Mareeba is a town in Far North Queensland, Australia. The town is 417 metres above sea level on the confluence of the Barron River, Granite Creek and Emerald Creek, it is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. The town's name is derived from an Aboriginal word meaning meeting of the waters. In the 2011 census, Mareeba had a population of 10,181 people. Prior to European settlement, the area around Mareeba was inhabited by the Muluridji people, they maintained a hunter/gatherer existence in the area between Mount Carbine, Mareeba and Woodville concentrated between Biboohra and Mount Molloy. In the local Aboriginal language, Mareeba means meeting of the waters - referring to the point at which the Barron River is joined by Granite Creek. On 26 May 1875 James Venture Mulligan became the first European to see the future site of Mareeba when he rode up the eastern bank of the Barron River, passed the junctions of Emerald Creek and Granite Creek; the Mareeba area was first settled by Europeans in 1877 by John Atherton, who arrived with cattle at Emerald End, just north of the town today.
Mareeba became a busy coach stop for Cobb & Co on the road from Port Douglas to Herberton. When the railway arrived in 1893, Mareeba grew into a busy town. Mareeba Post Office opened on 25 August 1893. A Mareeba Diggings Post Office opened by 1893 and closed in 1905. From 1942 to 1945, up to 10,000 Australian and US service personnel used Mareeba Airfield as a staging post for battles in New Guinea and the Pacific; the Americans referred to it as Hoevet Field in honour of Major Dean Carol "Pinky" Hoevet, killed on 16 August 1942. Units that were based at Mareeba during World War II included No. 5 Squadron RAAF, No. 100 Squadron RAAF, the Australian 33rd Light A-A Battery, 19th Bomb Group USAAC, 43rd Bomb Group USAAC and 8th Fighter Group USAAC. Mareeba State School opened on 28 August 1893. Mareeba State High School opened on 25 January 1960. Mareeba Library opened in 1958 and underwent a major refurbishment in 1985. At the 2006 census, Mareeba had a population of 6,806. In October 2011, most of the land of the former state farm / research station at Kairi was sold by the Queensland Government, retaining only 26 hectares.
The sale of the land was to fund the establishment of the Agri-Science Hub at Peters Street in Mareeba. The hub focusses on agricultural development, together with education and training. James Cook University is a partner of the hub, researching tropical agriculture and biosecurity; the hub opened on 16 December 2011. According to the 2016 census, Mareeba includes the largest Italian Australian community of any suburb in Queensland, numbering 1,608 individuals and making up 10.8% of the town's population. Mareeba has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Cairns - Kuranda Line: Rail Bridge over Christmas Creek 136 Walsh Street: Mareeba Shire Hall 167 Walsh Street: Assay Office Mareeba has a tropical savanna climate. Mareeba's tag line on signs coming into the region is "300 sunny days a year" this is because Mareeba is in what is called a rain shadow. Numerous crops are grown throughout Mareeba Shire, including avocados, lychees, sugar cane, macadamias, pineapples, tea tree oil, a variety of vegetables and tropical fruits.
Poultry and cattle are common. Tobacco was once the main grown crop of the local economy, but is no longer grown within the Mareeba shire; the town's main street is the Mulligan Highway which branches off from the Kennedy Highway when coming in from Cairns away passing localities such as Speewah and The Barron Gorge. Tourism contributes to the local economy. Tourist attractions in the Mareeba Shire include the Golden Drop Mango Winery, Jaques Coffee Plantation, Coffee Works, Mareeba Heritage Museum, Mareeba Rock Wallabies and Granite Gorge Nature Park; the Lotus Glen Correctional Centre is located in Arriga, 14 km outside Mareeba, is considered to be in Mareeba. Mareeba has two secondary schools and a TAFE campus. There are several day care centres in the town. St Thomas of Villanova Parish School Mareeba State School Mareeba State High School St. Stephen's Catholic College Tropical North Institute of TAFEMareeba State School opened on 28 August 1893 and Mareeba State High School opened on 25 January 1960.
