Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
Holi is a popular ancient Hindu festival, originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is celebrated predominantly in India and Nepal, but has spread to other areas of Asia and parts of the Western world through the diaspora from the Indian subcontinent. Holi is popularly known as the Indian "festival of spring", the "festival of colours", or the "festival of love"; the festival signifies the arrival of spring, the end of winter, the blossoming of love, for many a festive day to meet others and laugh, forget and forgive, repair broken relationships. The festival celebrates the beginning of a good spring harvest season, it lasts for a night and a day, starting on the evening of the Purnima falling in the Vikram Samvat Calendar, a Hindu calendar month of Phalgun, which falls around middle of March in the Gregorian calendar. The first evening is known as Holika Dahan or Chhoti Holi and the following day as Holi, Rangwali Holi, Dhulandi, or Phagwah. Holi is an ancient Hindu religious festival which has become popular with non-Hindus as well in many parts of South Asia, as well as people of other communities outside Asia.
In Mughal India, Holi was celebrated with such exuberance that commoners of all castes could throw colour on the Emperor. In addition to India and Nepal, the festival is celebrated by Indian subcontinent diaspora in countries such as Jamaica, Guyana and Tobago, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Fiji. In recent years the festival has spread to parts of Europe and North America as a spring celebration of love and colours. Holi celebrations start on the night before Holi with a Holika Dahan where people gather, perform religious rituals in front of the bonfire, pray that their internal evil be destroyed the way Holika, the sister of the demon king Hiranyakashipu, was killed in the fire; the next morning is celebrated as Rangwali Holi – a free-for-all festival of colours, where people smear each other with colours and drench each other. Water guns and water-filled balloons are used to play and colour each other. Anyone and everyone is fair game, friend or stranger, rich or poor, man or woman and elders.
The frolic and fight with colours occurs in the open streets, open parks, outside temples and buildings. Groups carry drums and other musical instruments, go from place to place and dance. People visit family and foes to throw coloured powders on each other and gossip share Holi delicacies and drinks; some customary drinks include bhang, intoxicating. In the evening, after sobering up, people visit friends and family. There is a symbolic legend to explain why Holi is celebrated as a festival of triumph of good over evil in the honour of Hindu god Vishnu and his follower Prahlada. King Hiranyakashipu, according to a legend found in chapter 7 of Bhagavata Purana, was the king of demonic Asuras, had earned a boon that gave him five special powers: he could be killed by neither a human being nor an animal, neither indoors nor outdoors, neither at day nor at night, neither by astra nor by any shastra, neither on land nor in water or air. Hiranyakashipu grew arrogant, thought he was God, demanded that everyone worship only him.
Hiranyakashipu's own son, however, disagreed. He remained devoted to Vishnu; this infuriated Hiranyakashipu. He subjected Prahlada to cruel punishments, none of which affected the boy or his resolve to do what he thought was right. Holika, Prahlada's evil aunt, tricked him into sitting on a pyre with her. Holika was wearing a cloak; as the fire roared, the cloak flew from Holika and encased Prahlada, who survived while Holika burned. Vishnu, the god who appears as an avatar to restore Dharma in Hindu beliefs, took the form of Narasimha - half human and half lion, at dusk, took Hiranyakashyapu at a doorstep, placed him on his lap, eviscerated and killed the king with his lion claws; the Holika bonfire and Holi signifies the celebration of the symbolic victory of good over evil, of Prahlada over Hiranyakashipu, of the fire that burned Holika. In the Braj region of India, where the Hindu deity Krishna grew up, the festival is celebrated until Rang Panchmi in commemoration of the divine love of Radha for Krishna.
The festivities usher in spring, with Holi celebrated as a festival of love. There is a symbolic myth behind commemorating Krishna as well; as a baby, Krishna developed his characteristic dark skin colour because the she-demon Putana poisoned him with her breast milk. In his youth, Krishna despaired whether the fair-skinned Radha would like him because of his dark skin colour, his mother, tired of his desperation, asks him to approach Radha and ask her to colour his face in any colour she wanted. This she did, Radha and Krishna became a couple. Since, the playful colouring of Radha and Krishna's face has been commemorated as Holi. Beyond India, these legends help to explain the significance of Holi are common in some Caribbean and South American communities of Indian origin such as Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, it is celebrated with great fervour in Mauritius. Among other Hindu traditions such as Shaivism and Shaktism, the legendary significance of Holi is linked to Shiva in yoga and deep meditation, goddess Parvati wanting to bring back Shiva into the world, seeks help from the Hin
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Galungan is a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma. It marks the time; the last day of the celebration is Kuningan. The date is calculated according to the 210-day Balinese calendar, it is related to Diwali, celebrated by Hindus in other parts of the world, which celebrates the victory of dharma over adharma. Diwali, however, is held at the end of the year. Galungan marks the beginning of the most important recurring religious ceremonies; the spirits of deceased relatives who have died and been cremated return to visit their former homes, the current inhabitants have a responsibility to be hospitable through prayers and offerings. The most obvious sign of the celebrations are the penjor - bamboo poles with offerings suspended at the end; these are installed by the side of roads. A number of days around the Kuningan day have special names, are marked by the organization of particular activities. Galungan begins on the Wednesday of the 11th week of the 210-day pawukon calendar.
This means that there are two celebrations per solar year. Dates for 2017-2020 are as follows: Balilocalguide.com Calendar of events Accessed 6 November 2018 Eiseman, Fred B. Jr, Bali: Sekala and Niskala Volume I: Essays on Religion and Art pp 182-185, Periplus Editions, 1989 ISBN 0-945971-03-6 Pancorbo, Lo balinés", en "Fiestas del Mundo. Las Máscaras de la Luna". Pp. 33–41. Ediciones del Serbal, Barcelona, 1996. Video documenting Galungan ceremony preparations on Bali part 1, part2 How Galungan is celebrated in Bali
Ogoh-ogoh are statues built for the Ngrupuk parade, which takes place on the eve of Nyepi day in Bali, Indonesia. Ogoh-ogoh have form of mythological beings demons; as with many creative endeavours based on Balinese Hinduism, the creation of Ogoh-ogoh represents spiritual aims inspired by Hindu philosophy. The main purpose of the making of Ogoh-ogoh is the purification of the natural environment of any spiritual pollutants emitted from the activities of living beings; the forms of Ogoh-ogoh represent the Bhuta-Kala, according to Hindu teachings. The imperceptible potentials of nature cannot be explored by anyone. Philosophically, civilized men are required to manage the natural resources without damaging the environment itself. Aside from being the symbol of Bhuta-Kala, Ogoh-ogoh is considered a symbol of modes of nature that form the malicious characters of living beings; each village build one Ogoh-ogoh built by each village's Seka Truna Truni, but some smaller ogoh-ogoh built by groups of children around the village.
Some artist usually build one. After being paraded on a convoy around the town it is burnt to ashes in a cemetery as a symbol of self-purification. An Ogoh-ogoh is standing on a pad built of timber planks and bamboos; the pad is designed to sustain the Ogoh-ogoh while it is being lifted and carried around the village or the town square. There are eight or more men carrying the Ogoh-ogoh on their shoulders; this procession is accompanied by orchestral music performed by the youth. The use of flares is a main part of the parade. During the procession, the Ogoh-ogoh is rotated counter-clockwise three times; this act is crossroad of the village. Rotating the effigies during the cremational parade and the eve of Nyepi represents the contact of the bodies with the spirits, it is intended to cease harming human beings. The Ogoh-ogoh is a recent addition to the Nyepi ceremonies, first appearing in Denpasar in the early 1980s. At that time, they were monitored for any criticism of the Suharto regime. Namahage — demons in Japan celebrated on new year
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
An emergency vehicle is any vehicle, designated and authorized to respond to an emergency in a life-threatening situation. These vehicles are operated by designated agencies part of the government, but run by charities, non-governmental organizations and some commercial companies. Emergency vehicles are permitted by law to break conventional road rules in order to reach their destinations in the fastest possible time, such as driving through an intersection when the traffic light is red, or exceeding the speed limit. In some states, the driver of an emergency vehicle can still be sued if the driver shows "reckless disregard for the safety of others." There are many types of emergency vehicle, dependent on jurisdiction. Some examples of emergency vehicles include: Law Enforcement Police car Police motorcycle SWAT vehicle Police bicycle Park Ranger vehicleFire Firefighting apparatus Mountain rescue vehicle Lifeguard vehicle Airport fire applianceEmergency Medical Services Motorcycle ambulance Rapid response vehicle Ambulance Air ambulanceCivil Emergency Service Public utility crews dealing with gas, electricity or water or to repair defective equipment on scene.
Many emergency response vehicles are to be fitted with audible and visual warning devices, which are designed to facilitate their movement through traffic to reach their destination, to provide some protection on the scene. Depending on local laws, vehicles on the road may be required to yield the right of way to emergency responders who are using their warning devices. For example, in Utah, when an emergency vehicle is on the road while using its warning devices, all cars are required to pull over to the side of the road and wait for the vehicle to pass before resuming normal driving, unless doing so would cause an accident or if stopped at a red light/stop sign. In areas where no such laws exist, many motorists may allow the vehicle to pass as a matter of courtesy. In many countries, emergency vehicles are dispatched from a centre that takes calls from an emergency telephone number, such as 9-1-1, 999, 1-1-1 or 1-1-2. Colour and design choices reflect several needs, but may include: Identification of the service – Such as New York State Police or City of Tokyo Fire Department, to which the vehicle belongs and helps identify its purpose to the public and other services.
In some areas, the name of the service may be written in reverse lettering on the front of the vehicle to provide a view of the approaching vehicle in a rear view mirror. Vehicle ID number – This may be a simple asset tracking number or may be the unit number which can be used by control to identify them. Many vehicles display their vehicle number on their roof or trunk lid, to be identifiable from the air. High visibility markings – Responding emergency vehicles want to be conspicuous, as do emergency vehicles parked at a scene. Many departments use passive visual warnings such as reflective lettering and/or striping to increase their visibility. Other patterns chevrons. For police departments, there can be a competing need for stealth. Police departments can use minimally marked cars with subdued graphics that blend in with the car's body color, but they can use unmarked civilian-like vehicles, which may be similar to their marked units, or may be different. Contact information – There may well be a telephone number written on the side of the vehicle which can be called to summon it.
Whilst this applies in areas where there is a single emergency telephone number, it is important where a system of local numbers is in place, or where the service is a secondary service. In some cases, the vehicle may display an internet address for people to go and find more information about the operator. Automobile safety ISO 9001 certification ISO 14001 certification Emergency management Emergency services Emergency vehicle equipment Safety car Vehicle recovery Emergency vehicles at Curlie