Lt. Warren Eaton Airport
Lt. Warren Eaton Airport known as Lt. Warren E. Eaton Airport is a county-owned public-use airport in New York, United States, it is located two nautical miles north of the central business district of New York. It was established on June 17, 1952; this airport is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility. The airport has no scheduled commercial operations, but PrivatAir operates flights to Cincinnati for Procter & Gamble employees. Lt. Warren Eaton Airport covers an area of 147 acres at an elevation of 1,025 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 1/19 with an asphalt surface measuring 4,724 by 75 feet. For the 12-month period ending April 8, 2011, the airport had 17,300 aircraft operations, an average of 47 per day: 81% general aviation, 18% air taxi, 1% military. At that time there were 11 aircraft based at this airport: 64% single-engine, 18% multi-engine, 9% jet, 9% ultralight. "WWI lieutenant from Norwich was a pioneer in aviation".
The Daily Star. July 15, 2006. LT Warren Eaton Airport Aerial image as of March 1995 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for OIC, effective February 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for OIC AirNav airport information for KOIC ASN accident history for OIC FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.8 billion as of 2015 with 40 countries being Muslim-majority countries. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony"; the OIC has permanent delegations to the European Union. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic and French. On 21 August 1969 a fire was started in the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Amin al-Husseini, the former Mufti of Jerusalem, called the arson a "Jewish crime" and called for all Muslim heads of state to convene a summit. On 25 September 1969, an Islamic Conference, a summit of representatives of 24 Muslim majority countries, was held in Rabat, Morocco. A resolution was passed stating that "Muslim government would consult with a view to promoting among themselves close cooperation and mutual assistance in the economic, scientific and spiritual fields, inspired by the immortal teachings of Islam."
Six months in March 1970, the First Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers was held in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In 1972, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference was founded. While the al-Aqsa fire is regarded as one of the catalysts for the formation of the OIC, many Muslims have aspired to a pan-Islamic institution that would serve the common political and social interests of the ummah since the 19th century. In particular, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Caliphate after World War I left a vacuum. According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic economic values; the emblem of the OIC contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Kaaba, the Globe, the Crescent. On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.
In March 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, good governance in all member states; the revisions removed any mention of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the Charter of the United Nations and international law, without mentioning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. According to the UNHCR, OIC countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010. Since OIC members have absorbed refugees from other conflicts, including the uprising in Syria. In May 2012, the OIC addressed these concerns at the "Refugees in the Muslim World" conference in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. On 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in Astana, the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference to its current name; the OIC changed its logo at this time. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are member states of the United Nations, the exception being Palestine.
Some members in West Africa and South America, are – though with large Muslim populations – not Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States; the collective population of OIC member states is over 1.9 billion as of 2018. The Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States was established in Iran in 1999, its head office is situated in Tehran. Only OIC members are entitled to membership in the union. On 27 June 2007, then-United States President George W. Bush announced that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, will share with them America's views and values." As of June 2015, Arsalan Suleman is acting special envoy. He was appointed on 13 February 2015. In an investigation of the accuracy of a series of chain emails, Snopes.com reported that during the October 2003 – April 2004 session of the General Assembly, 17 individual members of the OIC voted against the United States 88% of the time.
The OIC, on 28 March 2008, joined the criticism of the film Fitna by Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders, which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with alleged verses from the Quran. In March 2015, the OIC announced its support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis; the OIC supports a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The OIC has called for boycott of Israeli products in effort to pressure Israel into ending the occupation of the Palestinian territories. There was a meeting in Conakry in 2013. Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said that foreign ministers woul
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, suppressing opioid induced constipation, as well as for executions in the United States. Potent opioids such as carfentanil are only approved for veterinary use. Opioids are frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal. Side effects of opioids may include itchiness, nausea, respiratory depression and euphoria. Tolerance and dependence will develop with continuous use, requiring increasing doses and leading to a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation; the euphoria attracts recreational use and frequent, escalating recreational use of opioids results in addiction. An overdose or concurrent use with other depressant drugs results in death from respiratory depression.
Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors mediate the somatic effects of opioids. Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other opioids from binding to those receptors; because opioids are addictive and may result in fatal overdose, most are controlled substances. In 2013, between 28 and 38 million people used opioids illicitly. In 2011, an estimated 4 million people in the United States used opioids recreationally or were dependent on them; as of 2015, increased rates of recreational use and addiction are attributed to over-prescription of opioid medications and inexpensive illicit heroin. Conversely, fears about over-prescribing, exaggerated side effects and addiction from opioids are blamed for under-treatment of pain.
Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself. Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone and fentanyl; the terms opiate and narcotic are sometimes encountered as synonyms for opioid. Opiate is properly limited to the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy although some include semi-synthetic derivatives. Narcotic, derived from words meaning'numbness' or'sleep', as an American legal term, refers to cocaine and opioids, their source materials. In some jurisdictions all controlled drugs are classified as narcotics; the term can have pejorative connotations and its use is discouraged where, the case. The weak opioid codeine, in low doses and combined with one or more other drugs, is available without a prescription and can be used to treat mild pain. Other opioids are reserved for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Opioids are effective for the treatment of acute pain. For immediate relief of moderate to severe acute pain opioids are the treatment of choice due to their rapid onset and reduced risk of dependence.
However a new report showed a clear risk of prolonged opioid use when opioid analgesics are initiated for an acute pain management following surgery or trauma. They have been found to be important in palliative care to help with the severe, disabling pain that may occur in some terminal conditions such as cancer, degenerative conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. In many cases opioids are a successful long-term care strategy for those with chronic cancer pain. Guidelines have suggested that the risk of opioids is greater than their benefits when used for most non-cancer chronic conditions including headaches, back pain, fibromyalgia, thus they should be used cautiously in chronic non-cancer pain. If used the benefits and harms should be reassessed at least every three months. In treating chronic pain, opioids are an option to be tried after other less risky pain relievers have been considered, including paracetamol/acetaminophen or NSAIDs like ibuprofen or naproxen; some types of chronic pain, including the pain caused by fibromyalgia or migraine, are preferentially treated with drugs other than opioids.
The efficacy of using opioids to lessen chronic neuropathic pain is uncertain. Opioids are contraindicated as a first-line treatment for headache because they impair alertness, bring risk of dependence, increase the risk that episodic headaches will become chronic. Opioids can cause heightened sensitivity to headache pain; when other treatments fail or are unavailable, opioids may be appropriate for treating headache if the patient can be monitored to prevent the development of chronic headache. Opioids are being used more in the management of non-malignant chronic pain; this practice has now led to a new and growing problem with misuse of opioids. Because of various negative effects the use of opioids for long term management of chronic pain is not indicated unless other less risky pain relievers have been found ineffective. Chronic pain which occurs only periodically, such as that from nerve pain and fibromyalgia is better treated with medications other than opioids. Paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including ibuprofen and naproxen are considered safer alternatives.
They are used combined with opioids, such as paracetamol co