St Thomas of Villanova Parish School opened on 1 January 1909 and for a period of two years during World War Two, Mareeba State School was taken over by the army, so St Thomas’ accommodated the entire school population of Mareeba. St Thomas' celebrated their centenary in 2009. On 24 January 2006 St Stephen's Catholic College opened after a nearly 10 year approval process regarding the provision of Catholic secondary education. Mareeba Hospital is in the Tablelands Health District, it provides 52 beds, with surgical, pediatric, emergency and x-ray facilities. Mareeba's local sporting teams are: Rugby league — Mareeba Gladiators: The Gladiators participate in the Cairns District Rugby League competition, they last won the Premiership in 2007. Football — Mareeba United Football ClubThe Mareeba United Football Club, known as the Mareeba Bulls is based at Borzi Park, Mareeba: the Bulls have dominated the local football scene for the past decade; the Bulls were Grand Final winners in 2003, Grand Final Winners and NQ Champions in 2004, FNQ premiers and NQ Champions in 2005, FNQ Grand final winners and 2006 and FNQ premier and NQ Champions in 2008.
The sustained success of the Bulls has brought the title for Mareeba as'Football Capital of North Q
Thursday Island, colloquially known as TI, or in the native language, Waiben, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago located 39 kilometres north of Cape York Peninsula in the Torres Strait, Australia. It has an area of about 3.5 square kilometres. The Muralag peoples are the traditional owners of the land and seas surrounding Thursday Island; the highest point on Thursday Island, standing at 104 metres above sea level, is Milman Hill, a World War II defence facility. At the 2011 census, Thursday Island had a population of 2,610. Thursday Island is within the Shire of Torres, but is the administrative and commercial centre of the Torres Strait Island Region despite not being part of that local government area; the island has been populated for thousands of years by the Torres Strait Islanders, though archeological evidence on Badu, further north in Torres Strait, suggests that the area has been inhabited from before the end of the last Ice Age. The archeology from Badhu, Pulu and Mer shows that Melanesian occupation started around 2,600 years ago.
The original place of permanent European settlement in Torres Strait was Somerset, south-east of the tip of Cape York Peninsula, established in 1864. However, the channel between Albany Island and Somerset proved to be hazardous for a port and in 1875 it was jointly decided by the Queensland and British governments to transfer the port to the deep anchorage on the south side of Thursday Island; the new port was called Port Kennedy, after Edmund Kennedy, the explorer of Cape York Peninsula, was established in 1867. In 1877, an administrative centre for the Torres Strait Islands was set up on the island by the Queensland Government and by 1883 over 200 pearling vessels were based on the island. A lucrative pearling industry was founded on the island in 1884, attracting workers from around Asia, including Japan and India, seeking their fortune; the Japanese community was in part indentured divers and boat hands who returned to Japan after a period of service and some longer term residents who were active in boat building and in the ownership of luggers for hire -, illegal but bypassed by leases through third parties back to other Japanese, a practice called "dummying."
Additionally, many south Pacific Islanders worked in the industry, some imported against their will. While the pearling industry has declined in importance, the mix of cultures is evident to this day; the pearling industry centred on the harvesting of pearl shell, used to make shirt buttons. The local pearl oyster is Pinctada maxima. Trochus shell was gathered by boats that specialised in this. Most shell was exported as the raw material - to a London-based market. Pearls themselves were rare and a bonus for the crew; the boats used were graceful two-masted luggers. In shallow water free diving was used while in deeper water diver's dress, or an abbreviated form of it, with a surface air supply was used. In good times there were three divers to a lugger, a stern diver, one midships, one diver off the bow. A manual air compressor was used, it looked. For part of the fleet that operated further from Thursday Island, larger vessels schooners were used as mother ships to the luggers. Shell was opened on the mother vessels rather than on the luggers, in order to secure any pearls found.
The waters of the Straits are murky and visibility was very poor. Though dive depths were not great, except at the Darnley Deep, 40 fathoms, attacks of the bends were common and deaths frequent. On 25 August 1887, The Paterson Telegraph Station on the West Coast of Cape York was opened, it connected the Cape York Telegraph Line with Thursday Island, via an undersea cable. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries Thursday Island was a regular stop for vessels trading between the east coast of Australia and Southeast Asia. A shipping disaster to a vessel in this service occurred in 1890 when RMS Quetta struck an uncharted reef in the Strait and sank in five minutes with the loss of over 130 lives; the Anglican Church on Thursday Island built shortly afterwards was named the Quetta All Souls Memorial Cathedral in memory of the event. Today the church is called All St Bartholomew Church. Cyclone Mahina, which hit Bathurst Bay, southeast of Thursday Island in 1899, wrecked the pearling fleet sheltering there, with huge losses of vessels and lives.
The fear of Russian invasion as a result of the deterioration of relations between the Russian Empire and the British Empire led to a fort on Battery Point being built in 1892 to protect the island. The fort is today a heritage feature of the island. Local pearling declined up to the Second World War through competition from a Japanese-based fleet which did not use local resources or personnel. In the 1950s plastic buttons imitating pearl supplanted much of the demand for shell. Before the decline, pearl fishing was taken by the island-based fleet to the Aru Islands in what was the Dutch East Indies. During World War II, Thursday Island became the military headquarters for the Torres Strait and was a base for Australian and United States forces. January 1942 saw the evacuation of civilians from the island. Residents of Japanese origin or descent were interned; the residents did not return until after the end of the war and many ethnic Japanese were forcibly repatriated. The island was spared from bombing in World War II, due, it was thought, to it being the burial place of many Japanese pearl shell divers, or the
Port Douglas is a town and a locality in the Shire of Douglas, Australia 70 km north of Cairns. In the 2016 census, Port Douglas had a population of 3,504 people; the town's population can double, with the influx of tourists during the peak tourism season from May to September. The town is named in honour of a former Premier of John Douglas. Port Douglas developed based on the mining industry. Other parts of the area were established with timber cutting occurring in the area surrounding the Daintree River and with settlement starting to occur on lots around the Mossman River by 1880. Previous names for the town included Island Point, Port Owen and Salisbury; the town is situated adjacent to two World Heritage areas, the Great Barrier Reef and the Daintree Rainforest. Port Douglas was No. 3 on Australian Traveller magazine's list of 100 Best Towns In Australia. The town is within the federal electorate of Leichhardt, within the state electorate of Cook. At the local level, it is in the local government area of Shire of Douglas.
The Port Douglas township was established in 1877 after the discovery of gold at Hodgkinson River by James Venture Mulligan. Port Douglas Post Office opened on 1 September 1877, it grew and at its peak Port Douglas had a population of 12,000 and 27 hotels. With the construction of the Mulligan Highway it serviced towns as far away as Herberton. Port Douglas State School opened on 11 November 1879, but closed in 1962, it was reopened on 23 January 1989. When the Kuranda Railway from Cairns to Kuranda was completed in 1891, the importance of Port Douglas dwindled along with its population. A cyclone in 1911 which demolished all but two buildings in the town had a significant impact. At its nadir in 1960 the town, by little more than a fishing village, had a population of 100; the Port Douglas War Memorial was unveiled on 10 February 1923 by Mrs Tresize. In the late-1980s, tourism boomed in the region after investor Christopher Skase financed the construction of the Sheraton Mirage Port Douglas Resort.
Its permanent population was 3,205 at the time of the 2011 census. Port Douglas has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Macrossan Street: FDA Carstens Memorial Wharf Street: St Mary's by the Sea 6 Dixie Street: Port Douglas Wharf 25 Wharf Street: Port Douglas Court House Museum In the 2016 Census, there were 3,504 people in Port Douglas. 56.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 6.3% and New Zealand 5.9%. 76.6% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion, so described 41.1% and Catholic 17.4%. On 5 July 1943, a RAAF Vultee Vengeance crash landed on the beach near Port Douglas. In November 1996 United States President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton chose the town as their only holiday stop on their historic visit to Australia; when dining at a local restaurant they witnessed a couple's wedding certificate. On a return visit on 11 September 2001, Clinton was again dining at a local restaurant, when he was advised of the September 11 attacks.
He returned to the United States the following day. On 4 September 2006, television personality and conservationist Steve Irwin died at Batt Reef, off Port Douglas, after a stingray barb pierced his heart during filming of a documentary called The Ocean's Deadliest. Irwin was filmed snorkelling directly above the stingray when it lashed him with its tail, killing him immediately; the event was reported in Australia and overseas. The annual Port Douglas Carnivale is held in May and runs for 10 days over two weekends, beginning with a parade attracting over 10,000 people. In October Porttoberfest is held; the Great Barrier Reef Marathon Festival is held during October. Port Douglas was a popular location to view the 14 November 2012 solar eclipse that occurred at 6:38 am. Thousands travelled to Port Douglas to see the phenomenon; the music video for Kylie Minogue's 1988 single "It's No Secret" was filmed in Port Douglas. Port Douglas has a tropical monsoon climate according to Köppen climate classification, with hot summers and warm winters, with heavy rainfall occurring from January–March, the wettest month of the year being February.
