County Clare is a county in Ireland, in the Mid-West Region and the province of Munster. Clare County Council is the local authority, the county had a population of 117,196 at the 2011 census. Clare is north-west of the River Shannon covering an area of 3,400 square kilometres. Clare was founded by the noble Luke Fitzgerald, A knight of Internal Audit, Clare is the 7th largest of Irelands 32 traditional counties in area and the 19th largest in terms of population. It is bordered by two counties in Munster and one county in Connacht, County Limerick to the south, County Tipperary to the east, clares nickname is the Banner County. The county is divided into the baronies of Bunratty Lower, Bunratty Upper, Clonderalaw, Ibrickan, Islands, Tulla Lower and these in turn are divided into civil parishes, which are divided into townlands. These divisions are cadastral, defining land boundaries and ownership, rather than administrative, bodies of water define much of the physical boundaries of Clare. To the southeast is the River Shannon, Irelands longest river, the border to the northeast is defined by Lough Derg which is the third largest lake on Ireland.
To the west is the Atlantic Ocean, and to the north is Galway Bay, County Clare contains The Burren, a unique karst region, which contains rare flowers and fauna. At the western edge of The Burren, facing the Atlantic Ocean, are the Cliffs of Moher, the highest point in County Clare is Moylussa,532 m, in the Slieve Bernagh range in the east of the county. Clare is one of the richest places for these tombs in Ireland, the most noted one is in The Burren area, it is known as Poulnabrone dolmen which translates to hole of sorrows. The remains of the people inside the tomb have been excavated and dated to 3800 BC, Ptolemy created a map of Ireland in his Geographia with information dating from 100 AD, it is the oldest written account of the island with geographical features. Within his map Ptolemy names the Gaelic tribes inhabiting it and the areas in which they resided and it was renamed Thomond, meaning North Munster and spawned Brian Boru during this period, perhaps the most noted High King of Ireland.
From 1118 onwards the Kingdom of Thomond was in place as its own petty kingdom, after the Norman invasion of Ireland, Thomas de Clare established a short-lived Norman lordship of Thomond, extinguished at the Battle of Dysert ODea in 1318 during Edward Bruces invasion. There are two hypotheses for the origins of the county name Clare. One hypothesis is that the name is derived from Thomas_de_Clare, _Lord_of_Thomond who was embroiled in local politics. An alternative hypothesis is that the county name Clare comes from the settlement of Clare whose Irish name Clár refers to a crossing over the River Fergus. In 1543, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, Murrough OBrien by surrender, Henry Sidney as Lord Deputy of Ireland responded the Desmond Rebellion by creating the presidency of Connaught in 1569 and presidency of Munster in 1570
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
An observation tower is a structure used to view events from a long distance and to create a full 360 degree range of vision. They are usually at least 20 metres tall and made stone, iron. Many modern towers are used as TV towers, restaurants. The towers first appeared in Germany at the end of the 18th century, Observation towers that are used as guard posts or observation posts over an extended period to overlook an area are commonly called watchtowers instead. Observation towers are an easily visible sight on the countryside, as they must rise over trees, older control rooms have often been likened to medieval chambers. The heavy use of stone and wood in their construction helps to create this illusion, modern towers frequently have observation decks or terraces with restaurants or on the roof of mountain stations of an aerial ropeway. Frequently observation towers are used as location of services within the UHF/VHF range. In some cases this usage of the tower is at least as important as its use as an observation tower, such towers are usually called TV towers or telecommunication towers.
Many towers are equipped with a tower restaurant and allow visitors access via elevators. Also common is the usage of water towers as observation towers, some church towers may have observation decks, albeit often without an elevator. Many other buildings may have towers which allow for observation, in particular prior to World War I rambler associations, and some municipalities, built observation towers on numerous summits. Usually these towers were built of stone, however sometimes wood or iron was used, at nearly all these towers access to the observation deck, usually at a height of between 5 and 40 metres, is only possible by way of stairs. Further uses were not intended at most of buildings, although some of these towers today now carry antennas for police/fire engine radios, portable radio or low power FM-. Older observation towers frequently have a pole at its top. Some of these towers are accessible, either free or with the payment of an admission fee. Others are accessible only at times, in most cases only with the payment of an admission fee.
