Album, is a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item on CD, record, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century, first as books of individual 78rpm records, vinyl LPs are still issued, though in the 21st century album sales have mostly focused on compact disc and MP3 formats. The audio cassette was a format used from the late 1970s through to the 1990s alongside vinyl, an album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places. Recording may take a few hours to years to complete, usually in several takes with different parts recorded separately. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed live, the majority of studio recordings contain an abundance of editing, sound effects, voice adjustments, etc. With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, and sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, historically, the term album was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, the LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. It was adopted by the industry as a standard format for the album. Apart from relatively minor refinements and the important later addition of stereophonic sound capability, the term album had been carried forward from the early nineteenth century when it had been used for collections of short pieces of music. Later, collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums, as part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some commenters have declared that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. Sometimes shorter albums are referred to as mini-albums or EPs, Albums such as Tubular Bells, Amarok, Hergest Ridge by Mike Oldfield, and Yess Close to the Edge, include fewer than four tracks. There are no rules against artists such as Pinhead Gunpowder referring to their own releases under thirty minutes as albums. These are known as box sets, material is stored on an album in sections termed tracks, normally 11 or 12 tracks. A music track is a song or instrumental recording. The term is associated with popular music where separate tracks are known as album tracks. When vinyl records were the medium for audio recordings a track could be identified visually from the grooves
Blues is a genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs, spirituals, Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. Blue notes, usually thirds or fifths flattened in pitch, are also a part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove, Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times, Early blues frequently took the form of a loose narrative, often relating the troubles experienced in African-American society. Many elements, such as the format and the use of blue notes. The origins of the blues are closely related to the religious music of the Afro-American community. The first appearance of the blues is often dated to after the ending of slavery and, later and it is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the former slaves. Chroniclers began to report about blues music at the dawn of the 20th century, the first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908. Blues has since evolved from unaccompanied vocal music and oral traditions of slaves into a variety of styles and subgenres. Blues subgenres include country blues, such as Delta blues and Piedmont blues, as well as urban blues styles such as Chicago blues, World War II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive opening of blues music to a wider audience, especially white listeners. In the 1960s and 1970s, a form called blues rock evolved. The term blues may have come from blue devils, meaning melancholy and sadness, the phrase blue devils may also have been derived from Britain in the 1600s, when the term referred to the intense visual hallucinations that can accompany severe alcohol withdrawal. As time went on, the phrase lost the reference to devils, by the 1800s in the United States, the term blues was associated with drinking alcohol, a meaning which survives in the phrase blue law, which prohibits the sale of alcohol on Sunday. Though the use of the phrase in African-American music may be older, it has been attested to in print since 1912, in lyrics the phrase is often used to describe a depressed mood. The lyrics of traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times. Two of the first published songs, Dallas Blues and Saint Louis Blues, were 12-bar blues with the AAB lyric structure. Handy wrote that he adopted this convention to avoid the monotony of lines repeated three times, the lines are often sung following a pattern closer to rhythmic talk than to a melody
Rollin' and Tumblin'
Rollin and Tumblin is a blues song first recorded by American singer/guitarist Hambone Willie Newbern in 1929. Called a great Delta blues classic, it has been interpreted by hundreds of Delta and Chicago blues artists, Rollin and Tumblin has also been refashioned by a variety of rock-oriented artists. Hambone Willie Newbern recorded Roll and Tumble Blues on March 14,1929 in Atlanta and it shares several elements of Minglewood Blues, first recorded in 1928 by Gus Cannons Jug Stompers. Newberns Roll and Tumble Blues is a piece with his vocal. The song is performed in the key of A using an open tuning, the tempo varies from an initial 140 beats per minute to a final 158 bpm. A key feature of the song is that the first verse begins on the IV chord, after the first two measures the IV chord resolves to the I chord. Often the IV chord moves to IV♭7 on the measure or the last two beats of the second measure. The lyrics follow a standard blues AAB pattern and relate a failed relationship, Roll and it was released before the advent of race records charts, however, it soon became an oft-covered standard and Newberns best-known song. The best-known version is Muddy Waters Rollin and Tumblin, with Ernest Big Crawford on bass, leonard Chess insisted that Waters record the song less than a month after Waters had recorded a version for the rival Parkway label, featuring his bandmates Little Walter and Baby Face Leroy Foster. The Parkway label credits the Baby Face Leroy Trio, with vocals by Leroy, elmore James recorded a different arrangement of the song in 1960, with himself credited as author. In 1961, Howlin Wolf recorded Down in the Bottom, which employed a new set of lyrics and is credited to Willie Dixon, Delta bluesman Johnny Shines recorded a version called Red Sun, with the traditional music but different, prison-themed lyrics. R. L. Burnside recorded what he titled Rollin Tumblin on several occasions, in 2010, Cyndi Lauper recorded Rollin and Tumblin with Ann Peebles for her blues album Memphis Blues. HowellDevine recorded a version for their album, Jumps, Boogies. Johnson, by Jeff Beck in 2000 on You Had It Coming, the song was recorded by Bob Dylan for his 2006 album Modern Times. Dylan claims authorship of the song on most versions of his record, while musically the arrangement is very similar to the Muddy Waters version, Dylans introduces all new verses, though retaining the two opening lines. A version of the song can be seen on Dr. Feelgoods Going Back Home show from 1975 which was released on DVD back in 2005, Dr. Feelgood also covered the song on their second album Malpractise from 1975. Despite the similarity in title New Minglewood Blues was a different song, the album credits Chris Dreja, Jim McCarty, Jimmy Page and Keith Relf as the songwriters. The same year, Captain Beefheart and His Magic Band recorded Sure Nuff n Yes I Do as the song on their debut album, Safe As Milk