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O'Connell Street

O'Connell Street is Dublin's main thoroughfare. It measures 49 m in width at its southern end, 46 m at the north, is 500 m in length. During the 17th century, it was a narrow street known as Drogheda Street, it was widened in the late 1700s and renamed Sackville Street until 1924, when it was renamed in honour of Daniel O'Connell, a nationalist leader of the early 19th century, whose statue stands at the lower end of the street, facing O'Connell Bridge. Located in the heart of Dublin city, it forms part of a grand thoroughfare created in the 18th century that runs through the centre of the capital, terminating at City Hall and Dublin Castle. Situated just north of the River Liffey, the street runs close to a north-south orientation, it has been centre-stage in Irish history, attracting the city's most prominent monuments and public art through the centuries, formed the backdrop to one of the 1913 Dublin Lockout gatherings, the 1916 Easter Rising, the Irish Civil War of 1922, the destruction of the Nelson Pillar in 1966, many public celebrations and demonstrations through the years – a role it continues to play to this day.

State funeral corteges have passed the GPO on their way to Glasnevin Cemetery, while today the street is used as the main route of the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade, as the setting for the 1916 Commemoration every Easter Sunday, it serves as a major bus route artery through the city centre. The modern tram, the Luas, has undergone an extension and trams now run once again through O'Connell Street, it only travels in one direction, the return loop, to link the system at St. Stephen's Green, runs via Marlborough Street, parallel with and east of O'Connell Street. O'Connell Street has its origins in a street named Drogheda Street dating from the 17th century. Laid out by Henry Moore, Earl of Drogheda, it was a third of the width of the present-day O'Connell Street, located on the site of the modern eastern carriageway and extending from Parnell Street to the junction with Abbey Street. In the 1740s, a wealthy banker and property speculator by the name of Luke Gardiner acquired the upper part of Drogheda Street extending down to Henry Street as part of a much larger land deal.

He demolished the western side of Drogheda Street creating an exclusive elongated residential square 46m in width, thus establishing the scale of the modern-day thoroughfare. The new, more ordered western side featured modest two-bay houses to the south intended for merchants, larger three-bay houses further north, while the eastern side had many mansions, the grandest of, Drogheda House rented by the sixth Earl of Drogheda. Gardiner laid out a mall down the central section of the street, lined with low granite walls and obelisks topped with oil-fuelled lamp globes, it was planted with trees a few years later. He titled the new development'Sackville Street' after the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Duke of Dorset, it was known as'Sackville Mall','Gardiner's Mall' or simply'The Mall'. However, due to the limited lands owned by the Gardiners in this area, the Rotunda Hospital sited just off the street at the bottom of Parnell Square – developed by the family – was not built on axis with Sackville Street, terminating the vista.

It had been Gardiner's intention to break this grand new street through to the river, however, he died in 1755, with his son taking over the estate. It was not until 1777 that the planning body in the city, the Wide Streets Commission, obtained a financial grant from Parliament and work could begin to realise this plan. For the next 10 years work progressed in demolishing a myriad of dwellings and other buildings, laying out the new roadway and building new terraces. Upon completion c. 1785–90, one of the finest streets in Europe had been created. The Wide Streets Commission had envisaged and realised marching terraces of unified and proportioned façades extending from the river as far north as Princes Street, their simple red brick elevations off-set with a major classical cut stone building near the centre; the street became a commercial success upon the opening of Carlisle Bridge, designed by James Gandon, in 1793 for pedestrians and 1795 for all traffic. Sackville Street prospered in the 1800s, though an invisible boundary seems to have been maintained for some time between the Upper and Lower street.

As planned, Lower Sackville Street became successful as a commercial location. By contrast, the northern end proved not to be as successful initially; as a result, a difference between the two ends of the street developed: the planned lower end successful and bustling next to the river, the upper end featuring a mixture of less prominent businesses and old townhouses, some converted for commercial use and growing somewhat decrepit. Upon his visit to Dublin in 1845, William Makepeace Thackeray observed: "The street is exceedingly broad and handsome. In this, the great street of the town, there is scarcely anyone, it is as vacant and listless as Pal

Euro-Excellence Inc v Kraft Canada Inc

Euro-Excellence Inc v Kraft Canada Inc, 2007 SCC 37, 3 S. C. R. 20, is a Supreme Court of Canada judgment on Canadian copyright law on the issue of indirect infringement and its application to parallel importation. Kraft Canada sued Euro-Excellence Inc. for copyright infringement due to their importation of Côte d’Or and Toblerone chocolate bars from Europe into Canada. A majority of the court found that the copyright claim could not succeed, although they split on whether the claim failed due to the rights of an exclusive licensee or due to the scope of copyright law. Kraft Canada Inc. was the exclusive Canadian importer and distributor of Toblerone chocolate bars since 1990, the exclusive Canadian distributor of Côte d’Or chocolate bars since 2001. These agreements were entered into with Kraft Foods Belgium SA and Kraft Foods Schweiz AG of Belgium and Switzerland, respectively. Euro-Excellence was an authorized distributor of Côte d’Or chocolate bars from 1993 until 2000, was the exclusive Canadian distributor between 1997 and 2000.