The average temperature of the sea ranges from 23.7 °C in July to 29.5 °C in January. Kitesurfing is popular at the southern end of Four Mile Beach during the winter months when trade winds blow from the South. Port Douglas is near the Great Barrier Reef. Numerous companies run daily trips from the marina to the outer reef and the Low Isles for scuba diving and snorkelling. Port Douglas is well known for its many restaurants, golf courses, five star resorts; the Port Douglas Community Hall houses the Port Douglas Library, 11-29 Mowbray Street, operated by the Douglas Shire Council. The Library opened in 2010. Another branch library is located in Mossman; the Port Douglas branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall at 8 Blake Street. Port Douglas State School is a government primary school for girls at Endeavour Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 281 students with 12 non-teaching staff. For secondary school, Port Douglas is within the catchment of Mossman State High School.
Port Douglas Tourism Information Port Douglas News Port Douglas Visitors Guide Port Douglas Webcam Tourism Port Douglas & Daintree University of Queensland: Queensland Places:Port Douglas
Babinda is a small town and locality in the Cairns Region, Australia. It is located 60 kilometres south of Cairns; the town is noted for its proximity to Queensland's two highest mountains Mount Bartle Frere and Mount Bellenden Ker. Babinda and Tully annually compete for an award for Australia's wettest town. Babinda is the winner, recording an annual average rainfall of over 4279.4 millimetres each year. Babinda takes its name from the local Indigenous Australian language for mountain. Other sources, claim it is a Yidinji word for water referring to the high rainfall of the area. Babinda State School opened on 4 November 1914. Babinda Post Office opened by 1915; the Babinda War Memorial was unveiled by the chairman of the Cairns Shire Council Seymour Warner on 25 April 1927. The Babinda Public Library building opened in 1955. In March 2006, Babinda was struck by Cyclone Larry. At the 2011 census the town recorded a population of 1,068. Babinda has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 65-85 Munro Street: Babinda Hotel 109 Munro Street: Babinda Air Raid Shelter The 2006 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 1,167 persons in Babinda on census night.
Of these, 49.7% were male and 50.3% were female. The majority of residents are of Australian birth, with other common census responses being Italy and New Zealand; the age distribution of Babinda residents is skewed higher than the greater Australian population. 70.1% of residents were over 25 years in 2006, compared to the Australian average of 66.5%. The local newspapers are The Cairns Post. There are many different community events in Babinda; the annual Harvest Festival is celebrated in October and features some unusual events including the Sugar Bowl competition, the Gumboot Toss and the Umbrella Toss. The festival did not occur in 2006 due to Cyclone Larry. Babinda is served on the corner of Pollard and the Boulders Road. St Rita's School, on Church Street, Babinda Kindergarten on Church Street and Babinda Early Learning on Pollard Road; the Cairns Regional Council operates a public library in Babinda at 24 Munro Street. The Babinda branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall in School Road.
The Boulders and Devil's Pool are popular tourist attractions. A picnic area is located nearby, beside Babinda Creek. Babinda is situated on the Bruce Highway; the town has a railway station for access to the long-distance train services only the Spirit of Queensland for which an advance booking must be made for the train to stop in Babinda. Babinda has a tropical rainforest climate with persistently wet weather, it is well known and recognised as the wettest town in Australia, with an annual average rainfall of 4279.4 mm. Monthly totals over 1000 mm are not uncommon, sometimes between January and April, whole months will go by without a single sunny day; the wet season lasts from December to May. During the wet season, heavy monsoonal downpours occur daily and even heavier rain from tropical lows or cyclones occurs. Rainfall still totals well over 100mm a month during the dry season. Thunderstorms with dangerous lightning and damaging winds can be a threat from October to December. Suburbs of Cairns Media related to Babinda, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Babinda Watch historical footage of Babinda and Far North Queensland from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.
Cairns Regional Council "Babinda". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 8 February 2004. Retrieved 30 March 2011
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Gordonvale is a small sugar-growing town and locality situated on the southern side of Cairns in the Cairns Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Gordonvale had a population of 6,671 people. Gordonvale is on the Mulgrave River. Once a separate town, the urban sprawl of Cairns has resulted in Gordonvale being subsumed into the suburban extremities of Cairns. Gordonvale lies 23 kilometres south of the Cairns central business district and is just east of the Gillies Range which leads to the Atherton Tableland. Gordonvale was located within the Shire of Mulgrave until its amalgamation with the City of Cairns in 1995; the City was subsequently merged into the larger Cairns Region in 2008. A prominent natural landmark is Walshs Pyramid. Gordonvale was established on Yidinji tribal land, was called Mulgrave and Nelson; the name Gordonvale was settled on as a tribute to John Gordon, a pioneer in the district, a butcher and grazier and early director of Mulgrave Central sugarmill. The area was first settled in 1877 by the Alley and Blackwell families who cut a road through to Trinity Inlet so they could haul out cedar logs.
By 1880, the road was well-used by miners and packers and they established the Riverstone Hotel to service the passing trade. After a while, a small town developed, encompassing three pubs, a store and a butcher shop run by John Gordon. In the Cairns area, a Chinese businessman, Andrew Lee On built the first sugar mill in 1882, named Pioneer Mill, established the Hop Wah Plantation on 612 acres of land. Other plantations and sugar mills were established in the area in years following, the region developed into a sugar cultivation and milling area. In the late 19th century, the Bryce brothers built the town's general store which expanded over the years, supplying the community and farmers with provisions as well as equipment. In the late 19th century "Snowy" Thomas and his family built a butcher shop with adjoining bakery that became the lifeblood of the town and ran a delivery service using horses; the Harris brothers ran a mechanical repair store for farming equipment and personal vehicles, another essential service for the small farming community.
Around 1902, Anthony Abdullah moved to Gordonvale with Mary. The Abdullahs were among the earliest Lebanese families to migrate to Australia, hailing from the tiny village of Kfarsghab. Anthony owned the grounds; the convent was his original family home. He ran a drapery business, was known locally and with fondness as'Abdullah the Turk'; the family were great benefactors of the Church. They moved to Sydney in 1923. Around 1914 the first cinema in the town was established by Vince and Daisy Medlik with the latter's sister Nellie Sutcliffe. Vince Medlik was the owner-builder. Running silent movies at first, the cinema was called "Vince Medlik's Silent Pictures"; as well as movies, once a month they presented a vaudeville night produced by Nellie and the dancers from her dancing school. Displaying a rare technical skill in its time for a woman, Nellie operated the projection and took care of inaugurating the "talkies" when they came in. Due to unforeseen circumstances the business had to be moved just before the Great Depression to the newly built and nearby Nelson Hall.
It subsequently had to be closed down during the Depression though by that stage other family members had become involved in its operation such a Vince's son Laurie Medlik. Before the Second World War the cinema reopened with new proprietors and employed Nellie Sutcliffe and Laurie Medlik, the latter managing it. During the Second World War a contingent of 3000 American paratroopers was stationed in Gordonvale and did their training there for their missions in New Guinea; the American Army commandeered some of the town's hotels to use as hospitals as many troops were injured during this training. Quite a number of local women were employed to do parachute packing. In the 1990s a number of mosaics were commissioned by the "Friends of Gordonvale" commemorating through imagery the original businesses and shops in the town; these mosaics were cemented permanently within the footpaths directly outside the original sites of the businesses. The granddaughter of picture theatre owner Vince Medlik, award-winning artist Jewel Isaacs, designed the image for that business.
At the 2006 census, Gordonvale had a population of 4,420. In the 2011 census, Gordonvale had a population of 6,214 people. Gordonvale has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 71378 Bruce Highway: Meringa Sugar Experiment Station Gillies Highway: Alley Family Graves The Gordonvale Library, situated at 88 Norman Street, Gordonvale is operated by the Cairns Regional Council; the Gordonvale Library was opened in 1954. Gordonvale State School was opened on 15 March 1897. Gordonvale State High School was opened 25 January 1965. In 2015, Gordonvale State High School celebrated its 50th anniversary. Operating since 1896, the Mulgrave Central sugar mill is located near the town centre in Gordon St; the mill services about 300 sugarcane farms in the local region and operates during the'crush' season. When operating, the mill emanates a strong sugary smell downwind. Tours of the mill were available, but with the increase in global sugar prices, tours have been stopped as the focus is now on sugar production.
The Mulgrave Settlers Museum is across Gordon St from the mill. It is operated by the Mulgrave Shire Historical Society; the museum has a number of historical items donated from the local community and displays that represent the early gold miners, cedar cutter
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund