Canadian Junior Hockey League
The Canadian Junior Hockey League, an association of Canadian junior A ice hockey leagues and teams, formed in November 1993, emerging from the Canada West Association of Junior'A' Hockey. The champion of the Canadian Junior Hockey League wins the National Junior A Championship; the CJHL spans the majority of Canada, from the Pacific Coast to the Atlantic Coast. The only regional organizations of Hockey Canada to not have member teams or a league are Hockey Newfoundland and Labrador and Hockey North. In addition to Hockey NL and Hockey North, Hockey New Brunswick and Hockey PEI do not have their own leagues, but have teams from their region playing under Hockey Nova Scotia with the Maritime Junior A Hockey League. In 1970, the Ontario Major Junior Hockey League, Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, Western Canada Hockey League broke away from the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and became its own governing body; these new "Major Junior" leagues were given exclusive permission to compete for the Memorial Cup, Canada's Junior "A" championship prior to 1970.
In May 1970, CAHA chairman Frank McKinnon tabled a motion at the organization's Annual General Meeting to allow the remaining Junior "A" leagues to compete at a national level for their own championship. The motion was granted and McKinnon and the Manitoba Amateur Hockey Association donated the Manitoba Centennial Trophy to the new championship in honour of 100 years of ice hockey in Manitoba. Leagues The leagues that would be involved in that first year were: British Columbia Junior Hockey League Alberta Junior Hockey League Saskatchewan Amateur Junior Hockey League Manitoba Junior Hockey League Southern Ontario Junior A Hockey League Thunder Bay Junior A Hockey League Central Junior A Hockey League Northern Ontario Junior Hockey Association Maritime Junior A Hockey League New Brunswick Junior Hockey League In 1971, the Newfoundland Amateur Hockey Association jumped on board by allowing their provincial Junior champion to compete in the Centennial Cup playdowns; this lasted until 1977. In 1971, the Maritime Junior A Hockey League folded, leaving the Charlottetown Islanders to enter the Centennial Cup playdowns as an independent team.
In 1971, the Newfoundland Junior A Hockey League entered the fray. In 1972, the Northern Ontario Junior Hockey Association folded when two of its teams jumped to Major Junior; the Charlottetown Islanders closed their doors after a marginal performance in the 1972 playdowns. Two new leagues came in 1972, the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League was created as a rival league to the Southern Ontario Junior A Hockey League; the SOJHL was more in Southwestern Ontario, while the OPJHL focused more on the Greater Toronto Area. The other new league was the Quebec Junior A Hockey League. In 1973, the Island Junior Hockey League of Prince Edward Island made the jump from Junior B to Junior A. In 1975, the Eastern Junior A Hockey League ascended to Junior A from the Junior B ranks in Cape Breton Island. In 1977, the Metro Valley Junior Hockey League jumped from Junior B to Junior A in mainland Nova Scotia. After one year of playing head-to-head for the provincial Junior A title, the EJHL folded and left the MVJHL as the only league in Nova Scotia.
After various attempts to create a stable Junior A system in Newfoundland, the NAHA and its teams pulled out of National play in 1977. The Southern Ontario league folded in 1977, the Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League was promoted to Junior A in 1978 and the NorMan Junior Hockey League was promoted to Junior A in Manitoba in 1979. A second league was founded in British Columbia in 1974, the Pacific Coast Junior Hockey League was created to compete with the British Columbia Junior Hockey League - this league was absorbed by the BCJHL in 1979. A year the Peace-Cariboo Junior Hockey League was promoted from Junior B in East-Central British Columbia; that same year, the Thunder Bay Junior A Hockey League folded. They were replaced by a single team, the Thunder Bay Kings to be the two-time Centennial Cup champion Thunder Bay Flyers; the summer of 1982 saw the folding of the Quebec Junior A League. In 1983, the New Brunswick Junior Hockey League folded and merged with the Metro Valley Junior Hockey League.
