Compound steam engine
A compound steam engine unit is a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. A typical arrangement for a compound engine is that the steam is first expanded in a high-pressure cylinder having given up heat and losing pressure, it exhausts directly into one or more larger-volume low-pressure cylinders. Multiple-expansion engines employ additional cylinders, of progressively lower pressure, to extract further energy from the steam. Invented in 1781, this technique was first employed on a Cornish beam engine in 1804. Around 1850, compound engines were first introduced into Lancashire textile mills. There are many compound systems and configurations, but there are two basic types, according to how HP and LP piston strokes are phased and hence whether the HP exhaust is able to pass directly from HP to LP or whether pressure fluctuation necessitates an intermediate "buffer" space in the form of a steam chest or pipe known as a receiver. In a single-expansion steam engine, the high-pressure steam enters the cylinder at boiler pressure through an inlet valve.
The steam pressure forces the piston down the cylinder. After the steam supply is cut off the trapped steam continues to expand, pushing the piston to the end of its stroke, where the exhaust valve opens and expels the depleted steam to the atmosphere, or to a condenser; this "cut-off" allows much more work to be extracted, since the expansion of the steam is doing additional work beyond that done by the steam at boiler pressure. An earlier cut-off increases the expansion ratio, which in principle allows more energy to be extracted and increases efficiency, but as the trapped steam expands its temperature drops; this temperature drop would occur if the cylinder were insulating so that no heat is released from the system. As a result, steam leaves at a lower temperature; the changing steam temperature alternately heats and cools the cylinder with every stroke and is a source of inefficiency which increases at higher expansion ratios. Beyond a certain point, further increasing the expansion ratio will decrease efficiency due to the increased heating and cooling.
A method to lessen the magnitude of this heating and cooling was invented in 1804 by British engineer Arthur Woolf, who patented his Woolf high pressure compound engine in 1805. In the compound engine, high-pressure steam from the boiler first expands in a high-pressure cylinder and enters one or more subsequent lower pressure cylinders; the complete expansion of the steam occurs across multiple cylinders and, as there is less expansion in each cylinder, less heat is lost by the steam in each. This reduces the magnitude of cylinder heating and cooling, making higher expansion ratios practical and increasing the efficiency of the engine. There are other advantages: as the temperature range is smaller, cylinder condensation is reduced. Loss due to condensation is restricted to the LP cylinder. Pressure difference is less in each cylinder so there is less steam leakage at the piston and valves; the turning moment is more uniform, so balancing is easier and a smaller flywheel may be used. Only the smaller HP cylinder needs to be built to withstand the highest pressure, which reduces the overall weight.
Components are subject to less strain, so they can be lighter. The reciprocating parts of the engine are lighter; the compound could be started at any point in the cycle, in the event of mechanical failure the compound could be reset to act as a simple, thus keep running. To derive equal work from lower-pressure steam requires a larger cylinder volume as this steam occupies a greater volume. Therefore, the bore, in rare cases the stroke as well, are increased in low-pressure cylinders, resulting in larger cylinders. Double-expansion engines expand the steam in two stages, but this does not imply that all such engines have two cylinders, they may have four cylinders working as two LP-HP pairs, or the work of the large LP cylinder can be split across two smaller cylinders, with one HP cylinder exhausting into either LP cylinder, giving a 3-cylinder layout where the cylinder and piston diameter of all three are about the same, making the reciprocating masses easier to balance. Two-cylinder compounds can be arranged as: Cross-compound – the cylinders are side by side Tandem compound – the cylinders are end to end, driving a common connecting rod Telescopic-compound – the cylinders are one inside the other Angle-compound – the cylinders are arranged in a vee and drive a common crank.
The adoption of compounding was widespread for stationary industrial units where the need was for increased power at decreasing cost, universal for marine engines after 1880. It was not used in railway locomotives where it was perceived as complicated and unsuitable for the harsh railway operating environment and limited space afforded by the loading gauge. Compounding was never common on British railways and not employed at all after 1930, but was used in a limited way in many other countries; the first successful attempt to fly a heavier-than-air fixed-wing aircraft on steam power occurred in 1933, when George and William Besler converted a Travel Air 2000 biplane to fly on a 150 hp angle-compound V-twin steam engine of their own design instead of the usual Curtiss OX-5 inline or radial aviation gasoline engine it would have used. It is a logical extension of the compound engine to split the expansion into yet more
Port of Gdynia
Port of Gdynia – the Polish seaport located on the western coast of Gdańsk Bay Baltic sea in Gdynia. Founded in 1926. In 2008 it was #2 in containers on the Baltic sea; the port adjoins Gdynia Naval Base with which it shares waterways but is administratively a separate entity. 1924 - 10,000 tons 1929 - 2,923,000 tons 1938 - 8,700,000 tons 1990 - 9,987,000 tons 1995 - 7,739,000 tons 2000 - 8,397,000 tons 2002 - 9,349,000 tons 2003 - 9,797,000 tons 2004 - 10,711,000 tons 2005 - 11,038,000 tons 2006 - 12,218,000 tons 2007 - 14,849,000 tons 2008 - 12,860,000 tons 2009 - 11,361,000 tons 2010 - 12,346,000 tons 2011 - 12,992,000 tons 2012 - 13,187,000 tons 2013 - 15,051,000 tons 2014 - 16,961,000 tons 2015 - 15,521,000 tons Gdynia Shipyard Port of Gdynia website AIS live vessel traffic in Port of Gdynia Google Earth plugin
A training ship is a ship used to train students as sailors. The term is used for ships employed by navies to train future officers. There are two types: those used for training at sea and old hulks used to house classrooms; the hands-on aspect provided by sail training has been used as a platform for everything from semesters at sea for undergraduate oceanography and biology students, marine science and physical science for high school students, character building for at-risk youths. In the Sea Cadet Corps all Units use a ship prefix "T. S.", followed by the ship's proper name. For example, the Fishguard Sea Cadets' ship's name is T. S. Skirmisher; the T. S. prefix is used as the Sea Cadets is not part of the Royal Navy, cannot be prefixed "HMS". Ganges Defiance Arethusa Bristol Clio Conway Cornwall Exmouth Excellent Foudroyant Indefatigable Lion including adjacent Implacable Mars Mercury TS Mercury Mount Edgcumbe Northampton Southampton Warspite Warspite Worcester Wellesley St Vincent Argentine Navy ARA Presidente Sarmiento ARA Libertad Brazilian Navy Cisne Branco of the Brazilian Navy Bulgarian Navy Kaliakra of the Bulgarian Navy Canadian Navy HMCS Oriole of the Royal Canadian Navy China's People's Liberation Army Navy Zheng He Brave the Wave-class Colombian Navy ARC Gloria of the Colombian Navy Finnish Navy Suomen Joutsen of the Finnish Navy Germany The first Gorch Fock of Germany's Kriegsmarine The second Gorch Fock of Germany's Bundesmarine Indian Navy INS Tir of the Indian Navy Indonesian Navy KRI Dewaruci, navy tall sail ship id:KRI Ki Hajar Dewantara, Yugoslavian made frigate for training purpose.
Italian Navy Amerigo Vespucci of the Italian Navy Palinuro of the Italian Navy Japan JDS Kashima of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Mexican Navy ARM Cuauhtémoc of the Mexican Navy Royal Dutch Navy Hrms. van Kingsbergen of the Royal Netherlands Navy of the Royal Netherlands Navy New Zealand Navy HMNZS Philomel of the Royal New Zealand Navy Peruvian Navy BAP Unión of the Peruvian Navy Polish Navy ORP Iskra of the Polish Navy Portuguese Navy The second NRP Sagres The third NRP Sagres Romanian Navy Mircea of the Romanian Navy Spanish Navy Nautilus Galatea Juan Sebastián Elcano Sri Lankan Navy SLNS Gajabahu of the Sri Lankan Navy United States of America USCGC Eagle of the United States Coast Guard USS Sable and USS Wolverine of the United States Navy, the only examples of dedicated training aircraft carriers, which were used for training naval aviators and landing signal officers rather than sailors Uruguayan Navy ROU Capitán Miranda of the Uruguayan Navy Venezuelan Navy ARBV Simón Bolívar of the Venezuelan Navy Christian Radich of Oslo, Norway Herzogin Cecilie Germany Belem France Kruzenshtern of Kaliningrad, Russia Khersones Ukrainia Kraljica Mora Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Infrastructure of Croatia Pamir, sunk 1957, Germany Passat, decommissioned 1957, Germany Mir of St.
Petersburg, Russia STS Sedov of Murmansk, Russia Sørlandet of Kristiansand SS John W. Brown of New York, New York Board of Education SS Twin Falls Victory as the SS John W. Brown II of New York, New York Board of Education Statsraad Lemkuhl of Bergen, Norway Worcester Danmark of Copenhagen, Denmark T. S. Dolphin Leith of Scotland T. S. Dufferin of Bombay, India T. S. Rajendra of Bombay, India T. S. Chanakya of Navi Mumbai, India T/S Kapitan Felix Oca of the Maritime Academy of Asia and the Pacific TS General Rudder of the Texas Maritime Academy TS Empire State VI of the SUNY Maritime College TS Golden Bear of the California Maritime Academy TS Kennedy of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy TS State of Maine of the Maine Maritime Academy TS State of Michigan of the Great Lakes Maritime Academy T/V Kings Pointer of the United States Merchant Marine Academy T/V Liberator of the United States Merchant Marine Academy Argo Atyla International Training Ship BAP Unión Californian Dar Młodzieży Irving and Exy Johnson INS Tarangini INS Sudarshini INS Varuna Kaiwo Maru Kruzenshtern Nippon Maru Ocean Star Pacific Swift Tall Ship Pelican Picton Castle Pilgrim TS Royalist Stavros S Niarchos SV Tenacious Tole Mour Lady Washington Christian Radich PRS James Randolph, an interplanetary spacecraft parked in Earth orbit in Robert A. Heinlein's novel, Space Cadet USS Republic, a starship referred to in Star Trek Betty Jeanne, in the novel Fergus Crane by Paul Stewart and Chris Riddell Stone frigate Media related to Training ships at Wikimedia Commons
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Some barges are not self-propelled and must be towed or pushed by towboats, canal barges or towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath. Barges contended with the railway in the early Industrial Revolution, but were outcompeted in the carriage of high-value items due to the higher speed, falling costs and route flexibility of railways. Barge is attested from Old French barge, from Vulgar Latin barga; the word could refer to any small boat. Bark, "small ship", is attested from Old French barque, from Vulgar Latin barca; the more precise meaning "three-masted ship" arose in the 17th century, takes the French spelling for disambiguation. Both are derived from the Latin barica, from Ancient Greek: βάρις, translit. Báris, lit.'Egyptian boat', from Coptic: ⲃⲁⲁⲣⲉ bāri "small boat", hieroglyphic Egyptian and similar ba-y-r for "basket-shaped boat". By extension, the term "embark" means to board the kind of boat called a "barque".
The long pole used to maneuver or propel a barge has given rise to the saying "I wouldn't touch that with a barge pole." On the British canal system, the term'barge' is used to describe a boat wider than a narrowboat, the people who move barges are known as lightermen. On the UK canal system, boats wider than seven feet are referred to as widebeam. In the United States, deckhands are supervised by a leadman or the mate; the captain and pilot steer the towboat, which pushes one or more barges held together with rigging, collectively called'the tow'. The crew live aboard the towboat as it travels along the inland river system or the intracoastal waterways; these towboats travel between ports and are called line-haul boats. Poles are used on barges to fend off the barge as it nears a wharf; these are called'pike poles'. Barges are used today for low-value bulk items, as the cost of hauling goods by barge is low. Barges are used for heavy or bulky items; the most common European barge can carry up to about 2,450 tonnes.
As an example, on June 26, 2006, a 565-short-ton catalytic cracking unit reactor was shipped by barge from the Tulsa Port of Catoosa in Oklahoma to a refinery in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Large objects are shipped in sections and assembled onsite, but shipping an assembled unit reduced costs and avoided reliance on construction labor at the delivery site. Of the reactor's 700-mile journey, only about 40 miles were traveled overland, from the final port to the refinery. Self-propelled barges may be used as such when traveling upstream in placid waters. Canal barges are made for the particular canal in which they will operate. Many barges Dutch barges, which were designed for carrying cargo along the canals of Europe, are no longer large enough to compete in this industry with larger newer vessels. Many of these barges have been renovated and are now used as luxury hotel barges carrying holidaymakers along the same canals on which they once carried grain or coal. In primitive regions today and in all pre-development regions worldwide in times before industrial development and highways, barges were the predominant and most efficient means of inland transportation in many regions.
This holds true today, for many areas of the world. In such pre-industrialized, or poorly developed infrastructure regions, many barges are purpose-designed to be powered on waterways by long slender poles – thereby becoming known on American waterways as poleboats as the extensive west of North America was settled using the vast tributary river systems of the Mississippi drainage basin. Poleboats use muscle power of "walkers" along the sides of the craft pushing a pole against the streambed, canal or lake bottom to move the vessel where desired. In settling the American west it was faster to navigate downriver from Brownsville, Pennsylvania, to the Ohio River confluence with the Mississippi and pole upriver against the current to St. Louis than to travel overland on the rare primitive dirt roads for many decades after the American Revolution. Once the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroads reached Chicago, that time dynamic changed, American poleboats became less common, relegated to smaller rivers and more remote streams.
On the Mississippi riverine system today, including that of other sheltered waterways, industrial barge trafficking in bulk raw materials such as coal, timber, iron ore and other minerals is common. Such barges need to be pushed by towboats. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on a waterway adjacent towpath were of fundamental importance in the early Industrial Revolution, whose major early engineering projects were efforts to build viaducts and canals to fuel and feed raw materials to nascent factories in the early industrial takeoff and take their goods to ports and cities for distribution; the barge and ca
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Stocznia Gdynia is a shipyard, located in the Port of Gdynia, Poland. It was founded in 1922. Since 2009, in liquidation - does not conduct production activities. In 1970, workers of Gdynia Shipyard rose up against the ruling Polish Communist Party. About 20 people died fighting with army and police in the streets of Gdynia during the Polish 1970 protests; that had a great influence on creating the Solidarity movement in 1980. In 1998 it bought the Gdańsk Shipyard; the current name is Stocznia Gdynia S. A; the shipyard was founded in 1922 building small coastal vessels. The construction of its first larger ship, SS Olza, was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. During the German occupation the shipyard was taken over by Deutsche Werke company and used to repair warships. In the war it built sections of Type XXI U-boats. After sustaining bombing damage during World War II the shipyard was expanded. In 1963 its first dry dock was finished, with dimensions 240 × 40 m. Second drydock with dimensions 380 × 70 m was finished in 1976.
Since March 2009, according to the so-called law "specustawą stoczniową" was started the process of compensation Gdynia Shipyard, which meant the elimination of legal terms, the total sale of assets yard in the open tender and redundancies involving all employees. The money from the sale will be given to the repayment of the yard's creditors - public and private, the obligations of public law, including ZUS; the last launch took place on 25 April 2009, the dismissal of employees was conducted at the end of May 2009. On May 2009, the Stichting Particulier Fonds Greenrights bought key assets of the shipyards of Gdynia and Szczecin, on June 17 received guarantees of the Arab Bank, Qatar Islamic Bank; the investor had to pay for the assets of Gdynia Shipyard more than 287 million PLN. On June 25, 2009 the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration issued a formal agreement on the sale of assets of Stocznia Gdynia SA, necessary for entities outside the European Economic Area. Polish Shipyards Company was registered by the Warsaw court on July 21.
Its share capital amounted to 100 000 zł. Gdynia Shipyard website Presentation The Solidarity Phenomenon Gdynia Shipyard photos
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus