Ohio Valley Wrestling
Ohio Valley Wrestling is an American independent professional wrestling promotion based in Louisville, Kentucky. It was a member promotion of the National Wrestling Alliance from its inception in 1993 until 2000, when it became the primary developmental territory for the World Wrestling Federation, it remained in this role from 2000 until 2008. The promotion was unaffiliated from February 7, 2008 until November 2011, is run by Al Snow, who took over from founder and former owner Nightmare Danny Davis. In 2012, OVW became the farm territory for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling; the relationship ended on November 2, 2013. On March 19, 2019 it was announced that OVW and Impact Wrestling have re-established their developmental agreement; as of December 2011, over 100 OVW alumni have appeared in WWE. OVW was founded by Nightmare Danny Davis in 1993 as a NWA member under the name NWA Ohio Valley; the company ran in the Kentucky and Indiana territories that were run by the USWA with weekly shows run out of the Original Davis Arena on Mechanics street in Jeffersonville and larger shows run out of the Louisville Gardens in Louisville, Kentucky.
In 1997 OVW would end its relationship with the National Wrestling Alliance and rename itself Ohio Valley Wrestling. Trailer Park Trash would become the first OVW Champion defeating Vic the Bruiser on August 17 of that year. On January 11, 1998, OVW would tape the first episode of its weekly television series, it would emanate from the original Davis Arena in Indiana. Louisville Gardens ring announcer Dean Hill did play by play duties with Faye Davis as the Ring Announcer; the show would feature an introduction to the company by owner Danny Davis. The main event would be Rob Conway vs Juan Hurtado and The Intern. In 1999, WWF creative team member Jim Cornette bought a stake in OVW and expressed his interest in starting a full-service developmental territory for up and comers. Cornette, a native of Louisville, was looking to move closer to his home as he was not fond of living in Connecticut, where the WWF was based, nor did he get along with several of his colleagues. Cornette, taking on the role of booker and show writer while appearing in an on-camera commentator role, made his first televised appearance on July 10, 1999, spoke of the changes that were to take place.
The first WWE contracted. The first group of developmental stars would prove historical as prospects developed under this class would go on to be the biggest names in pro wrestling and beyond in the 2000s. With the influx of new talent the company outgrew its small location in Jeffersonville and needed to expand; the final show at the original arena would be on August 21, 2002 headlined by a match between Damaja and Rene Dupree. On September 4, 2002 the company would debut its show at the current Davis Arena at 4400 Shepherdsville Rd in Louisville, Ky; this venue could seat up to 500. With the expansion, lines before the show would start hours beforehand with a large standing room crowd being let in after seats were filled; the first main event would be Doug Basham vs Chris Benoit. On July 10, 2005 Jim Cornette would be fired from the WWE which would include being relieved of his position overseeing OVW; this was after an incident where he was reported to have slapped one of OVW's beginners class students Anthony Carelli for having an inappropriate reaction when being confronted by a horror character called The Boogeyman during one of the companies shows.
The two have not been on positive terms since, with them having a confrontation during an event in which both were booked as recent as October 2017. Cornette would be replaced in the OVW Broadcast booth by WWE Trainer Al Snow with his position overseeing creative being taken over by Paul Heyman; this would be short lived as Heyman would be put in charge of the revived ECW brand leaving OVW television having a revolving door of producers which included many ECW alum as well as former AWA booker Greg Gagne. The booking duties would go to Al Snow who would have the longest tenure outside of Cornette. Jim Cornette was still part owner of the company for another two years before selling his end to Davis in 2007. Rumors circulated; the main reason given being location of OVW being a main factor with WWE's talent relations not wanting to have to travel to Kentucky with the preferred location being Florida where many of them lived. Deep South Wrestling was established in Georgia but did not last long as it was never able to reach the popularity in its market that OVW had in Louisville.
In 2007 the rumors were proven true when WWE helped fund Florida Championship Wrestling in Tampa, Florida. The two operated together but on February 7, 2008, WWE announced that it had ended its relationship with OVW as a developmental territory, moving all contracted talent to Florida Championship Wrestling. However, on September 23, 2009, OVW announced via a press release from WWE that Senior EVP John Laurinaitis visited and scouted OVW wrestlers and that WWE will take "a much more active role in recruiting OVW developed talent". Throughout 2008 and 2009 WWE-contracted talent would make occasional appearances on OVW shows including a John Cena vs Lance Cade main event for the companies final Kentucky Kingdom Show and OVW talent has remained a large part of WWE's recruiting classes with many talents signed to the WWE since February 2008 and many more being used on WWE programming as extras or enhancement talent. On February 22 and 23, 2010 the WWE in conjunction with OVW held a two-day tryout camp for independent wrest
Jeffersonville is a city in Clark County, along the Ohio River. Locally, the city is referred to by the abbreviated name Jeff, it is directly across the Ohio River to the north of Louisville, along I-65. The population was 44,953 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Clark County. Jeffersonville started life as a settlement around Fort Finney some time after 1786, was named for Thomas Jefferson in 1801, the year he took office. In 1786 Fort Finney was situated where the Kennedy Bridge is today to protect the area from Native Americans, a settlement grew around the fort; the fort was renamed in 1791 to Fort Steuben in honor of Baron von Steuben. In 1793 the fort was abandoned; when the settlement became known as Jeffersonville is unclear, but it was around 1801, the year in which President Thomas Jefferson took office. In 1802 local residents used a grid pattern designed by Thomas Jefferson for the formation of a city. On September 13, 1803, a post office was established in the city. In 1808 Indiana's second federal land sale office was established in Jeffersonville, which initiated a growth in settling in Indiana, further spurred by the end of the War of 1812.
Shortly after formation, Jeffersonville was named to be the county seat of Clark County in 1802, replacing Springville. In 1812 Charlestown was named the county seat, but the county seat returned to Jeffersonville in 1878, where it remains. In 1813 and 1814 Jeffersonville was the de facto capital of the Indiana Territory, as then-governor Thomas Posey disliked then-capital Corydon, wanting to be closer to his personal physician in Louisville, decided to live in Jeffersonville. However, it is debated by some that Dennis Pennington had some involvement to his location to Jeffersonville; the territorial legislature communicated with Posey by messenger. The Civil War increased the importance of Jeffersonville, as the city was one of the principal gateways to the South during the war, due to its location directly opposite Louisville, it had the waterway of the Ohio River. This factor influenced its selection as one of the principal bases for supplies and troops for the Union Army. Operating in the South, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad furnished the connecting link between Louisville and the rest of the South.
Camp Joe Holt was instrumental in keeping Kentucky within the Union. The third largest Civil War hospital, Jefferson General Hospital was located in nearby Port Fulton from 1864 to 1866, as it was close to the river and Louisville; the original land was seized by the federal government from the Honorable Jesse D. Bright, United States Senator, a sympathizer of the Confederate cause. During the war it housed 16,120 patients in its 5,200 beds and was under the command of Dr. Middleton Goldsmith. A cemetery was built for fallen soldiers down the hill, but the wooden grave markers had decayed by 1927, causing the Jeffersonville city council to build a ball field over the cemetery, not bothering to move the graves, located on Crestview Avenue; the Jeffersonville Quartermaster Intermediate Depot had its first beginning in the early days of the Civil War, near its present location. By 1870, 17% of Jeffersonville residents were foreign-born from Germany. During the 1920s, Jeffersonville was a popular gathering place for the Ku Klux Klan, as Louisville and New Albany had strong anti-Klan laws and Jeffersonville did not.
Gambling in the 1930s and 1940s was instrumental in Jeffersonville's recovery from the Great Depression and the Flood of 1937. Casinos, betting parlors, night clubs, a dog track were present, giving the town the nickname "Little Las Vegas". After Clarence Amster, a New Albany businessman was gunned down on July 2, 1937, public sentiment turned against gambling. On January 2, 1948, Indiana State Police raided every casino in the city before the operators could warn each other, the judge who had devoted the past nine years to eliminating gambling from Jeffersonville, James L. Bottorff, ensured that the equipment was confiscated and the money at the casinos given to charity; this may have played a factor in keeping Jeffersonville residents from voting to approve riverboat gambling in the 1990s. In 2006, riverboat gambling was approved, but for the return of gambling to occur the Indiana State legislature would either have to approve an additional riverboat, or one of the existing riverboats in Indiana would have to relocate to Jeffersonville.
During World War II, the Quartermaster Depot, in conjunction with Fort Knox, Kentucky housed German prisoners of war until 1945. Now the Depot is used as a shopping center. In 1819 the first shipbuilding took place in Jeffersonville, steamboats would become key to Jeffersonville's economy. In 1834, James Howard built his first steamboat, named the Hyperion, in Jeffersonville, he established his ship building company in Jeffersonville that year but moved his business to Madison, Indiana in 1836 and remained there until 1844. Howard returned his business to the Jeffersonville area to its final location in Port Fulton in 1849. In 1925 the United States Navy assumed control of the Howard Ship Yards until 1941, after Jeffersonville annexed Port Fulton. During World War II, the shipyards built landing vessels such as the LST, it was established as the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Company simply known as Jeffboat, which still supports the local economy. The history of shipbuilding in Jeffersonville is the focus of the Howard Steamboat Museum.