In 1985, the NorMan Junior Hockey League folded. In 1987, the OPJHL known as the Ontario Junior Hockey League, folded after dropping to only four teams. During the 1988 Centennial Cup playoff run, the Black Lake Miners of Quebec were allowed to enter as an independent team; that summer, the Quebec Provincial Junior Hockey League was formed, rebranded the Quebec Junior AAA Hockey League in 1997. In 1989, Newfoundland would take a second shot at Junior A with the promotion of the St. John's Junior Hockey League; the league dropped back to Junior B in 1991. In 1991, the Island Junior Hockey League folded and merged with the Metro Valley league; the Metro Valley League now had all three Maritime provinces incorporated in it and decided to change its name to the Maritime Junior A Hockey League. Out West in 1991, the Peace-Cariboo league expanded south into the Kootenays and rebranded itself as the Rocky Mountain Junior Hockey League. In 1993, Southern Ontario came back in a big way with two leagues—the Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League and the Metro Junior A Hockey League.
By 1998, the two leagues would merge under the Ontario Provincial banner with 37 teams under its belt. In 1999, the Rocky Mountain Junior Hockey League folded. In 2000, the Thunder Bay Flyers folded, having competed in the United States Hockey L
The Pas is a town in Manitoba, located at the confluence of the Pasquia River and the Saskatchewan River within Division No. 21 in the Northern Region. It is 630 km northwest of the provincial capital, 40 km from the border of Saskatchewan, it is sometimes still called Paskoyac by locals after the first trading post, called Fort Paskoya and constructed during French colonial rule. The Pasquia River begins in the Pasquia Hills in east central Saskatchewan; the French in 1795 knew the river as Basquiau. Known as "The Gateway to the North", The Pas is a multi-industry northern Manitoba town serving the surrounding region; the main components of the region's economy are agriculture, commercial fishing, tourism and services. The main employer is a lumber mill operated by Canadian Kraft Papers; the Pas contains one of the two main campuses of the University College of the North. The Pas is bordered by the Rural Municipality of Kelsey, as well as part of the Opaskwayak Cree Nation; the area's original inhabitants were the Cree.
Their ancestors are thought to have migrated from the southeastern prairies over 9000 years ago. The first European recorded to encounter the Cree was Henry Kelsey, an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, he travelled through the area between 1692 on his way to the Canadian prairies. During the years of New France, La Vérendrye, the first western military commander, directed the construction of Fort Paskoya near here, it was named after the people of the Pasquia River. For years the settlement was called Pascoyac, sometimes shortened to Le Pas; the Pas Indian Band surrendered their reserve lands around the site of the Hudson Bay trading post and the Anglican Church Mission in the first decade of the 20th century to make way for the Hudson Bay Railway and development of the Town of The Pas, incorporated in 1912. The Pas Indian Band was relocated to the north side of the Saskatchewan River and changed its name to Opaskwayak Cree Nation; the area today is composed of three distinct communities: the Town of The Pas, the Opaskwayak Cree Nation, the Rural Municipality of Kelsey.
The history of the city and the region may be seen at the Sam Waller Museum, located in the old courthouse in downtown The Pas. The population of The Pas in 2011 was 5,513, while its population density was 115.3 per km². According to the 2011 National Household Survey, the composition of its population was Aboriginals: First Nations and Metis; the visible minority population was 2.1%. The religious make up of The Pas is. Most of the residents are Canadian citizens. About 10.3% of the population can speak a language, not recognized as an official language of Canada. Aboriginal languages are the most common spoken non-official language; the median age in The Pas is 34.1 years old. Age groups are: 9 and younger, 10 to 19, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50 to 64, 65+; the unemployment rate in The Pas was 7.3%. Educational attainment: No certificate 30.2%. The marital status of all those aged over 15 is: living with common-law partner. There are 2,324 private dwellings in most of them being occupied; the average number of people per household is 2.5.
The Pas was made famous for many young Canadians when author Farley Mowat published Lost in the Barrens in 1956. This was the first of two children/young adults books, set in the vicinity and which mentions the town prominently; the story begins at a remote trapping lodge, moves into the Canadian "barren lands" further north. The Pas is the main trading centre to which the book's protagonists travel to stock up on provisions and supplies to take back to their homes in the bush. In Canada and elsewhere, the book is used as part of school reading; the book's sequel, Curse of the Viking Grave, makes mention of The Pas. The Pas is the site of the Northern Manitoba Trappers' Festival, Manitoba's oldest festival and one of Canada’s oldest winter festival, it has been held every year continuously since 1948 and features a wide variety of winter activities including ice fishing, muskrat skinning, an annual sled dog race, part of the International Federation of Sleddog Sports. The 1991 CBC movie, Conspiracy of Silence, about the murder of Helen Betty Osborne, took place in The Pas.