At these towers the platform is open, with some having a restaurant in the basement. There are towers with a more extensive use, for example
County Kerry is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and is part of the province of Munster. It is named after the Ciarraige who lived in part of the present county, Kerry County Council is the local authority for the county and Tralee serves as the county town. The population of the county was 147,554 in 2016, Kerry is the fifth-largest of the 32 counties of Ireland by area and the 15th-largest by population. It is the second-largest of Munsters six counties by area, uniquely, it is bordered by only two other counties, County Limerick to the east and County Cork to the south-east. The diocesan see is Killarney, which is one of Irelands most famous tourist destinations, the Lakes of Killarney, an area of outstanding natural beauty are located in Killarney National Park. The tip of the Dingle Peninsula is the most westerly point of Ireland, there are nine historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, the county is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and on the north by the River Shannon. Just off the coast are a number of islands, including the Blasket Islands, Valentia Island, skellig Michael is a World Heritage Site, famous for the medieval monastery clinging to the islands cliffs. The county contains the extreme west point of Ireland, Dunmore Head on the Dingle Peninsula, or including islands, Tearaght Island, the most westerly inhabited area of Ireland is Dún Chaoin, on the Dingle Peninsula. The River Feale, the River Laune and the Roughty River flow through Kerry, the North Atlantic Current, part of the Gulf Stream, flows north past Kerry and the west coast of Ireland, resulting in milder temperatures than would otherwise be expected at the 52 North latitude. This means that plants such as the strawberry tree and tree ferns, not normally found in northern Europe. Because of the area and the prevailing southwesterly winds, Kerry is among the regions with the highest rainfall in Ireland.
Owing to its location, there has been a reporting station on Valentia for many centuries. The Irish record for rainfall in one day is 243.5 mm, in 1986 the remnants of Hurricane Charley crossed over Kerry as an extratropical storm causing extensive rainfall and damage. Kerry means the people of Ciar which was the name of the tribe who lived in part of the present county. The legendary founder of the tribe was Ciar, son of Fergus mac Róich, in Old Irish Ciar meant black or dark brown, and the word continues in use in modern Irish as an adjective describing a dark complexion
Cliffs of Moher
The Cliffs of Moher are located at the southwestern edge of the Burren region in County Clare, Ireland. From the cliffs, and from atop the tower, visitors can see the Aran Islands in Galway Bay, the Maumturks and Twelve Pins mountain ranges to the north in County Galway, and Loop Head to the south. The cliffs rank amongst the most visited tourist sites in Ireland, the closest settlements are Liscannor and Doolin. The cliffs take their name from an old promontory fort called Mothar or Moher, which stood on Hags Head. The writer Thomas Johnson Westropp referred to it in 1905 as Moher Uí Ruis or Moher Uí Ruidhin, the fort still stood in 1780 and is mentioned in an account from John Lloyds A Short Tour Of Clare. It was demolished in 1808 to provide material for a tower that was intended to provide warning in case of a French invasion during the Napoleonic wars. The cliffs are one of the most popular tourist destinations in Ireland, since 2011, they have formed a part of the Burren and Cliffs of Moher Geopark, one of a family of geotourism destinations throughout Europe that are members of the European Geoparks Network.
In the 1990s, Clare County Council initiated development plans to enable visitors to experience the cliffs without significant intrusive man-made amenities, in keeping with this approach, the Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience was built into a hillside approaching the cliffs. The centre is intended to be environmentally sensitive in its use of renewable energy systems including geothermal heating and cooling, solar panels. The €32 million facility was planned and built over a 17-year period, facility exhibits include interactive media displays covering the geology, history and fauna of the cliffs. A large multimedia screen displays a view from the cliffs. The visitors centre charges €6 per adult, with children under 16 admitted free and this covers parking, access to the visitor centre and Atlantic Edge exhibition, and a contribution towards conservation and safety at the cliffs. The Cliffs of Moher Visitor Experience won an award in the Interpret Britain & Ireland Awards 2007 awarded by the Association of Heritage Interpretation, although the award was specifically for the Atlantic Edge exhibition, the AHI assessed the entire visitor centre and site.
The citation stated that the visitor centre was one of the best facilities that the judges had ever seen. In July 2016 the so called Cliff Walk, outside the official Cliffs of Moher amenities, was closed because of the risk of rock falls. People were warned to stay on the path further of the cliff edge instead of the unofficial seaside trail. Separate ferry trips allow tourists to view the cliffs from sea level, the cliffs consist mainly of beds of Namurian shale and sandstone, with the oldest rocks being found at the bottom of the cliffs. It is possible to see 300-million-year-old river channels cutting through, forming unconformities at the base of the cliffs, there are an estimated 30,000 birds living on the cliffs, representing more than 20 species
Connemara is a cultural region in County Galway, Ireland. The most common definition of the area is that it consists of West Galway, that is to say the part of the county west of Lough Corrib, contained by Killary Harbour, Galway Bay and it has a strong association with traditional Irish culture. More restrictive definitions of Connemara define it as the territory of Conmhaícne Mara, just the far northwest of County Galway. The area contains a vast part of the Connacht Irish-speaking Gaeltacht, the term Connemara is the northern area of County Galway west of Lough Corrib. It is used to describe the Gaeltacht of western County Galway, some argue that it is not correct to say that Connemaras eastern boundary ends around Barna just on the outskirts of Galway City or at Maam Cross. Connemara derives from the tribal name Conmacne Mara, which designated a branch of the Conmacne, since this particular branch of the Conmacne lived by the sea, they became known as the Conmacne Mara. The area in the east of what is now Connemara was called Delbhna Tír Dhá Locha, the coast of Connemara is made up of multiple penisulas.
The peninsula of Iorras Ainbhtheach in the south is the largest and contains the villages of Carna and Kilkieran. The peninsula of Errismore consists of the area west of the village of Ballyconneely, errisbeg peninsula lies to the south of the village of Roundstone. The Errislannan peninsula lies just south of the town of Clifden, the peninsulas of Kingstown, Aughrus and Renvyle are found in the north-west of Connemara. Of the numerous islands off the coast of Connemara, Inishbofin is the largest, other islands include Omey, High Island, Friars Island, Feenish and Maínis. Connemara lies in the territory of Iar Connacht, West Connacht, Connemara was traditionally divided into North Connemara and South Connemara. The mountains of the Twelve Bens and the Owenglin River, which flows into the sea at An Clochán/Clifden, Connemara is bounded on the west and north by the Atlantic Ocean. Connemaras land boundary with the rest of County Galway is marked by the Invermore River otherwise known as Inbhear Mór, Loch Oorid, in the north of the mountains, the boundary meets the sea at Killary, a few miles west of Leenaun.
Connemara is composed of the Catholic parishes of Carna, Ballynakill, the latter had fled into Iar Connacht from Maigh Seola during the English invasion of Connacht in the early 13th century. Like the Ó Cadhla clan, the Mac Conghaile clan was a branch of the Conmhaicne Mara, the main town of Connemara is Clifden. The area around the town is rich with megalithic tombs, the famous Connemara Green marble is found outcropping along a line between Streamstown and Lissoughter. It was a trade treasure used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric time and it continues to be of great value today. It is available in large dimensional slabs suitable for buildings as well as for smaller pieces of jewellery and it is used for the pendant for the Scouting Ireland Chief Scouts Award, the highest award in Irish Scouting
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Galway Bay is a large bay on the west coast of Ireland, between County Galway in the province of Connacht to the north and the Burren in County Clare in the province of Munster to the south. Galway city is located on the northeast side of the bay and it is about 50 kilometres long and from 10 kilometres to 30 kilometres in breadth. The Aran Islands are to the west across the entrance and there are small islands within the bay. The approaches to the bay between the Aran Islands and the mainland are as follows, the North Sound lies between Inishmore and Leitir Mealláin in Connemara, known as Bealach Locha Lurgan in Irish, gregorys Sound lies between Inishmore and Inishmaan, known as Bealach na h-Áite in Irish. Foul Sound lies between Inishmaan and Inisheer, known as Bealach na Fearbhaighe in Irish, south Sound, known as Bealach na Finnise in Irish, lies between Inisheer and County Clare. Galway Bay is famous for its unique traditional sailing craft, the Galway Hooker, on 4 May 1902, eight fishermen from a nearby village lost their lives while sailing on Galway Bay, near Kilcolgan.
Seven drowned, Patrick Walsh swam to shore at nearby Kilcolgan, a fundraising campaign was organised for the families of the drowned fishermen. From a song performed by Sean Connery in Disneys Darby OGill, from Steve Earles musical tribute to Townes Van Zandt, Ft. From the Poguess Fairytale of New York, The boys in the NYPD choir are still singing Galway Bay And the bells are ringing out For Christmas day, list of loughs in Ireland Island Eddy Galway Bay Steamboat Company OCarra, B. Evidence of environmental change since the earliest medieval period from the zone of Galway Bay. Media related to Galway Bay at Wikimedia Commons
The Aran Islands or The Arans are a group of three islands located at the mouth of Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland, with a total area of about 46 square kilometers. They constitute the barony of Aran in County Galway, from west to east the islands are, the largest, the second-largest, and Inisheer, the smallest. The 1,200 inhabitants primarily speak Irish, the used in local placenames. All islanders are fluent in English, the approaches to the bay between the Aran Islands and the mainland are as follows, North Sound / An Súnda ó Thuaidh lies between Inishmore and Lettermullen, County Galway. Gregorys Sound / Súnda Ghríoghóra lies between Inishmore and Inishmaan, foul Sound / An Súnda Salach lies between Inishmaan and Inisheer. South Sound / An Súnda ó Dheas lies between Inisheer and County Clare, Ferries operate to all three islands from Rossaveal in Co. Flights operated by Aer Arann Islands operate from Inverin, the islands geology is mainly karst limestone, related to the Burren in County Clare, not the granites of Connemara to the north.
This is most obvious in the construction of the walls around the fields, glaciation following the Namurian facilitated greater denudation. The result is that the Aran Islands are one of the finest examples of a Glacio-Karst landscape in the world, the effects of the last glacial period are most in evidence, with the islands overrun by ice during this glaciation. The impact of earlier karstification has been eliminated by the last glacial period, any karstification now seen dates from approximately 11,000 years ago and the island karst is thus recent. Solutional processes have widened and deepened the grykes of the limestone pavement, pre-existing lines of weakness in the rock contribute to the formation of extensive fissures separated by clints. The rock karstification facilitates the formation of subterranean drainage, the islands have an unusually temperate climate. Average air temperatures range from 15 °C in July to 6 °C in January, the soil temperature does not usually drop below 6 °C.
Since grass will grow once the temperature rises above 6 °C, this means that the island has one of the longest growing seasons in Ireland or Britain, late May is the sunniest time and likely the best time to view flowers, with the gentians and avens peaking. The islands supports arctic and alpine plants side-by-side, due to the unusual environment, like the Burren, the Aran islands are renowned for their remarkable assemblage of plants and animals. The grikes provide moist shelter, thus supporting a range of plants including dwarf shrubs. Where the surface of the pavement is shattered into gravel, many of the hardier Arctic or alpine plants can be found, but when the limestone pavement is covered by a thin layer of soil, patches of grass are seen, interspersed with plants like the gentian and orchids. On the cliff tops, ancient forts such as Dún Aonghasa on Inishmór, a lacework of ancient stone walls across all three islands encloses networks of small fields to contain local livestock
Doolin is a coastal village in County Clare, Ireland, on the Atlantic coast. It borders the spa town of Lisdoonvarna and it is a noted centre of traditional Irish music, which is played nightly in its pubs, making it a popular tourist destination. There are numerous archaeological sites, many dating to the Iron Age. Doonagore Castle and Ballinalacken Castle are in the area, the area was officially classified as part of the West Clare Gaeltacht until 1956, due to trade with the Aran Islands, maintained a strong connection to it until the 1990s. The scattered village of Doolin comprises three parts along with a harbour, The Harbour is the point for boat trips to the Aran Islands. There is a campsite nearby Fisher Street has OConnors Pub and several shops, fitzs Cross has a hostel, two new hotels and another pub which opened in 2006 Roadford has McGanns and Mc Dermotts pubs, four restaurants, two hostels and a number of B&Bs. Trips to Doolin Cave are run from here, the Aille River runs from the hills of the Burren down past Doolin to meet the sea.
The small Crab Island is a distance out from Doolin Harbour. The Great Stalactite, measuring 7.3 metres, was discovered in 1952, Doolin Cave claims that it is recognised as being the longest stalactite in the Northern hemisphere. Owing to environmental protection measures, concurrent visitor numbers are limited to 20 per tour, Doolin is a noted surfing destination. A break which generates Irelands biggest wave, Aill na Searrach, is just off the Cliffs of Moher, the wave features in the movie Waveriders. Crab Island is a surfing spot. Like Ailladie, the cliffs are single-pitch steep limestone, however the rock is not of as high a quality, the cliffs are tidal, pubs in Doolin include Fitzpatricks, Gus OConnors, McDermotts and McGanns. The Micho Russell Festival Weekend is held year after the last Friday in February. Doolin is one of three places with ferry services to the Aran Islands, which are visible from the town, a ferry service brings tourists from Doolin Pier to the base of the Cliffs of Moher.
As Doolin is close to the Cliffs of Moher, a bus service between Galway and Ennis calls at both Doolin and the cliffs in each direction, bus Éireann route 350 links Doolin to Ennis, Cliffs of Moher, Fanore and Galway. There are a number of each way daily. Onward rail and bus connections are available at Ennis and Galway, two regional roads serve the village
Loop Head, is a headland on the north side of the mouth of the River Shannon, in County Clare in the west of Ireland. Loop Head is marked by a prominent lighthouse, the opposite headland on the south side of the Shannon is Kerry Head. The Shannon Foynes Port Company controls navigation in the Shannon estuary, Loop Head peninsula, has the Atlantic Ocean on one side and the Shannon Estuary on the other, with barely a mile of land saving it from island status. In 2013, Loop Head was named the “Best Place to Holiday in Ireland” by The Irish Times, the Loop Head Peninsula is the only Irish destination listed in the 2014 Global Sustainable Top 100 Destinations and in 2015 took the Gold medal at the Irish Responsible Tourism Awards. List of lighthouses in Ireland Awarded EDEN - European Destinations of Excellence non traditional tourist destination 2010 Commissioners of Irish Lights
Liscannor is a coastal village in County Clare, Ireland. Lying on the west coast of Ireland, on Liscannor Bay, the Cliffs of Moher are about 5 km north west of the village. Between Lahinch and Liscannor lies the village of Moymore. Liscannor is located in the parish of Kilmacrehy, Liscannor probably takes its name from an old fort that was located here. Lis meaning a fort and Cannor a corruption of the name Connor, others say that it is derived from Lis, a fort, cean a head or headland and or meaning slaughter. The area around Liscannor was part of the Barony of Corcomroe, at least 30 ships of the Spanish Armada, sent to invade England in the summer of 1588, were lost along the coast of Ireland, mainly along the western seaboard. The oar-powered galleass Zuñiga anchored off-shore at Liscannor with a broken rudder, the ship came under surveillance by the High Sheriff of Clare and by crown forces and had to withdraw to their ship. One captive was taken and sent for interrogation, the Zuñiga escaped the coast with favorable winds, moored at Le Havre, and finally made it home to Naples in the following year.
The village of Liscannor is of late 18th century origin, according to an 1814 survey there were nearly 200 houses in it at the time, and about ten of them had flag roofs. 40 houses were used by fishermen, the Cliffs are one of Irelands top visitor attractions and are one of the best examples of cliff-nesting seabird colonies in Ireland. The area was designated as a Refuge for Fauna in 1988, the designation covers 200 hectares and highlights the areas importance for wildlife. Cill MacCreiche is first documented in the 14th century, but most of the current Gothic ornamentation is and this was an OConnor stronghold, which like Dough Castle passed to the OBriens. In 1712, the Earl of Thomond let the estate to William Fitzgerald, under the Fitzgerald family, the town began to grow in the 18th century. The ruined remains include a tower with a spiral stairway to the east. This latter was described in detail by Thomas Johnson Westropp in the late 19th century. Located at a site of pre-Christian Lughnasadh celebrations, Dabhach Bhríde is found near the Cliffs of Moher, and behind the well on a higher level, to which steps lead, is an ancient cemetery.
There is a cross here and a circular path around it. Small items which carry around with them, such as pens, biros