Their distribution agreement with Kraft expired in 2000 and was not renewed, although they continued to import and distribute the chocolate bars which they acquired in Europe. Beginning in 2001, Euro-Excellence imported Toblerone bars from Europe without authorization. On October 25, 2002, Kraft Foods Belgium SA registered three Côte d’Or logos and two Toblerone logos as copyrighted works in Canada, entered into an agreement with Kraft Canada as the exclusive licensee for production and reproduction of the copyrighted logos. Based on the distribution of logos on the chocolate bars, Kraft Canada Inc. sued Euro-Excellence for copyright infringement. The Federal Court ruled in favour of Kraft Canada, finding that the logos in question were the proper subject matter for copyright, that they were reproduced contrary to the Copyright Act; the court awarded Kraft Canada $300,000 in damages and issued an order "that the product be rendered non-infringing". The Federal Court of Appeal allowed in the appeal in part and referred the issue of damages back to the trial judge.

However, the trial judge confirmed the original order of $300,000 in damages. The Supreme Court, in four separate written judgments, considered two legal issues: Is the copyrighted work being "sold" or "distributed" when it is printed on the wrapper of a consumer product? Can an exclusive licensee of a copyright claim protection against secondary infringement when the copyrighted work was produced by the owner-licensor? A majority of the court decided the case in favour of Euro-Excellence, but there was disagreement on the grounds for why the copyright claim could not succeed. Five justices held that there was a sale and distribution of a copyrighted work under s. 27 of the Copyright Act. The copyrighted logos were sold as part of the packaging on the chocolate bars, therefore constituted an infringing sale of a copyrighted work. Rothstein J. with whom Binnie and Deschamps JJ. concurred, rejected the "merely incidental" doctrine proposed by Bastarache J.: I see no statutory authority for the proposition that "incidental" works are not protected by the Copyright Act, R.

S. C. 1985, c. C-42; this Court's holding in CCH confirms that all artistic works receive the protection of copyright if they meet the requisite standards of "skill and judgment" Abella J. writing for herself and McLachlin C. J. agreed with Rothstein's position on the issue of the sale of copyrighted works: There is nothing in the Act to endorse a restrictive definition of "sell". Section 64 of the Act extends copyright protection to labels; when a product is sold, title to its wrapper is transferred to the purchaser. The Act is indifferent as to. Bastarache J. with whom LeBel and Charron JJ. concurred, would have struck down Kraft Canada's claim based on his interpretation of the Copyright Act, which precluded protection for works which were "merely incidental" to the product being sold. Bastarache based this interpretation on the Supreme Court's rulings in Society of Composers and Music Publishers of Canada v. Canadian Assn. of Internet Providers and Kirkbi AG v. Ritvik Holdings Inc. to differentiate between the protection afforded by copyright law and trademark law.

He held that "he protection offered by copyright cannot be leveraged to include protection of economic interests that are only tangentially related to the copyrighted work."Fish J. writing for himself, concurred with the majority in result, agreed with Rothstein J. that the issue should be decided on the basis of the licensing issue, but expressed doubt as to whether copyright would apply to the claim in this case: "Without so deciding, I express grave doubt whether the law governing the protection of intellectual property rights in Canada can be transformed in this way into an instrument of trade control not contemplated by the Copyright Act. In CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada, the Court held that three elements must be proven to establish secondary infringement: a primary infringement the secondary infringer should have known that he or she was dealing with a product of infringement, the secondary infringer sold, distributed or exposed for sale the infringing goodsHowever, due to s. 27 of the Copyright Act, where a work in question was imported, only "hypothetical infringement" was necessary instead of primary infringement.

Rothstein J. noted that this section protected Canadian copyright holders from parallel importation of copyrighted works, because an infringing work in Canada may not be infringing in the country of its manufacture. Therefore, s. 27 requires, for imported goods, only that the plaintiff

Ranjani Shettar

Ranjani Shettar was born in 1977 in Bangalore, India. She is a visual artist, best known for her large-scale sculptural installations, she lives and works in Karnataka, India. Artworks by Ranjani Shettar can be found in a number of leading public collections, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Museum of Modern Art, New York Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Kiran Nadar Museum of Art and the Walker Art Center. Shettar's sculptural creations combine elements of nature and industry by using a range of materials that include beeswax, wood, latex, PVC tubing, silicone rubber, metal, she shows a deep regard for her materials by taking the time to get to know them: all their strengths and limitations. Known for bringing traditional crafts and techniques into her contemporary work, the care of her handling and the skill of her manipulation is obvious in the transformations of her materials into her artworks, she crafts both natural and industrial materials into multidimensional works that bring forth the metaphysical characteristics of existing within a changing physical environment.

The relationship between man and nature is central to Shettar's practices. She has always been fascinated with the force of nature and the effects that human activity has on nature, her move to Karnataka, a rural part of India, has placed her in an environment where nature is much closer and more revealed than in her previous urban life. Her attitude towards nature and how it manifests in her work is not only aesthetic, but ethical and representative of her way of life. Shettar received her Bachelors of Fine Arts in 1998 and her Masters of Fine Arts in 2000, from the College of Fine Art Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath and the Institute of Advanced Studies Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath in Bangalore respectively. Shettar's finished works are grand in scale and effect, so it may come as surprising that her art begins in a modest way. Ranjani Shettar had her first solo exhibition in the United States at the Talwar Gallery in New York, NY in 2004; the Indian Spring showcased two of her sculptural works: Vasanta and In Bloom.

Vasanta is characterized by its intensity: a cosmic curtain representative of transitions, while In Bloom is a luxurious composition that celebrates the indulgence of materiality. Holland Cotter reviewing the exhibition for The New York Times wrote “Ranjani Shettar, a young Indian artist based in Bangalore, makes her New York solo debut with this two‐sculpture show, itʹs a beauty.” Deepak Talwar, owner of the gallery, befriended the artist one year earlier and describes her art as speaking “with own unique and elegant language.” Talwar notes on the artist's devotion and understanding of her materials, remarking on her dedication to process. She is an artist unafraid of time, her works evolve over months or years, a process which enables her to foster a strong relationship with the materials she uses, she uses sustainable materials that correspond with the artist's deep sense of ecological responsibility. Her love of nature is rooted in the coexistence of nature and man. Ranjani Shettar is the first living Indian artist to have a solo exhibition at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City in 2018.

Her work was described as compelling both abstractly and figuratively, gravity defying, a “fine synthesis of unlikely materials.” Shettar is an artist, both innovative and modern as well as in tune to tradition. Her art is both inspired and responsive, “ultimately, it is administered by a subjective logic and ideology—one that incorporates observation and social responsibility.” Her work has been praised all over the world, called “bold experimentation” in Boston and reflective in Washington, “radically transformative” in New York, “stunning and sensual” in San Francisco. Shettar's projects are sculptural, however she has experimented in other forms as well. One such project is an artist's book in collaboration with The Museum of Modern Art; the covers are made of zinc-alloy with silver inlay and the pages consist of 16 prints accordion book inspired by different Monsoon rains in India and a special text by Anita Desai. There are silkscreen and wood block prints and laser prints. Shettar's works have been the subject of various publications from National Gallery of Victoria and galleries like the Talwar Gallery and Marian Goodman Gallery.

Shettar has been awarded with the Hebbar Foundation award in 1999 and 2003, as well as the Charles Wallace Trust Award in 2004, the Sanskriti award in 2008, the Aditya Vikram Birla Kalakiran Puraskar in 2011 for her works. 2019 The Phillips Collection, Earth Songs for a Night Sky, Washington DC, US 2018 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Seven ponds and a few raindrops, New York, NY, US Talwar Gallery, On and on it goes on, New York, NY, US 2017 Talwar Gallery, Bubble trap and a double bow, New Delhi, India 2014 Talwar Gallery, Night skies and daydreams, New York, New York Talwar Gallery, Between the sky and earth, New Delhi, India 2012 Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum in Mumbai, High tide for a blue moon, India Museum of Modern Art, Artist's Book in New York City 2011 National Gallery of Victoria and Sunshine, in Melbourne, Australia Hermes Foundation, Flame of The Forest, in Singapore Talwar Gallery, Present Continuous, New Delhi, India2009: Talwar Gallery, New York, NY, US 2009 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, New Work, in San Francisco, California 2008 The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, FOCUS, in Fort Worth, Texas Institute of Contemporary Art, Momentum 10, in Boston, Massachuset