The Pas experiences a humid continental climate with short warm summers. The seasonal temperature range is between −19.1 °C and 18.1 °C, resulting in an amplitude of 37.2 °C. The highest temperature recorded in The Pas was 100 °F on 19 July 1941; the coldest temperature recorded was −57 °F on 18 February 1966. The OCN Blizzard, hockey team, competes in the Manitoba Junior Hockey League; the Pas is home to the OCN Storm of the Keystone Junior Hockey League, the Huskies minor hockey league, the MBCI Spartans who compete in Zone 11 of the MHSAA. The Intermediate'A' version of The Pas Huskies won the 1968-69 Manitoba championship; the son of former Husky star defenceman Jack Giles, Curt Giles, had a career in the NHL with New York Rangers, St. Louis, Minnesota; the Pas native Murray Anderson was the first known locally born player to make the NHL, with Washington Capitals in the 1970s. Wa
Hockey Canada, which merged with the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association in 1994, is the national governing body of ice hockey and ice sledge hockey in Canada and is a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation. Hockey Canada controls a majority of ice hockey in Canada. There are some notable exceptions, such as the Canadian Hockey League and U Sports who are partnered with Hockey Canada, but are not members, as well as any of Canada's professional hockey clubs. Hockey Canada is based in Calgary, Alberta with a secondary office in Ottawa and regional centres in Toronto and Montreal, Quebec; the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association was founded on December 4, 1914, when 21 delegates from across Canada met at the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. The organization was made to oversee the amateur level of the sport at the national level; the Allan Cup donated in 1908 by Sir H. Montagu Allan, was selected as the championship of amateur hockey in Canada. William Northey, the trustee of the Allan Cup, was named the first chairman, while Dr. W. F. Taylor was named the inaugural president.
The Memorial Cup was the junior amateur championship of Canada. In 1920, after the Winnipeg Falcons won the Allan Cup over the University of Toronto, they represented Canada at the 1920 Summer Olympic Games. Canada would go 3-0-0 to win the sport's first Olympic gold medal; the Ottawa and District Amateur Hockey Association joined in 1920, followed by the Maritime Amateur Hockey Association in 1928. On June 30, 1947, the CAHA, the National Hockey League and the Amateur Hockey Association of the United States makes an agreement that no player under the age of 18 can be signed as a professional player without the permission of their amateur club; that same year, the International Ice Hockey Federation changes the rules on amateur status. The rule change means the 1948 Allan Cup champion Royal Montreal Hockey Club were not eligible for the 1948 Winter Olympics, so the CAHA sent the RCAF Flyers instead and were victorious. At the 1952 Winter Olympics, the Edmonton Mercuries won their nation's last Olympic gold until 2002.
In 1961, the Trail Smoke Eaters won Canada's 19th and last world championship for 33 years at the 1961 World Ice Hockey Championships. In 1964, Father David Bauer formed the Canada's national team in response to the success of the programs set up by the Soviet Union and Sweden. Three years the CAHA opened its first national office, located in Winnipeg; the Newfoundland Amateur Hockey Association, led by association president Don Johnson, entered the CAHA in 1966. Johnson would become CAHA president in 1975; the New Brunswick Amateur Hockey Association left the Maritime AHA brand in 1968 and entered the CAHA as a member. In 1968, the Hockey Canada organization was founded to oversee Canada's national teams. In 1970, the CAHA's 13 Junior. Tier I, the Western Canada Junior Hockey League, the Ontario Hockey Association, the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, were eligible to compete for the Memorial Cup; the ten leagues of Tier II, would compete for the Manitoba Centennial Cup, donated by the Manitoba Amateur Hockey Association.