There is an annual festival held in September called Steamboat Days that celebrates Jeffersonville's heritage. On February 5, 2008 the c
World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. d/b/a WWE, is an American integrated media and entertainment company, known for professional wrestling. WWE has branched out into other fields, including movies, real estate, various other business ventures; the WWE name refers to the professional wrestling promotion itself, founded by Jess McMahon and Toots Mondt in 1952 as the Capitol Wrestling Corporation. As of 2019, it is the largest wrestling promotion in the world, holding over 500 events a year, with the roster divided up into various globally traveling brands, is available to about 36 million viewers in more than 150 countries; the company's global headquarters is located in Stamford, with offices in major cities across the world. As in other professional wrestling promotions, WWE shows are not legitimate contests, but purely entertainment-based, featuring storyline-driven and choreographed matches, though matches include moves that can put performers at risk of injury if not performed correctly.
This was first publicly acknowledged by WWE's owner Vince McMahon in 1989 to avoid taxes from athletic commissions. Since the 1980s, WWE publicly has branded their product as sports entertainment, acknowledging the product's roots in competitive sport and dramatic theater; the company's majority owner is its chairman and CEO, Vince McMahon, who retains a 42% ownership of the company's outstanding stock and 83% of the voting power. The current entity, incorporated on February 21, 1980, was known as Titan Sports, Inc., founded that same year in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. It acquired Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. the holding company for the World Wrestling Federation, in 1982. Titan was renamed World Wrestling Federation, Inc. in 1998 World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. in 1999, the current World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. in 2002. Since 2011, the company has branded itself as WWE though the company's legal name was not changed. WWE's origins can be traced back as far as 1952 when Roderick James "Jess" McMahon and Toots Mondt created the Capitol Wrestling Corporation Ltd. which joined the National Wrestling Alliance in 1953.
McMahon, a successful boxing promoter, began working with Tex Rickard in 1926. With the help of Rickard, he began promoting boxing and wrestling at the third Madison Square Garden, it was not the first time McMahon had promoted wrestling cards, as he had done so during the 1910s. In November 1954, McMahon died and Ray Fabiani, one of Mondt's associates, brought in McMahon's son Vincent James; the younger McMahon and Mondt were successful and soon controlled 70% of the NWA's booking due to their dominance in the populated Northeastern United States. In 1963, McMahon and Mondt had a dispute with the NWA over "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers being booked to hold the NWA World Heavyweight Championship. Both men left the company in protest and formed the WWWF in the process, awarding Rogers the newly created WWWF World Heavyweight Championship in April of that year, he lost the championship to Bruno Sammartino a month on May 17, 1963, after suffering a heart attack a week before the match. Capitol operated the WWWF in a conservative manner compared to other pro wrestling territories: it ran its major arenas monthly rather than weekly or bi-weekly featuring a babyface champion wrestling various heels in programs that consisted of one to three matches.
After gaining a television program deal and hiring Lou Albano as a manager for Sammartino's heel opponents, the WWWF was doing sellout business by 1970. Mondt left Capitol in the late 1960s and although the WWWF had withdrawn from the NWA, Vince McMahon, Sr. re-joined in 1971. Capitol renamed the World Wide Wrestling Federation to the World Wrestling Federation in 1979. Vincent J. McMahon's son, Vincent K. McMahon, his wife Linda, established Titan Sports, Inc. in 1980 in South Yarmouth, Massachusetts. The company was incorporated on February 1980, in the Cape Cod Coliseum offices; the younger McMahon bought Capitol from his father in 1982 seizing control of the company. Seeking to make the WWF the premier wrestling promotion in the country, the world, he began an expansion process that fundamentally changed the wrestling business. At the annual meeting of the NWA in 1983, the McMahons and former Capitol employee Jim Barnett all withdrew from the organization. McMahon worked to get WWF programming on syndicated television all across the United States.
This angered other promoters and disrupted the well-established boundaries of the different wrestling promotions ending the territory system, in use since the founding of the NWA in the 1940s. In addition, the company used income generated by advertising, television deals, tape sales to secure talent from rival promoters. In an interview with Sports Illustrated, McMahon noted: In the old days, there were wrestling fiefdoms all over the country, each with its own little lord in charge; each little lord respected the rights of his neighboring little lord. No takeovers or raids were allowed. There were maybe 30 of these tiny kingdoms in the U. S. and if I hadn't bought out my dad, there would still be 30 of them and struggling. I, of course, had no allegiance to those little lords. McMahon gained significant traction when he hired American Wrestling Association talent Hulk Hogan, who had achieved popularity outside of wrestling, notably for his appearance in the film Rocky III. McMahon signed Roddy Piper as Hogan's rival, shortly afterward Jesse Ventura as an announcer.
Other wrestlers joined the roster, such as Jimmy Snuka, Don Muraco
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
Professional wrestling match types
Many types of wrestling matches, sometimes called "concept" or "gimmick matches" in the jargon of the business, are performed in professional wrestling. Some of them occur frequently while others are developed so as to advance an angle and such match types are used rarely; because of professional wrestling's long history over decades, many things have been recycled. These match types can be organized into several loose groups; the singles match is the most basic of all professional wrestling matches, which involves only two competitors competing for one fall. Victory is obtained by pinfall, knockout, countout or disqualification. Matches are contested between two teams, most consisting of two members each. On most occasions, one member of the team competes in the ring with one or more of his or her teammates standing behind the ropes. Wrestlers switch positions by "tagging" one another similar to a high five and, as a result, these teams are referred to as tag teams; this can create tension during the match as an injured wrestler in the middle of the ring attempts to reach his or her teammates with the heel team preventing them from doing so.
In typical tag team matches, standard wrestling rules apply with a match ending by pinfall, countout, or disqualification. Promotions have established tag teams that most compete in team matches rather than singles matches, though teams will break up to pursue a singles career via a turn. Teams consist of real-life friends or relatives. On other occasions, teams are booked together by promoters based on their face or heel alignment in order to increase the amount of wrestlers on the card or to advance multiple storylines at once. Promotions have a tag team championship for a team of two wrestlers, on rare occasion allies of the reigning tag team will be allowed to defend the title in the place of one of the reigning wrestlers under the Freebird rule. Though common in Mexican lucha libre, at one point, World Championship Wrestling had a championship for teams of three. WWE can have three or four tag teams going against each other. Matches in which the entire team competes at once is referred to as a tornado tag match in WWE.
Matches can be held under standard rules or as a specialty match, such as a steel cage match or a ladder match. Tag team matches are held under elimination rules. One famous example of this match is the Survivor Series match held in WWE at their annual Survivor Series pay-per-view. Teams of four or five, though on some occasions as many as seven, compete under elimination rules. All other standard rules apply, team members may tag in and out in any order. While some teams are established stables, others may need to recruit members for their team. In lucha libre promotions, a torneo cibernetico is a similar type of match between teams of up to eight wrestlers who enter in a predetermined order. A winner takes all match is a match in which both wrestlers are champions going into the match, the winner receives the championship of the loser, thus "taking all". An empty arena match is a hardcore match between two or more wrestlers that takes place in an arena devoid of fans; the only people present are the competitors, referee and cameramen.
The match is videotaped and played later. An example of this is the WWF championship match between the Rock and Mankind that took place in Tucson, Arizona, at the Tucson Convention Center during the WWF's Super Bowl halftime show on January 31, 1999. One of the earliest and best known empty arena matches occurred in 1981 in Memphis, Tennessee, at the Mid-South Coliseum between Jerry Lawler and Terry Funk. A falls count anywhere match is a match in which pinfalls can take place in any location, negating the standard rule that they must take place inside the ring and between the ropes; as such, this eliminates the usual "countout" rule. As the match may take place in various parts of the arena, the "falls count anywhere" provision is always accompanied with a "no-disqualification" stipulation to make the match a hardcore match, so as to allow wrestlers the convenience to use any objects they may find wherever they wrestle. A variation of the rules states that once a pinfall takes place, the pinned wrestler would lose the match if they are unable to return to the ring within a specific amount of time — a referee's count of 10 or 30.
If the pinned wrestler makes it to the ring in this time, the match continues. Under these rules, all pinfalls must take place outside of the ring, technically making the match no longer falls count anywhere; this stipulation is listed as having a specific territory in which falls count. A new variation of the stipulation, submissions count anywhere, debuted at Breaking Point in a match between D-Generation X and the Legacy; the flag match is the professional wrestling version of capture the flag. For the match two flags are placed on opposite turnbuckles, each representing a specific wrestler or team of wrestlers and the objective of the match is to retrieve the opponent's flag and raise it while defending the flag in the wrestler's corner. If the referee is knocked down and cannot acknowledge the win, the