Göynük Canyon

Göynük Canyon is a canyon in Antalya Province, southwestern Turkey. The canyon is located inside the Beydağları Coastal National Park, about 4 km to Göynük village of Kemer district in Antalya Province; the 4.5 km -long canyon is an important part of the long distance trail Lycian Way. There are ponds inside the canyon, it offers outdoor recreational activities such as trekking on a daily base. By April 2009, touristic facilities were opened in the canyon, which provide security equipment, guidance service and food; the canyon is accessible by an about 45-minute walk from Göynük or by ride on any off-road vehicle or motorcycle, which can be rented in the village. In addition, buses depart from Göynük to the canyon on an hourly base; the canyon entrance is reached after hiking a 2–3 km mountainous trail. As of 2013, admission to the canyon cost 5.00, a fee for compulsory rented security outfit was 30,00. The fenced canyon closes at 19:00 hours local time


Dobšiná is a town in the Slovenské rudohorie mountains in Slovakia, on the Slaná River, north-west of Košice. It is situated between Revúcka vrchovina and Volovské vrchy in the Carpathians, lies to the south of the beautiful Stratená valley, watered by the river Hnilec, enclosed on all sides by mountains; the well-known Dobšinská Ice belongs to the territory of the village. The earliest surviving written reference to the place dates from 1326, it received a town charter in 1417, becoming a major town for the minority of Carpathian Germans and a center of mining and iron processing in the past. In the vicinity are mines of various materials, some of them ancient; until the 18th century, Dobšiná was more or less a German enclave, but after strict Magyarization, the German community lost some of its strength, although it was still the dominant ethnic group in the town. Oddly enough, in 1927 there was a German Festival to celebrate the 600th anniversary, much of, conducted in German, as the majority of the town still spoke it, as well as Hungarian.

The church records from as early as the 1600s show. The residents referred to themselves as Dobschauer or Topschauer and spoke a dialect of German called Buliner. During World War II, Slovak forces forced the ethnic Germans to leave, at the war's end, when they were returning to their home, Slovak soldiers massacred most of them, thereby destroying the German presence in the town. After the war, Slovaks from other parts of Czechoslovakia were resettled in the vacant homes. According to the 2001 census, the town had 4,896 inhabitants, of whom 88.58 percent were Slovaks, 9.01 percent Roma, 0.63 percent Hungarians and 0.27 percent Czechs. German family names can still be found in the local telephone directory, but the holders of them have been assimilated as Slovaks; the religious structure was 35.23 percent Roman Catholics, 33.58 percent people without religious affiliation, 25.25 percent Lutherans and 0.47 percent Greek Catholics. Dobšiná is twinned with: Šternberk, Czech Republic Teistungen, Germany Sajószentpéter, Hungary Kobiór, Poland Rudabánya, Hungary List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1746–1923 Greek Catholic church records: 1818–1895 Lutheran church records: 1626–1944 Official website Surnames of living people in Dobsina

Jacopo Godani

Jacopo Godani is an Italian-born dancer-choreographer who directs Dresden Frankfurt Dance Company Godani was born in La Spezia, where he began studying classical ballet and modern dance techniques in 1984 at the Centro studi Danza, under the direction of Loredana Rovagna. He pursued studies in the visual arts for three years at the Fine Arts School of Carrara. In 1986, Godani was accepted to further his studies at Maurice Béjart's international dance centre, Mudra in Brussels. Godani made his professional debut in 1988 performing with several Paris based contemporary dance companies. In 1990, Godani began his choreographic career, his work in Brussels was produced by the theatre Atelier Saint Anne and was supported by the Plateau theatre. From 1991 to 2000, Godani has been a leading soloist with William Forsythe's Ballet Frankfurt and has collaborated with Forsythe on the choreographic creation of many of Ballet Frankfurt’s most representative pieces. Godani developed his career as a choreographer creating original works for international companies such as: Royal Ballet Covent Garden, Bayerisches Staatsballett, Compañía Nacional de Danza, Nederlands Dans Theater, Royal Danish Ballet, Ballet British Columbia, Le Ballet du Capitole de Toulouse, Corpo di ballo del Teatro alla Scala, Royal Ballet of Flanders, Ballet de l’Opera national du Rhin, Finnish National Ballet, Semperoper Ballett, Sydney Dance Company, Israeli Opera Ballet & Suzanne Dellal Centre, Het Nationale Ballet, Les Ballets de Monte Carlo and Cedar Lake Contemporary Ballet.

Godani was appointed as Artistic Director and Choreographer of the Dresden Frankfurt Dance Company beginning with the 2015/2016 season. Godani conceives all stages of work from the initial choreography through to designing the spaces, objects and stage setting where his actions take place, writes text and concepts for his dramaturgical work, styles the image of interpreters conceiving costumes and develops innovative ways of using lighting and projections, creates/edits music for some of his pieces. Godani formed a team of professionals to collaborate on the development of original ideas applied to all fields that require a creative and innovative concept to reflect the progressive perspective of our contemporary world. Http://