In 1970, Canada pulled out of IIHF competition and would not return to the fold until 1977 in protest of the IIHF's soft stance on Soviet and Czechoslovakian teams using "professional amateurs" in international competition but not allowing professional players to compete for Canada. In 1972, Canada and the Soviet Union competed in the 1972 Summit Series. Canada's team was composed of NHL stars; the NHLers won the series 4-3-1. Two years the World Hockey Association represented Canada and lost the series 4-1-3. In 1976, the Canada Cup was formed as a best-on-best championship. In 1974, the Nova Scotia Amateur Hockey Association and Prince Edward Island Amateur Hockey Association are formed out of the dissolution of the Maritime AHA; the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships was held for the first time. Canada, who sent Memorial Cup champion teams in early years set up a national team and won their first gold medal at the 1982 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships. In 1975, the QMJHL, WCJHL, the renamed Ontario Major Junior Hockey League form an umbrella organization known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League.
With the creation of the CMJHL, the three league began initiating compensation talks with the NHL and WHA without CAHA input. In 1980, the CMJHL separated from the CAHA. With the separation of the CMJHL, Tier II was promoted to Junior A, although the Tier II title still persists in hockey vernacular. To this day, the CMJHL releases its players to Hockey Canada to play at the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships. In 1983, the first Abby Hoffman Cup was awarded to the Burlington Ladies as the Canadian national senior champions of women's hockey. In 1990, the forerunner to the Canadian Junior Hockey League was created as an umbrella organization, within the CAHA, to oversee Junior A hockey; the Canada women's national ice hockey team was formed in 1987 and won the first world championship that year. The 1990 IIHF Women's World Championship was the first official event won by Canada. In 1994, Team Canada would end a 33-year drought by winning the 1994 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships. In 1996, Hockey Canada replaces the Manitoba Centennial Cup with the Royal Bank Cup as the championship of Junior A hockey.
In 1998, Hockey Canada and the CAHA merge into one organization. The International Olympic Committee elected to allow professional players to compete at the Olympics
The ANAVET Cup is an ice hockey trophy, won through a best-of-7 series conducted annually by the Canadian Junior Hockey League. It is played between the Turnbull Cup champions of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League and the Canalta Cup champions of the Saskatchewan Junior Hockey League; the winner of the ANAVET Cup earns the western region's berth in the National Junior A Championship. The series has been contested since 1971, except from 2013 to 2017 when it was replaced by the Western Canada Cup; the term "ANAVET" comes from the Canadian non-for-profit organization ANAVETS, or Army and Air Force Veterans in Canada. The Western region's ANAVET Cup Champion traditionally played against the Pacific region's Doyle Cup champion for the Abbott Cup, the Western Canadian Championship. However, the Abbott Cup diminished in importance following the reorganization of the national championship in 1990; the Abbott Cup was presented to the winner of the round-robin game, between the Pacific champion and Western champion, during the larger national competition.
Bolded are the champions. Results as of 2018 ANAVET Cup* denotes team is defunct or no longer part of the league results as of 2018 ANAVET Cup MJHL Website SJHL Website CJHL Website
Manitoba Junior Hockey League
The Manitoba Junior Hockey League is a Junior'A' ice hockey league operating in the Canadian province of Manitoba and one of eleven member leagues of the Canadian Junior Hockey League. The MJHL consists of 11 teams playing a balanced 60-game schedule, with the top eight teams qualifying for the playoffs; the quarter-finals, semi-finals, final are determined by best-of-seven series. The playoff champion is awarded the Turnbull Cup; the league had two divisions and Sherwood, prior to the 2014-15 season. The winner of the MJHL playoffs competes against the champion from Saskatchewan for the ANAVET Cup and a berth in the National Junior A Championship; the league has a rich tradition. Its first year of operation was the 1918 -- 19 season, it was known as the Winnipeg and District League until 1931, when it became the Manitoba Junior Hockey League. During the inaugural season, there were nine teams in two divisions, each playing a six-game schedule; the teams included the Winnipeg Pilgrims, Grand Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg Tigers, Young Men's Lutheran Club, Winnipeg Argonauts, Selkirk Fishermen and Winnipeg Monarchs.
