Station passes over several waterways on its way to Sanzao and Zhuhai Airport, including the Qianshan, Maliuzhou and Niwanmen waterways.

Six additional stations will be built, including Wanzai, Lianhua, Hengqin and Zhuhai Airport. A possible seventh station, Hezhou South Station, will be built in the future depending on the realization of local development. Hengqin Station and Sanzao Station are separated by 15.7 kilometers, of which includes 6.97 kilometers passing over Jinhai bridge, the greatest distance between two stations along this line. In addition, provisions for a future connection to the Macau Light Transit System will be made near Hengqin in the form of an underwater spur line linking to Macau Light Rapid Transit's Cotai line. Construction, scheduled to be completed in 2011, will link cities in the Pearl River Delta with Macau by rail; the railway line began operations between Guangzhou South and Zhuhai North Stations on January 7, 2011, while the extension of the line to Gongbei via the Fenghuang Shan Tunnel was postponed. Fares between Guangzhou and Zhuhai North are 44 RMB 1st class; the journey time is 39 minutes.

Express buses are available to link Zhuhai North Station with Xiangzhou and Gongbei, while regular buses 3A &