Hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle or better performance. There are a variety of HEV types, and the degree to which functions as an electric vehicle varies as well. The most common form of HEV is the electric car, although hybrid electric trucks. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed, as of January 2017, over 12 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide since their inception in 1997.5 million hybrids delivered since 2000. Japan has the worlds highest hybrid market penetration, in 2016 the hybrid market share accounted for 38% of new standard passenger car sales, and 25. 7% of new passenger vehicle sales including kei cars. Norway ranks second with a market share of 6.
9% of new car sales in 2014, followed by the Netherlands with 3. 7%, France and Sweden. As of January 2017, worldwide sales are led by the Toyota Prius liftback. The Prius nameplate had sold more than 6 million hybrids up to January 2017, global Lexus hybrid sales achieved the 1 million unit milestone in March 2016. As of January 2017, the conventional Prius is the all-time bst-selling hybrid car in both Japan and the U. S. with sales of over 1.8 million in Japan and 1.75 million in the United States. The internal combustion engine of many parallel hybrids can act as a generator for supplemental recharging, in series hybrids, only the electric motor drives the drivetrain, and a smaller ICE works as a generator to power the electric motor or to recharge the batteries. They usually have a battery pack than parallel hybrids. Once the batteries are low, the combustion engine can generate power at its optimum settings at all times. Power-split hybrids have the benefits of a combination of series and parallel characteristics, examples of power-split hybrid powertrains include current models of Ford, General Motors, Lexus and Toyota.
In each of the hybrids above it is common to use regenerative braking to recharge the batteries, full hybrid, sometimes called a strong hybrid, is a vehicle that can run on just the engine, just the batteries, or a combination of both. Fords hybrid system, Toyotas Hybrid Synergy Drive and General Motors/Chryslers Two-Mode Hybrid technologies are full hybrid systems, the Toyota Prius, Ford Escape Hybrid, and Ford Fusion Hybrid are examples of full hybrids, as these cars can be moved forward on battery power alone. A large, high-capacity battery pack is needed for battery-only operation and these vehicles have a split power path allowing greater flexibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power, at some cost in complexity. Mild hybrid, is a vehicle that cannot be solely on its electric motor
A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles, widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy. As of 2016, there are 3 hydrogen cars publicly available in markets, the Toyota Mirai, the Hyundai ix35 FCEV. Several other companies are working to develop hydrogen cars, as of 2014, 95% of hydrogen is made from natural gas. It can be produced using renewable sources, but that is an expensive process, NASA used hydrogen to launch Space Shuttles into space. A working toy model car runs on solar power, using a fuel cell to store energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. It can convert the back into water to release the solar energy. As of 2016, there are 3 hydrogen cars publicly available in markets, the Toyota Mirai, the Hyundai ix35 FCEV. Toyota launched its first production fuel cell vehicle, the Mirai, in Japan at the end of 2014 and began sales in California, mainly the Los Angeles area, the car has a range of 312 mi and takes about five minutes to refill its hydrogen tank.
The initial sale price in Japan was about 7 million yen, former European Parliament President Pat Cox estimated that Toyota would initially lose about $100,000 on each Mirai sold. Many automobile companies have introduced demonstration models in limited numbers, one disadvantage of hydrogen compared to other automobile fuels is its low density. In 2013 BMW leased hydrogen technology from Toyota, and a formed by Ford Motor Company, Daimler AG. By 2017, Daimler had abandoned hydrogen vehicle development, Fuel cell buses are being trialed by several manufacturers in different locations. The Fuel Cell Bus Club is a fuel cell bus testing collaboration. In March 2015, China South Rail Corporation demonstrated the worlds first hydrogen fuel cell-powered tramcar at a facility in Qingdao. The chief engineer of the CSR subsidiary CSR Sifang Co Ltd, liang Jianying, said that the company is studying how to reduce the running costs of the tram. A total of 83 miles of tracks for the new vehicle have been built in seven Chinese cities, China plans to spend 200 billion yuan over the next five years to increase tram tracks to more than 1,200 miles.
Pearl Hydrogen Power Sources of Shanghai, unveiled a hydrogen bicycle at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology, Equipment, ENV develops electric motorcycles powered by a hydrogen fuel cell, including the Crosscage and Biplane
Tiago do Vale
Tiago do Vale is an award winning Portuguese architect. He heads the architectural practice Tiago do Vale Architects, do Vale was born in 1978 in the north of Portugal. He enrolled in the University of Coimbras Department of Architecture in 1996 studying, among others, under Fernando Távora and he went on to integrate the University of Coimbras managing bodies, both as a Senator and as an Assembly Member. With work published and exhibited worldwide, Tiago do Vale regularly lectures and writes about architectural matters
It can facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. This view includes the case of spontaneous standardization processes, to de facto standards. Standard weights and measures were developed by the Indus Valley Civilisation, weights existed in multiples of a standard weight and in categories. Technical standardisation enabled gauging devices to be used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Uniform units of length were used in the planning of such as Lothal, Kalibangan, Harappa. The weights and measures of the Indus civilisation reached Persia and Central Asia, Standardisation is related to Processes. In view of large variations in units related to Civil and other Engineering streams, engineers united to overcome the situation and this association on gave birth to ISO in 1950. ISO stands for International Organisation for Standardisation and this voluntary organisation is solely dedicated to standardisation and makes standards related to it. Certification as per ISO norms is popular all across world, henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800.
This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time, before this, screw threads were usually made by chipping and filing. Nuts were rare, metal screws, when made at all, were usually for use in wood, metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were usually fastened in non-threaded ways. This was an advance in workshop technology. Maudslays work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization, joseph Whitworths screw thread measurements were adopted as the first national standard by companies around the country in 1841. It came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, and was adopted in other countries. This new standard specified a 55° thread angle and a depth of 0. 640327p and a radius of 0. 137329p. The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart, an example of the use of the Whitworth thread is the Royal Navys Crimean War gunboats. These were the first instance of mass-production techniques being applied to marine engineering, American Unified Coarse was originally based on almost the same imperial fractions.
The Unified thread angle is 60° and has flattened crests, thread pitch is the same in both systems except that the thread pitch for the 1⁄2 in bolt is 12 threads per inch in BSW versus 13 tpi in the UNC
Battery electric vehicle
A battery electric vehicle, battery-only electric vehicle or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines for propulsion and they derive all power from battery packs and thus have no internal combustion engine, fuel cell, or fuel tank. BEVs include bicycles, skateboards, rail cars, forklifts, trucks, cumulative global sales of highway-capable light-duty pure electric vehicles passed the one million unit milestone in September 2016. PHEVs with a series powertrain are called range-extended electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, in China, plug-in electric vehicles, together with hybrid electric vehicles are called new energy vehicles. The concept of electric vehicles is to use charged batteries on board vehicles for propulsion. Battery electric cars are becoming more and more attractive with the advancement of new technology that have higher power and energy density.
BEVs include automobiles, light trucks, and neighborhood electric vehicles, two of these buses were used for the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. A similar bus was operated in Napa Valley, California for 14 months ending in April,2004, the 2008 Beijing Olympics used a fleet of 50 electric buses, which have a range of 130 km with the air conditioning on. They use Lithium-ion batteries, and consume about 1 kW·h/mi, the buses were designed by the Beijing Institute of Technology and built by the Jinghua Coach Co. Ltd. The batteries are replaced with fully charged ones at the station to allow 24-hour operation of the buses. In France, the bus electric phenomenon is in development, PVI, a medium company located in the Paris region, is one of the leader of the market with its brand Gepebus. In the United States, the first battery-electric, fast-charge bus has been in operation in Pomona, the Proterra EcoRide BE35 uses lithium-titanate batteries and is able to fast-charge in less than 10 minutes. In 2014, the first production model all-electric school bus was delivered to the Kings Canyon Unified School District in California’s San Joaquin Valley, the bus was one of four the district ordered.
This battery electric bus, which has 4 sodium nickel batteries, is the first modern electric school bus approved for student transportation by any state. The same technology is used to power the Mountain View Community Shuttles and this technology was supported by the California Energy Commission, and the shuttle program is being supported by Google. The buses will be built in the United States and Finland, Tindo is an all-electric bus from Adelaide, Australia. The Tindo is made by Designline International in New Zealand and gets its electricity from a solar PV system on Adelaides central bus station, rides are zero-fare as part of Adelaides public transport system. Proterras EcoRide BE35 transit bus, called the Ecoliner by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California, is a duty, fast charge
Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration, a 2008 report by the Standish Group states that adoption of open-source software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year to consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other, eventually the open source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar and this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscapes act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundations free software ideas, the new term they chose was open source, which was soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim OReilly, Linus Torvalds, and others. The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term, a Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that open source is an intellectual property destroyer.
I cant imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business, IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in todays competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS, the free software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression which is less ambiguous. Software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, the Open Source Definition, presents an open-source philosophy, and further defines the terms of usage and redistribution of open-source software. Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition, the open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7,1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscapes January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator.
They used the opportunity before the release of Navigators source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the free in English. Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open source movement, the Free Software Foundation, started in 1985, intended the word free to mean freedom to distribute and not freedom from cost. Since a great deal of free software already was free of charge, such software became associated with zero cost. The Open Source Initiative was formed in February 1998 by Eric Raymond and they sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source. Perens attempted to open source as a service mark for the OSI. The Open Source Initiatives definition is recognized by governments internationally as the standard or de facto definition, OSI uses The Open Source Definition to determine whether it considers a software license open source
Vimeo is a video-sharing website in which users can upload and view videos. It was the first video sharing site to support high-definition video, Vimeo was founded in November 2004 by Jake Lodwick and Zach Klein. Vimeo was founded in November 2004 by Jake Lodwick and Zach Klein, the name Vimeo was created by Lodwick, as a play on the words video and me. Vimeo is an anagram of the word movie, IAC purchased Vimeo in August 2006, as part of its acquisition of Connected Ventures. In January 2009, Dae Mellencamp joined IAC as general manager of Vimeo and she served as CEO until March 19,2012, when Kerry Trainor joined Vimeo as CEO. As of December 2013, Vimeo attracts more than 100 million unique visitors per month, fifteen percent of Vimeo’s traffic comes from mobile devices. As of February 2013, Vimeo accounted for 0. 11% of all Internet bandwidth, following fellow video sharing sites YouTube, the community of Vimeo includes indie filmmakers and their fans. The Vimeo community has adopted the name Vimeans, meaning a member of the Vimeo community, usually one who is active, the White House posts high-definition versions of its broadcasts to Vimeo.
Vimeo has helped to offload traffic from Improv Everywheres servers after new pranks are announced, Vimeo was the original location of Noah Kalinas everyday video, a popular viral video. On July 21,2008, Vimeo announced that it would no longer allow gaming videos, Vimeo cited a few reasons, including that the unusually long duration of gaming videos was holding back transcoder wait times, existing gaming videos were deleted on September 1,2008. The ban was lifted in October 2014, until then, all new uploads were subject to the rule, but machinima videos with a story of their own were still permitted. On December 2,2015, Vimeo released an update which will see 4K streaming technology rolling out within the first quarter of 2016, the Vimeo app, available for iOS and Android allows for video playback and limited user account management. On October 9,2007, Vimeo announced support for high definition playback in 1280×720, uploaded HD videos were automatically converted into 720/30p VP6 Flash video.
Since August 2010, all videos are encoded into H.264 for HTML5 support, all videos uploaded before were re-encoded. Non-Plus users can upload up to 500 MB of videos per week, non-HD videos re-encode at a maximum of 30 frame/s but suffer in general video image quality, which is inline with the low bitrate for videos in the 640×360 size. Usually the video content is re-encoded to bitrate below 0.5 Mbit/s and this is not enough to reproduce the fine details that can be captured from, e. g. a consumer video camera or a smartphone. Vimeo began its service with free accounts, limited to 20 MB of disk space weekly. This limit was raised to 30 MB in 2006, to 250 MB in January 2007, in July 2006, Vimeo Plus launched for $44. 95/year
Local Motors is an American motor vehicle manufacturing company focused on low-volume manufacturing of open-source motor vehicle designs using multiple microfactories. It was founded in 2007 with headquarters in Phoenix, the company’s current vehicles include the Rally Fighter and their 3D-printed Strati and Swim vehicles. The company develops vehicles using 3D Printing and utilizes vehicle designs provided by the online community, in 2016, the company introduced an autonomous electric-powered shuttle named Olli. Local Motors website is a community focusing on vehicle innovation, the content is created by the users who discuss designing and building innovative vehicles. Members contribute their own ideas and projects which are discussed with the community, co-creation is a technique used by Local Motors, General Electric, and LEGO to enhance new product development. Select organizations have partnered with the company to facilitate co-creation of their products including US Army, Domino’s, one of the biggest community driven competitions was hosted by Local Motors in collaboration with Airbus Group.
The Rally Fighter was the first model produced by Local Motors and is an Open sourced vehicule, as the company describes it, the Rally Fighter is a fully capable off-road prerunner, with the amenities and luxuries of an every-day on road vehicle. In collaboration with Cincinnati Incorporated and Oak Ridge National Laboratory Local Motors manufactured Strati, the printing took 44 hours to complete, and was witnessed by a live audience at the 2014 International Manufacturing Technology Show in McCormick Place, Chicago. The car consists of 50 individual parts, far less than a traditional vehicle, the Strati was designed by Michele Anoè, a member of the Local Motors community, and is produced in small quantities to serve strategic partnerships, such as with NXP Semiconductors. In 2015, the company debuted a 3D-printed car named the LM3D Swim and it was designed by Kevin Lo, a member of the Local Motors community. The materials used are 80 percent ABS plastic and 20 percent carbon fiber, the vehicle uses technology provided by IBM that offered IoT connectivity.
The Swim is currently on display at the location in National Harbor. In 2016, the company unveiled an autonomous, electric-powered bus, the vehicle was designed by Edgar Sarmiento, initially named the Berlino from the Urban Mobility Challenge, Berlin 2030. The vehicle was built by Local Motors and has IBM Watson technology installed to provide an experience for riders. The vehicle was demonstrated live to their audience on Facebook Live at a media event in National Harbor. The vehicle is still undergoing development, Olli was manufactured in Chandler, Arizona using additive manufacturing techniques, including 3D Printing. The company has not announced pricing yet, miami-Dade County, the State of Nevada and the Danish Vesthimmerland Municipality expressed interest in using Olli on their roadways. Local Motors operates five locations in Phoenix, Las Vegas, National Harbor, the company hosts educational events that are focused on technology and manufacturing topics
Riversimple Urban Car
The Riversimple Urban Car is a conceptual open source hydrogen fuel cell vehicle that was proposed by Hugo Spowers company, Riversimple, in 2009. Their latest model, the Rasa, was unveiled on 17 February 2016, a working prototype vehicle was unveiled at the Somerset House in London on 16 June 2009, and as of 2009, with production initially planned to begin by 2013. The plan has been superseded with the intention to develop a production vehicle of a similar format. The Riversimple Urban Car was designed and developed in the United Kingdom by teams at Cranfield and it was financed by Sebastian Piech, the grandson of Ferdinand Porsche. The Urban Car is a two passenger vehicle about the size of a Smart and it weighs 772 pounds, and the prototype was constructed of a Carbon fiber composite material body. The car can reach speeds of 50 mph and travel for 240 miles on 2.2 pounds of hydrogen before refueling,2010 calculations showed it could achieve the equivalent of up to 300 mpg in hydrogen, and a life cycle assessment carbon emissions of less than 30g CO2/km.
The Urban Car is powered by a cell from Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies that converts hydrogen into electricity. This power supply functions like a battery, uses no moving parts, there are two novel principles involved with this project, decoupling of acceleration from cruising, and mass decompounding. Most of the braking is done by electric motors on each wheel. These motors capture the energy of the car in motion, and this electricity is used to provide 75% of the power used in acceleration. Because of this, the Urban Car can be powered by a 6 kW fuel cell and this requires less hydrogen to be stored on board, and results in an overall lighter vehicle. Mass decompounding involves designing the car as a system, as opposed to redesigning a car originally conceived as being powered by an internal combustion engine into a fuel cell vehicle. The combination of a fuel cell, along with elimination of the unnecessary gearbox, drive shafts, power-assist systems. As of February 2010, Riversimple planned to lease the cars over 15 years instead of selling them and this was intended to increase the life of the vehicles, and reduce materials usage.
The cost of the lease was expected to be about £200 per month, as of 2010, the open source design for the Riversimple Urban Car was planned to be stored on the 40 Fires wiki site online. The wiki project is called The Hyrban, at that time, Riversimple planned to lease the design to any small manufacturer for free, modify it as desired, and build their own version of the vehicle. The CAD models for the Riversimple Hyrban technology demonstrator have been released under a Creative Commons license, hydrogen economy Morgan LIFEcar List of fuel cell vehicles Riversimple corporate website 40 Fires Foundation open source design foundation Urban Cars debut on YouTube
Computer-aided design is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD is used and its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation, or EDA. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation or computer-aided drafting, however, it involves more than just shapes. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in space, or curves, surfaces. CAD is used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies and technical manuals. The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles, because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics, and discrete differential geometry.
The design of models for object shapes, in particular, is occasionally called computer-aided geometric design. Eventually CAD provided the designer with the ability to perform engineering calculations, during this transition, calculations were still performed either by hand or by those individuals who could run computer programs. CAD was a change in the engineering industry, where draftsmen, designers. It did not eliminate departments, as much as it merged departments and empowered draftsman, CAD is just another example of the pervasive effect computers were beginning to have on industry. Current computer-aided design software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid, modern CAD packages can frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle, even from the inside looking out. Some CAD software is capable of mathematical modeling, in which case it may be marketed as CAD. CAD technology is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings and it can be used to design objects.
Furthermore, many CAD applications now offer advanced rendering and animation capabilities so engineers can better visualize their product designs, 4D BIM is a type of virtual construction engineering simulation incorporating time or schedule related information for project management. CAD has become an important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs. CAD enables designers to layout and develop work on screen, print it out, computer-aided design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question. Document management and revision control using Product Data Management, potential blockage of view corridors and shadow studies are frequently analyzed through the use of CAD
Alternative fuel vehicle
An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels, and refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum. Other research and development efforts in alternative forms of power focus on developing all-electric and fuel cell vehicles, an environmental analysis extends beyond just the operating efficiency and emissions. A life-cycle assessment of a vehicle production and post-use considerations. The Brazilian flex fuel fleet includes over 4 million flexible-fuel motorcycles produced since 2009 through March 2015,22.7 million natural gas vehicles as of August 2015, led by China Iran with 4.00 million, followed by Pakistan, Argentina and Brazil. 24.9 million LPG powered vehicles by December 2013, led by Turkey with 3.93 million, South Korea, more than 12 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide.5 million hybrids delivered since 2000. As of January 2017, global sales are led by the Prius family.
The Toyota Prius liftback is the top selling hybrid electric car with cumulative sales of 3.985 million units through January 2017. 5.7 million neat-ethanol only light-vehicles built in Brazil since 1979, more than 2 million highway-legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles had been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. Cumulative global sales of cars and vans passed the 1 million unit milestone in September 2016. As of December 2016, the Nissan Leaf is the worlds top selling highway-capable plug-in electric car. As of December 2016, China has the worlds largest stock of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles with cumulative sales of more than 645,000 plug-in electric passenger cars. Among country markets, the United States ranks second with more than 570,000 plug-in electric cars sold through December 2016, Japan is the worlds third largest plug-in car country market with about 147,500 plug-ins sold through December 2016. More than 637,000 light-duty plug-in electric passenger cars have registered in Europe up until December 2016.
China is the leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric all-electric buses. The stock of new vehicles sold in China totaled more than 950,000 units through December 2016. As of December 2015, China was the worlds largest plug-in electric bus market with a stock of almost 173,000 vehicles, the air engine is an emission-free piston engine that uses compressed air as a source of energy. The first compressed air car was invented by a French engineer named Guy Nègre, the expansion of compressed air may be used to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank