click links in text for more info

Oʼodham language

Oʼodham or Papago-Pima is a Uto-Aztecan language of southern Arizona and northern Sonora, where the Tohono Oʼodham and Akimel Oʼodham reside. In 2000 there were estimated to be 9,750 speakers in the United States and Mexico combined, although there may be more due to underreporting, it is the 10th most-spoken indigenous language in the United States, the 3rd most-spoken indigenous language in Arizona after Western Apache and Navajo. It is the third-most spoken language in Pinal County and the fourth-most spoken language in Pima County, Arizona. 8% of Oʼodham speakers in the US speak English "not well" or "not at all", according to results of the 2000 Census. 13% of Oʼodham speakers in the US were between the ages of 5 and 17, among the younger Oʼodham speakers 4% were reported as speaking English "not well" or "not at all". Native names for the language, depending on the dialect and orthography, include Oʼodham ha-ñeʼokĭ, Oʼottham ha-neoki, Oʼodham ñiok; the Oʼodham language has a number of dialects.

Tohono Oʼodham Cukuḍ Kuk Gigimai Hu꞉huʼula Huhuwoṣ Totoguañ Akimel Oʼodham Eastern Gila Kohadk Salt River Western Gila Hia C-ed Oʼodham? Due to the paucity of data on the linguistic varieties of the Hia C-eḍ Oʼodham, this section focuses on the Tohono Oʼodham and Akimel Oʼodham dialects only; the greatest lexical and grammatical dialectal differences are between the Tohono Oʼodham and the Akimel Oʼodham dialect groupings. Some examples: There are other major dialectal differences between northern and southern dialects, for example: The Cukuḍ Kuk dialect has null in certain positions where other Tohono Oʼodham dialects have a bilabial: Oʼodham is an agglutinative language, where words use suffix complexes for a variety of purposes with several morphemes strung together. For clarity, note that the terms Tohono Oʼodham and Papago refer to the same language. Oʼodham phonology has a typical Uto-Aztecan inventory distinguishing 5 vowels; the retroflex consonants are apical postalveolar. Most vowels distinguish two degrees of length: long and short, some vowels show extra-short duration.

Ṣe꞉l /ʂɨːɭ/ "Seri" ṣel /ʂɨɭ/ "permission" ʼa꞉pi /ʔaːpi/ "you" da꞉pĭ /daːpɪ̥/ "I don't know", "who knows?"Papago /ɨ/ is pronounced in Pima. Additionally, in common with many northern Uto-Aztecan languages and nasals at end of words are devoiced. A short schwa sound, either voiced or unvoiced depending on position, is interpolated between consonants and at the ends of words. Extra short ⟨ĭ⟩ is realized as voiceless and devoices preceding obstruents: cuwĭ /tʃʊwi̥/ → ~ "jackrabbit". /w/ is a fricative before unrounded vowels: wisilo. Appears before /k/ and /ɡ/ in Spanish loanwords, but native words do not have nasal assimilation: to꞉nk "hill", namk "meet", ca꞉ŋgo "monkey". /p/, /ɭ/, /ɖ/ occur in native words, /ɖ/ does not occur before /i/. and are in complementary distribution, appearing before high vowels /i/ /ɨ/ /ʊ/, appearing before low vowels /a/ /ɔ/: ñeʼe "sing". They contrast though Saxton analyzes these as /ani/ and /an/ and final as in ʼa꞉ñi as /niː/. However, there are several Spanish loanwords where occurs: nu꞉milo "number".

For the most part and appear before low vowels while and before high vowels, but there are exceptions to both in Spanish loanwords: tiki꞉la "wine", TO weco / AO veco "under". There are two orthographies used for the Oʼodham language: Alvarez–Hale and Saxton; the Alvarez–Hale orthography is used by the Tohono Oʼodham Nation and the Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community, is used in this article, but the Saxton orthography is common and is official in the Gila River Indian Community. It is easy to convert between the two, the differences between them being no more than different graphemes for the same phoneme, but there are distinctions made by Alvarez–Hale not made by Saxton; the Saxton orthography does not mark word-initial /ʔ/ or extra-short vowels. Final ⟨i⟩ corresponds to Hale–Alvarez ⟨ĭ⟩ and final ⟨ih⟩ to Hale–Alvarez ⟨i⟩: Hale–Alvarez to꞉bĭ vs. Saxton tohbi /toːbĭ/ "cottontail rabbit" Hale–Alvarez ʼa꞉pi vs. Saxton ahpih /ʔaːpi/ "I" There is some disagreement among speakers as to whether the spelling of words should be only phonetic or whether etymological principles should be considered as well.

For instance, oamajda vs. wuamajda derives from oam. Some believe it should be spelled phonetically as wuamajda, reflecting the fact that it begins with /ʊa/, while others think its spelling should reflect the fact that it is derived from oam. Oʼodham has free word order within clauses. Despite the general freedom of sentence word order, Oʼodham is strictly verb-second in its placement of the auxiliary verb: cipkan ʼañ "I am working" but

1873 Bank of England forgeries

From 21 January to 28 February 1873, four American con-artists defrauded the Bank of England of £102,217, equivalent to nearly £10 million in 2015. The four men responsible for the Bank of England forgeries, brothers George and Austin Bidwell, George MacDonnell and Edwin Noyes were convicted at the Old Bailey and sentenced to life imprisonment; the discovery of the crime, the subsequent investigations and trials, received widespread attention at the time, with the London Times describing it as one of the "most skillful attempts to prey upon the complex organization of modern commerce." The men responsible were experienced fraudsters prior to the Bank of England forgeries. George Bidwell, 33 at the time of the forgeries, had been sentenced to two years imprisonment in 1865 for his part in defrauding grocers in West Virginia, his brother Austin Bidwell, 25 at the time of the forgeries, was a notorious bank forger in the United States. George MacDonnell, a Harvard graduate, had been carrying out extensive forgery operations in New England and was incarcerated at Sing Sing where he became acquainted with the Bidwell brothers, who were serving time there.

After their release, the Bidwell brothers and MacDonnell began carrying out various forgery operations. Using forged letters of credit, the three men defrauded banks across the United States and Europe. After a forgery campaign in Brazil, the three men headed over to England in 1872 to begin their scheme to defraud the Bank of England. George Bidwell contacted Edwin Noyes in New York; the scam began with Austin Bidwell setting up a deposit account with a branch of the Bank of England under the pretense of opening a pullman car manufacturing business in the region, so as not to raise suspicion of his large financial transactions. For months prior to the fraud, Bidwell behaved as an ordinary customer, depositing genuine bills, secured by George Bidwell and MacDonnell into the account. From 21 January to 28 February 1873, the group forged and cashed over 94 bills of exchange worth over £100,000, which were transferred to the Continental Bank. Noyes acted as the delivery man for the group, exchanging the funds obtained from the forged cheques for US bonds and gold.

The forgeries were discovered on 28 February 1873, when the bank contacted the alleged issuer of a banknote for the date of issue, omitted from the transactions the forgers had made that day. Noyes was arrested the next day, while making another deposit at the Continental Bank; the remaining conspirators had fled England. All four men were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment, although George Bidwell was released in 1887 due to poor health, Austin Bidwell was released in 1892. Booth, Nicholas; the Thieves of Threadneedle Street: The Victorian Fraudsters Who Almost Broke the Bank of England. The History Press. ISBN 9780752493404. Hanrahan, David C.. The Great Fraud on the Bank of England. Robert Hale. ISBN 9780709095958. Huxley, Ann. Four against the Bank of England. Random House UK. ISBN 978-0090973002. Sheppard, Stephen; the 400. Secker & Warburg. A fictional account of the robbery

Pazyryk culture

The Pazyryk culture is a Scythian nomadic Iron Age archaeological culture identified by excavated artifacts and mummified humans found in the Siberian permafrost, in the Altay Mountains and nearby Mongolia. The mummies are buried in long barrows similar to the tomb mounds of Scythian culture in Ukraine; the type site are the Pazyryk burials of the Ukok Plateau. Many artifacts and human remains have been found at this location, including the Siberian Ice Princess, indicating a flourishing culture at this location that benefited from the many trade routes and caravans of merchants passing through the area; the Pazyryk are considered to have had a war-like life. Other kurgan cemeteries associated with the culture include those of Bashadar, Ulandryk and Berel. There are so far no known sites of settlements associated with the burials, suggesting a purely nomadic lifestyle; because of a freak climatic freeze, some of the Altai burials, notably those of the 5th century BC at Pazyryk and neighbouring sites, such as Katanda and Tuekt, were isolated from external climatic variations by a protective layer of ice that conserved the organic substances buried in them.

At Pazyryk these included the bodies of horses and an embalmed man whose body was covered with tattoos of animal motifs. The remarkable textiles recovered from the Pazyryk burials include the oldest woollen knotted-pile carpet known, the oldest embroidered Chinese silk, two pieces of woven Persian fabric. Red and ochre predominate in the carpet, the main design of, of riders and griffins. Many of the Pazyryk felt hangings and cushions were covered with elaborate designs executed in appliqué feltwork, dyed furs, embroidery. Of exceptional interest are those with animal and human figural compositions, the most notable of which are the repeat design of an investiture scene on a felt hanging and that of a semihuman, semibird creature on another. Clothing, whether of felt, leather, or fur, was lavishly ornamented. Horse reins either had animal designs cut out on them or were studded with wooden ones covered in gold foil, their tail sheaths were ornamented, as were their breastpieces. Some horses were provided with leather or felt masks made to resemble animals, with stag antlers or rams’ horns incorporated in them.

Many of the trappings took the form of iron and gilt wood animal motifs either applied or suspended from them. Altai-Sayan animals display muscles delineated with dot and comma markings, a formal convention that may have derived from appliqué needlework; such markings are sometimes included in Assyrian and Urartian animal representations of the ancient Middle East. Roundels containing a dot serve the same purpose on the stag and other animal renderings executed by contemporary Śaka metalworkers. Animal processions of the Assyro-Achaemenian type appealed to many Central Asian tribesmen and are featured in their arts. Certain geometric designs and sun symbols, such as the circle and rosette, recur at Pazyryk but are outnumbered by animal motifs; the stag and its relatives figure as prominently as in Altai-Sayan. Combat scenes between carnivores and herbivores are exceedingly numerous in Pazyryk work. DNA samples recovered from the remains of Pazyryk males showed them to be belonged to clades of haplogroup R1a1.

With only two Pazyryk males were members of Y-chromosome haplogroup N1b-P43. In the related cultures such as Aldy-Bel culture and Sagly culture of the Altai region, haplogroup Q-L54 samples were found in kurgans. Aldy-Bel culture Karasuk culture Pazyryk burials Tagar culture Tashtyk culture Scythians Jordana, Xavier. "The warriors of the steppes: osteological evidence of warfare and violence from Pazyryk tumuli in the Mongolian Altai". Journal of Archaeological Science. 36: 1319–1327. Doi:10.1016/j.jas.2009.01.008. NOVA. "Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden". PBS - NOVA. Retrieved 2007-07-31. State Hermitage Museum. "Prehistoric Art - Early Nomads of the Altaic Region". The Hermitage Museum. Retrieved 2007-07-31. Сергей Иванович Руденко. Frozen Tombs of Siberia: The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520013957. Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Pazyryk culture

David Phillips Jones

David Phillips Jones more known as'Ponty' Jones was a Welsh international rugby union wing player who played club rugby for several teams, most notably Pontypool and London Welsh. He won a single cap for Wales in 1907. Jones was a mining surveyor by profession, was a classically trained harpist. A keen sportsman, he played soccer and once had a Welsh amateur trial. During the First World War he served in the South Wales Borderers, he died of pneumonia in 1936. Jones was one of four rugby playing brothers; as the brothers had the common surname of Jones, the brothers were separated by their nicknames. James was more known as'Tuan' and David as'Ponty'. Jones first played rugby for his home town of Pontymoile, before being selected for first-class rugby club, Newport, he played only 11 games for the Newport senior team before joining the newly reformed Pontypool club, making his debut for the club on 7 December 1901 in a match against Ebbw Vale RFC. Jones' career at Pontypool was successful, becoming a leading scorer over several seasons including 172 tries over his entire career.

Such was Jones' scoring record, that the left wing corner pointing to Conway Road at Pontypool's Recreation ground, was nicknamed'Ponty's Corner'. In the 1904-05 season, Jones scored 49 tries, which included six in the same game against Talywain in April 1905. Jones was made captain of Pontypool for three consecutive seasons, from 1904 to 1907. During the first decade of the 20th century, Wales was going through its First Golden Age of Rugby, the team was filled with talented back players, competition for international caps was fierce. In the 1907 Home Nations Championship, Wales had used both Teddy Morgan and Hopkin Maddock on the left wing, but when neither were available for the final Welsh encounter of the tournament, Jones was brought into the squad; the game was played on 9 March, with Welsh home advantage at the Cardiff Arms Park against Ireland. Jones came into a strong three-quarter, was partnered opposite Johnnie Williams on the wing, with Pontypool team-mate John Hart Evans and Wales captain Rhys Gabe at centre.

The Wales team were convincing winners, beating the Irish 29-0. All the points came from the backs with the three-quarters scoring five tries, three from Williams, one from Gabe, Jones scored an international try on his debut. Despite such a promising start, Jones was replaced the next season by Reggie Gibbs and never represented Wales again. Jones continued to represent Pontypool after his international career, played county rugby for Monmouthshire. In the 1908/09 season, he returned to Newport for a short period, scoring 5 tries in 14 appearances. During the 1911-12 season he broke his hip. Wales Ireland 1907 Jenkins, John M.. Who's Who of Welsh International Rugby Players. Wrexham: Bridge Books. ISBN 1-872424-10-4. Smith, David. Fields of Praise: The Official History of The Welsh Rugby Union. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0766-3

The Confession (novel)

The Confession is a 2010 legal thriller novel by John Grisham, his second novel to be published in 2010. The novel is about the murder of a high school cheerleader and how an innocent man is arrested for it; this was Grisham's first novel to be released in digital and hardcopy format. In 1998, Travis Boyette abducts and rapes Nicole "Nikki" Yarber, a teenage girl and high school student in Slone and buries her body in Joplin, Missouri some 6 hours from Slone, he watches unfazed as the police arrest and convict Donté Drumm, a black high school football player with no connection to the crime. Despite his innocence, Drumm is sentenced to death, he has been on death row for nine years. While Drumm serves his prison sentence, lawyer Robbert "Robbie" Flak fights his case while Black Americans protest his false conviction, creating a law and order situation. Meanwhile, Boyette has fled to Kansas and has been living there since, he has been suffering with a brain tumor for the past nine years and his health has deteriorated.

In 2007, with Drumm's execution only a week away, reflecting on his miserable life, he decides to do what is right: confess. He meets Reverend Keith Schroeder who takes him to Slone. Despite his confession to the public, the execution proceeds on and Drumm is executed by lethal injection; the town is beset by racial tension. Boyette reveals the resting place of Nikki and DNA samples show signs of rape and assault on her body, but before there is an arrest warrant for him, he takes off. In Slone, Flak leads legal attacks on those responsible for the false conviction and execution, while Schroeder agonizes over what he has done. Schroeder winds up making his actions public, paying a fine, resigning from his church and accepting a position at a reform-minded church in Texas; the latter happens. Donté's ordeal begins as a 17-year-old with everything going for him, he has only had mild altercations with law enforcement for possession of marijuana when he was younger. Now he loved by the girls, his potential and ambition inspire jealousy in Joey Gamble who, when rejected by Nicole, takes this out on Donté.

Joey tips off the police with an anonymous phone call proven to be his using voice analysis. When the police take Donté in for questioning, Donté naively but in good faith, signs away his Miranda rights; this is the catalyst which sees him on death row for the next nine years and executed. Donté's mother, convinced her son is innocent and prays for a reprieve, she is part of a large family. Her husband, Donté's father Riley Drumm, dies of heart disease; the girl whose brutal rape and suspected murder led to capital murder charges, a crime which upon conviction, can lead to a death sentence in the state of Texas. Nicole Yarber's mother. Reeva is theatrical in her behavior as well as irrational, she has been known to drive more than a hundred miles downriver to where it was speculated her daughter's body may have been dumped. She is adamant that the death penalty is happy to tell anyone who will listen. Reeva lives with her second husband, not Nicole's father and seems exasperated with Reeva's nine years of agony.

The real killer, in police custody in Slone at the same time Donté is detained. He is a serial rapist and had been abused himself from the age of eight by an uncle who told his parent or guardian that they were going "fishing." He carries a cane because of an apparent limp. It turns out the tumor is not malignant and the cane is there for protection in his half-way house, his seizures and intense headaches however, are real. He has spent more than half of his 44 years in prison, he remains a creep throughout and on a number of occasions intimates to Reverend Schroeder how he thinks his wife Dana is "cute." The heir to the Flak law firm who works tirelessly for his clients. He makes a promise to Donté minutes before his execution that he would find the real killer and exonerate him for the sake of his family and mother and throw a party to celebrate at his graveside. Robbie leaves no stone goes the extra mile, he files every possible motion in his appeals and he does not consider his job finished until he has sued everyone responsible for Donté's wrongful execution those parties for whom immunity from prosecution applies.

Outside of law, Robbie does not seem to have much social life and both he and his romantic partner are happy to keep their work lives separate. Robbie is not religious and yet gets invited by the Black community of Slone to speak at Donté's funeral; the Kansas-based Lutheran pastor, who aids and abets in the transportation of a convicted felon across state lines. Schroeder emphasizes forgiveness, he has strong scruples and battles with himself to discern in complex situations what is the right thing. He is seen towards the end of the book trying to bring out Donté's past belief in God, when all hope for a last-minute reprieve from the governor has been abandoned. Keith is married to Dana, substituting for his regular secretary at the Mission on the day Boyette first meets Keith, his involvement in an illegal act, however justified, gets him in trouble with his bishop but he is welcomed by a more active Lutheran congregation in Tex

Chinese flutes

Chinese flutes come in various types. They include Transverse Flutes: Dizi Koudi Tuliang Chi Hengxiao Xindi Jiajian Di End-Blown Flutes: Xiao Gudi, an ancient vertical flute made from the bones of large birds Paixiao Xun Fipple Flutes: Jiexiao "Sister xiao" Dongdi Paidi Taodi and Wudu Free-Reed flutes: Bawu Hulusi Chinese flutes are made from bamboo and belong to the bamboo classification of Chinese music, although they can be made of other materials such as jade. Ron Korb's Asian Flute Gallery (features descriptions and photos of the dizi and other Chinese wind instruments Chinese flute finger chart Extensive displays of Hulusi flute and Bawu flute