Gammelholm is a predominantly residential neighbourhood in the city centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is bounded by the Nyhavn canal, Kongens Nytorv, Holmens Kanal, Niels Juels Gade, the new neighbourhood was planned by Ferdinand Meldahl and has been referred to as Meldahls Nine Streets. In the beginning of the 16th century land reclamations annexed the island to Zealand and in 1510, under the reign of Hans of Denmark, a ropewalk at the site is first mentioned in 1555 and an anchor forge was built in 1563. When King Christian IV commenced his modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen, he extended the citys East Rampart, taking it straight through Bremerholm to the beach. The moat in front of the rampart was expanded to form the Holmen Canal, in the first decades of the 17th century, Christian IV built a considerable amount of housing for higher-ranked naval personnel at Bremerholm. This prompted a demand for a church, leading to the conversion of the anchor forge, now located on the far side of the Holmen Canal.
In 1631 the barracks at Bremerholm were supplemented by Nyboder in the far north of Copenhagen which was built to satisfy the demand for housing for lower-ranked crew members of the nacys vessels, around the same time, a large prison was inaugurated at Bremerholm. Much of the work in the shipyards was based on forced labour carried out by convicts from the facility. The rope walk came to mark the boundary between the square and rest of Bremerholm, together and Nyholm remained for a long time the largest employer in Denmark. In 1778 the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden relocated from Amaliegade to the garden behind Charlottenborg Palace and it was at Gammelholm that the Copenhagen Fire of 1795 broke out. In 1859 the Navy decommissioned their last operations at Gammelholm, at the same time the Canal of Holmen was filled and converted into a prominent new street. Construction in the began in 1861 and was completed in 1876. Apart from the buildings, a number of new institutions. A new building for the Royal Danish Theatre, which had been located nearby since 1754, was built on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and the filled Holmens Kanal.
A new building designed by Meldahl and Ludvig Fenger for the Royal Mint was completed in 1873 on land which was previously part Botanical Garden which had left the area in 1879. Gammelholm was planned with broad streets inspired by Paris, an inspiration Meldahl relied on elsewhere, typically of the time, the residential buildings were not designed by architects but the master builders who constructed them. The area was built up with blocks with elegant, richly decorated Historicist fronts facing the street but drab. Lots were sold at high prices and developers therefore utilized space to the utmost
Royal Danish Army
The Royal Danish Army is the ground-based branch of the Danish Defence, together with the Danish Home Guard. Founded in 1614, in the wake of the Kalmar War, with time, these goals have developed into encompassing the need to protect freedom and peaceful development in the world with respect for human rights. At the same time, the need for maintenance of the army in peacetime became pertinent, the Royal Danish Army has historically been an integral part of the defence of Denmark and thus involved in warfare and battles continuously to protect her interests. In modern times the Royal Danish Army has become the backbone of Danish international missions, such as those in Kosovo, starting in 2001, the Royal Danish Army has been involved in the War in Afghanistan. The Danish army withdrew its forces from Afghanistan in May 2014. The structure of the Danish army changed in 2015, leaving Danish Division without brigades or support troops directly under its command, the two brigades have only command over combat battalions, as combat support and logistic support units are now grouped under various support centres.
1st Brigade consists of four battalions and is tasked with providing troops for international deployments. 2nd Brigade consists of five battalions and is tasked with the defence of the Danish territory, support centres contain the armys combat support, combat logistic and general support units, and in some cases perform tasks for the entire Danish defence structure, i. e. The Aviation Troops flew two squadrons of Fokker C. V reconnaissance aircraft from 1923 to 1932, when 17 Gloster Gauntlet fighters were purchased to form two new squadrons. In 1937, ten Fokker D. XXI fighters were built on licence in the Royal Army Aircraft Factory at Værløse, as a result of the establishment of the Royal Danish Air Force in 1950, the Army Aviation Troops were disbanded and activities transferred to the new service. During the Cold War the Army created the Army Air Service in 1971, which flew anti-tank and transport helicopters
Rosenborg Castle is a renaissance castle located in Copenhagen, Denmark. The castle was built as a country summerhouse in 1606 and is an example of Christian IVs many architectural projects. It was built in the Dutch Renaissance style, typical of Danish buildings during this period, architects Bertel Lange and Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger are associated with the structural planning of the castle. The castle was used by Danish regents as a residence until around 1710. After the reign of Frederik IV, Rosenborg was used as a residence only twice. The first time was after Christiansborg Palace burned down in 1794, located on the third floor, the Long Hall was completed in 1624. It was originally intended as a ballroom, around 1700 it was used as Royal Reception Room and for banquets. It was not until the half of the 19th century that it became known as the Knights Hall. Christian V had the hall partly modernised with twelve tapestries depicting the Kings victories in the Scanian War, the stucco ceiling seen today is from the beginning of the 18th century.
It shows the Danish Coat of Arms surrounded by the Orders of the Elephant, side reliefs depict historical events from the first years of the reign of Frederik IV, including the liberation of the serfs, the founding of the dragoons and of the land militia among them. The frescos in the ceiling by Hendrick Krock, represent the Regalia, among the main attractions of Rosenborg are the coronation chair of the absolutist kings and the throne of the queens with the three silver lions standing in front. The Long Hall contains a collection of silver furniture. Some of these once belonged to the nobility and the aristocracy. The castle, now property, was opened to the public in 1838. Of special interest to tourists is a Schatzkammer displaying the Crown Jewels, a Coronation Carpet is stored there. The Throne Chair of Denmark is located in the castle, in the summer time, flowers bloom in front of the castle in the castle garden. The castle is situated in Kongens Have, known as Rosenborg Castle Garden, the Rosenborg Castle Garden is the countrys oldest royal garden and was embellished in the Renaissance style by Christian IV shortly before the construction of the main castle.
Today, the gardens are a popular retreat for the people of Copenhagen, next to the castle are barracks where the Royal Life Guards is garrisoned
Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae. The various species are commonly called elder or elderberry, the genus was formerly placed in the honeysuckle family, but was reclassified due to genetic and morphological comparisons to Adoxa. In Sambucus, there are between 5 and 30 species of shrubs, small trees and herbaceous perennial plants. The genus occurs in temperate to subtropical regions of the world, more widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, its Southern Hemisphere occurrence is restricted to parts of Australasia and South America. Many species are cultivated for their ornamental leaves, flowers. The leaves are pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, each leaf is 5–30 cm long, and the leaflets have serrated margins. They bear large clusters of white or cream-colored flowers in late spring. Sambucus australis Sambucus canadensis Sambucus cerulea, western North America, dark blue-black berries with glaucous bloom on surface, Sambucus javanica Sambucus nigra This is the species most often used medicinally.
The flowers are in rounded panicles, but the berries are black, it is a small shrub, some botanists include it in the red-berried elder group. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries are red, they are smaller shrubs. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the white or yellow. Sambucus adnata Sambucus ebulus Other species, Sambucus melanocarpa Gray Sambucus neomexicana Wooton Sambucus velutina Dur, ornamental varieties of Sambucus are grown in gardens for their showy flowers and lacy foliage. Native species of elderberry are often planted by people wishing to support native butterfly, elderberry fruit or flowers are used as dietary supplements for minor diseases such as flu, colds and other conditions, often served as a tea, extract, or in a capsule. There is insufficient research to know its effectiveness for such uses or its safety profile, raw elderberries are 80% water, 18% carbohydrates, and less than 1% each of protein and fat. In a 100 gram amount, elderberries supply 73 calories and are a source of vitamin C.
Elderberries have moderate contents of vitamin B6 and iron, with no other nutrients in significant content, the French and Central Europeans produce elderflower syrup, commonly made from an extract of elderflower blossoms, which is added to Palatschinken filling instead of blueberries. People throughout much of Central and Southeastern Europe use a method to make a syrup which is diluted with water. In Germany, yoghurt desserts are made both the berries and the flowers
A gallows is a frame, typically wooden, used for execution by hanging, or as a means of torture before execution, as was used when being hanged and quartered. Gallows can take several forms, The simplest form resembles an inverted L, with a single upright, the horizontal crossbeam is supported at both ends. There were even temporary gallows, which were portable, but weaker, the infamous Tyburn gallows was triangular in plan, with three uprights and three crossbeams, allowing up to 24 men and women to be executed simultaneously when all three sides were used. Occasionally, improvised gallows were used, usually by hanging the condemned from a tree or street light, hangings from such improvised gallows are usually lynchings rather than judicial executions. In Afghanistan, Taliban used football goals as gallows, Gallows may be permanent to act as a deterrent and grim symbol of the power of high justice. Many old prints of European cities show such a permanent gallows erected on a prominent hill outside the walls, in some of the cases, they were even moved to the location of the crime.
In England, pirates were executed using a temporary gallows, at low tide in the intertidal zone. The only surviving New Drop gallows in the UK are in Rutland County Museum, the gallows were portable and were set up at the gaol when needed. These gallows were first used in 1813 to hang two burglars, the New Drop design was not very effective as the drop was too short to break the neck cleanly. If a crime took place inside, gallows were sometimes erected—and the criminal hanged—at the front door, in some cases of multiple offenders it was not uncommon to erect multiple temporary gallows, with one noose per condemned criminal. In one case a condemned strangled to death in agony for forty minutes until he died from asphyxiation. Hanging people from early gallows sometimes involved fitting the noose around the neck while he or she was on a ladder or in a horse-drawn cart underneath. Removing the ladder or driving the cart away left the person dangling by the neck to slowly strangle, a noted example of this type of execution in the USA was the hanging of British spy John André in 1780.
During the era of public execution in London, England, a prominent gallows stood at Tyburn, executions occurred outside Newgate Gaol, where the Old Bailey now stands. Hangmans Elm Triberg Gallows Capital punishment Dule Tree Gibbet Jail tree Moot hill J. Thredgold-waugh 11/11/1944 BBC Article about British manufacturer, wikibooks, A Researchers Guide to Local History Terminology, Local History terminology
Copenhagen Stocks House
The Copenhagen Stocks House was a prison in Copenhagen, named for the stocks which used to be located at its premises. Originally a military prison, it was opened to civilian prisoners in 1741, the building was located on Øster Voldgade, opposite the present day National Gallery. The Stocks House was built in 1677, prior to that physical punishment had taken place at Jarmers Tower. The building was altered by Elias David Häusser between 1722 and 1724, in 1741 the Stocks House was opened to civilian prisoners and it became a place for people who had been sentenced to slavery, that is prisoners sentenced to penal labour in iron. In 1783 the institution was expanded when the Greater Stocks House. On 30 December 1771 the use of severe examination was abolished by Johann Friedrich Struensee butit was reintroduced after his fall, in 1929 the building is demolished when Polytechnical University of Denmark is expanded
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
St. Paul's Church, Copenhagen
St. Pauls Church is a Lutheran church in central Copenhagen, colloquially known as Nyboders Church due to its location in the middle of the Nyboder area. It was designed by Johannes Emil Gnudtzmann and constructed from 1872 to 1877, the church is part of a wave of church constructions which took place in Copenhagen in the 1870s to provide capacity for the citys growing population. Stephens and St. James in Østerbro and St. Mathews in Vesterbro—St, the church is built in red brick and the masonry is decorated with blinds, arches and pinnacles on all corners. The churchs first altarpiece was a painting by Hendrick Krock entitled The Eucharist, in 1887 it was replaced by a gilded crucifix created by the sculptor Jens Adolf Jerichau, a donation from pastor Christian Møller. The space surrounding the church is called Sankt Pauls Plads, on the southeast side of the church are some of the socalled Grey Tows of the Nyboder development. They were designed by Olaf Schmidth and are younger than the more well-known terraces of the neighbourhood, on the other side of the church street are a row of apartment buildings from the 1870s.
To the rear of the church is the former Gernersgade Barracks, two of Nyboders Yellow Rows flank Adelgade in front of the church
Fortifications of Copenhagen (17th century)
The fortifications of Copenhagen underwent a comprehensive modernization and expansion in the 17th century. The project was commenced and was largely the masterplan of Christian IV in the early 17th century but was continued and completed by his successors, the ring fortification consisted of four bastioned ramparts and an annexed citadel as well as various outworks. Today only the Christianshavn Rampart and the citadel Kastellet remain intact, Christian IVs modernization of the fortifications of Copenhagen commenced in 1606 and would take 20 years to complete. The course of the fortifications was kept but Slotsholmen was now incorporated into the complex. A large bastion in masonry was constructed on its southwestern tip, in the same time, Østervold was taken around parts of Bremerholm to meet the sea. A total of 12 bastions were constructed and just outside the entire fortification a moat was dug, due to topographical variations in the terrain, it was constructed as a series of basins, separated by dams, to solve the problem of variations in the terrain.
The uppermost basin was fed by water from Peblingesøen, the Western and Northern City Gates were renovated and given tall spires and a new Eastern City Gate was built. From 1618-23 Christianshavn was laid out and incorporated as a market town. Strategically situated in the middle of a shallow-watered, marshy area north of Amager, the rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a gate, known as Amager Gate. To guard the entrance to the port, a blockhouse was constructed on the shallow-watered Refshaleø in 1624. On the Zealand side of the harbour, north of the city and this work was begun in 1627. As part of his aspirations to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, as early as 1606, when his modernization of the fortifications began, he had purchased 200 hectares of land outside the Eastern City Gate. His intention was to redevelop this area into a new district referred to as Ny København or Sankt Annæ By, the plan was to change the course of Østervold, which at that time made a bend and ran along what is today Gothersgade and Kongens Nytorv.
The new Østervold would be an extension of Nørrevold, connecting it to Sankt Annæ Skanse. However, the 1630s was a time of crisis and both Sankt Annæ Skanse and the new course of Østervold was delayed with no major work going on during that decade. After both Jutland and Scania had been occupied by forces in the first half of the 1640s. The new Østervold was constructed and a new project for the fortress at Sankt Annæ Skanse, in 1840 Christian VIII appointed a national defense commission which two years recommended that the existing fortifications be decommissioned. At the outbreak of the First Schleswig War in 1848, nothing had happened, in 1852, the Line of Demarcation was partially disabandoned but work to maintain and improve the ramparts were carried out as late as 1856-57
Battle of Heligoland (1864)
The Battle of Heligoland was fought on 9 May 1864, during the Second War of Schleswig between the navy of Denmark and the navy of Austria. When the Danish forces had caused the flagship of the Austrian commander, Freiherr von Tegetthoff, to catch fire and it was the last significant naval battle fought by squadrons of wooden ships and the last one involving Denmark. Although the battle ended with a victory for Denmark, it had no impact on the outcome of the war. A general armistice came into effect on 12 May, and Denmark had lost the war, as the Danish squadron approached from the north, it sighted the British frigate Aurora at about 10 a. m. and soon afterwards five more ships to the Southwest. The two squadrons approached each other, and the Austrian screw-driven Schwarzenberg opened fire at 13.15 p. m, the Danes returned fire when the distance had closed. When Austrian Admiral Tegetthoff altered course to the West in an effort to cross the T, with the Prussian gunboats unable to keep pace and now far behind, the Austrian and Danish squadrons passed each other at a distance of about 1 nautical mile, exchanging furious fire.
Tegetthoff turned about so as to prevent the gunboats being cut off, the Danish Niels Juel duelled with Schwarzenberg, while the Danish Jylland and Hejmdal concentrated on the Austrian Radetzky. The Prussian gunboats were at this point too far away to play a role, at about 15.30 p. m. Schwarzenberg caught fire and whilst this was quickly brought under control was unable to continue. With the armistice set to come into effect on 12 May, Suenson was ordered back to Copenhagen, in Denmark as in Austria, the outcome of the battle was regarded as a victory. The Danish squadron was enthusiastically welcomed in Copenhagen, while in Austria and he subsequently led the reform of the Austrian naval establishment. The refitted Swarzenberg subsequently took part in the Austrian naval victory at the Battle of Lissa two years later, the frigate Jylland is today located in a drydock in a maritime museum in Ebeltoft, Denmark. In Copenhagen, at Nyboder, there is a monument commemorating Edouard Suenson who led the Danish forces in the battle, the Battle off Helgoland, Danish Military History