Over the years, more than 200 MJHL players have gone on to the National Hockey League, 11 of those MJHL graduates have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame: Andy Bathgate, Turk Broda, Art Coulter, Bobby Clarke, Charlie Gardiner, Bryan Hextall, Tom Johnson, Harry Oliver, Babe Pratt, Terry Sawchuk, Jack Stewart. In 1955, the brothers Art and Gordon Stratton of the Winnipeg Barons set a league record for most points in a single season with 76 each. In 1957, Ray Brunel of the St. Boniface Canadiens broke it with 105. In the early 1960s, the powerhouse Brandon Wheat Kings, built by Jake Milford, won three titles in a row, four in five years. In 1961, goalie Ernie Wakely of the Winnipeg Braves was named Canada's outstanding junior hockey player for the month of January. In 1962, Clarence Campbell president of the NHL attended inaugural Manitoba–Saskatchewan all-star game in Winnipeg. In 1963, Jim Irving, captain of the Winnipeg Rangers, was named Manitoba's outstanding junior athlete and received the Carl Pederson Memorial Award.
Goaltender Wayne Stephenson led the Winnipeg Braves to the MJHL Championship in 1965. In 1967, future Hall of Famer Bobby Clarke of the Flin Flon Bombers set league records for most goals and points in a single season. Clarke led the Bombers to win the MJHL title. During the summer of 1967, the MAHA agreed to allow three teams to enter the new Western Hockey League, the Brandon Wheat Kings and the Flin Flon Bombers from the MJHL, the Ben Hatskin's owned Winnipeg Jets. Hatskin owned three MJHL teams. Part of the agreement was the continuation of the MJHL. Hatskin sold his three teams to local interests; the Winnipeg Warriors became the West Kildonan North Stars, the St. James Braves became the St. James Canadians, the Winnipeg Rangers became the St. Boniface Saints; these three teams along with the Winnipeg Monarchs became the new MJHL. The Selkirk Steelers, however opted to join the new Central Manitoba Junior Hockey League; the next year, the MJHL absorbed the CMJHL, creating a North Division to house the former CMJHL teams: the Steelers, Portage Terriers, Dauphin Kings, Kenora Muskies, who had operated out of Fort Garry the previous year.
The existing teams created the South Division. On September 19, 1968, the Winnipeg Monarchs announced the signing of Hiroshi Hori, a defenceman from Japan. Hori, a high school all-star in his homeland, would spend a year with the team and return home to pass on what he had learned. A Canadian missionary to Japan, Father Moran was behind the idea. With CAHA approval, Moran convinced the Japanese Skating Union to sponsor one player to a year in Canada; the CAHA chose Winnipeg as the site because of the added experience from watching the Canadian National Team, the Monarchs volunteered. On Sunday February 9, 1969, the MJHL held a special emergency meeting to discuss Butch Goring leaving the Winnipeg Jets of the WCHL and joining the Dauphin Kings. Goring played the night before in Kenora for the Kings during a regular season game; the MJHL gave the Kings approval to use Goring in regular playoff games. Goring was leading the WCHL in goals at the time. Monday, WCHL president Ron Butlin said a court injunction would be sought against Goring and another Jet forward Merv Haney from playing with the Dauphin Kings.
Saying the CHA would be "taking whatever action is necessary against Dauphin and the MAHA for damages." Goring and Haney would play for all the way to the Western Memorial Cup Finals. In September 1971, Winnipeg Monarchs President Bob Westmacott announced 17-year-old Stephan Lindberg of Sweden had been invited to training camp. Jack Bownass, former coach of Canada's national team, recommended Lindberg to the Monarchs; the Dauphin Kings were the first "dynasty" of the new MJHL, winning the league three out of four years, 1969, 1970, 1972, boasting such stars as Ron Low, Butch Goring, Ron Chipperfield. The Kings went to the Western Memorial Cup final in 1969, in 1972 recorded 40 wins, a modern-day MJHL record. Charlie Simmer of the Kenora Muskies won the scoring title in 1973, the same year the Portage Terriers were crowned National Champs, winning the Centennial Cup. In 1974, the Selkirk Steelers won the national crown, giving the MJHL back to back "Canadian Championships", it was players such as Low, Chipperfield, Chuck Arnason, Murray Bannerman, Paul Baxter, John Bednarski, Rick Blight, Dan Bonar, Brian Engblom, Glen Hanlon, Bob Joyce, Barry Legge, Perry Miller, Chris Oddleifson, Curt Ridley, Rick St. Croix, Blaine Stoughto
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t