Walter Whitman was an American poet and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon called the father of free verse, his work was controversial in its time his poetry collection Leaves of Grass, described as obscene for its overt sexuality. Born in Huntington on Long Island, Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, a government clerk, and—in addition to publishing his poetry—was a volunteer nurse during the American Civil War. Early in his career, he produced a temperance novel, Franklin Evans. Whitman's major work, Leaves of Grass, was first published in 1855 with his own money; the work was an attempt at reaching out to the common person with an American epic. He continued expanding and revising it until his death in 1892. After a stroke towards the end of his life, he moved to Camden, New Jersey, where his health further declined; when he died at age 72, his funeral became a public spectacle.
Walter Whitman was born on May 31, 1819, in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, to parents with interests in Quaker thought and Louisa Van Velsor Whitman. The second of nine children, he was nicknamed "Walt" to distinguish him from his father. Walter Whitman Sr. named three of his seven sons after American leaders: Andrew Jackson, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson. The oldest was named Jesse and another boy died unnamed at the age of six months; the couple's sixth son, the youngest, was named Edward. At age four, Whitman moved with his family from West Hills to Brooklyn, living in a series of homes, in part due to bad investments. Whitman looked back on his childhood as restless and unhappy, given his family's difficult economic status. One happy moment that he recalled was when he was lifted in the air and kissed on the cheek by the Marquis de Lafayette during a celebration in Brooklyn on July 4, 1825. At age eleven Whitman concluded formal schooling, he sought employment for further income for his family.
There, Whitman learned about typesetting. He may have written "sentimental bits" of filler material for occasional issues. Clements aroused controversy when he and two friends attempted to dig up the corpse of Elias Hicks to create a plaster mold of his head. Clements left the Patriot shortly afterward as a result of the controversy; the following summer Whitman worked for Erastus Worthington, in Brooklyn. His family moved back to West Hills in the spring, but Whitman remained and took a job at the shop of Alden Spooner, editor of the leading Whig weekly newspaper the Long-Island Star. While at the Star, Whitman became a regular patron of the local library, joined a town debating society, began attending theater performances, anonymously published some of his earliest poetry in the New-York Mirror. At age 16 in May 1835, Whitman left the Brooklyn, he moved to New York City to work as a compositor though, in years, Whitman could not remember where. He attempted to find further work but had difficulty, in part due to a severe fire in the printing and publishing district, in part due to a general collapse in the economy leading up to the Panic of 1837.
In May 1836, he rejoined his family, now living in Long Island. Whitman taught intermittently at various schools until the spring of 1838, though he was not satisfied as a teacher. After his teaching attempts, Whitman went back to Huntington, New York, to found his own newspaper, the Long-Islander. Whitman served as publisher, editor and distributor and provided home delivery. After ten months, he sold the publication to E. O. Crowell, whose first issue appeared on July 12, 1839. There are no known surviving copies of the Long-Islander published under Whitman. By the summer of 1839, he found a job as a typesetter in Jamaica, Queens with the Long Island Democrat, edited by James J. Brenton, he left shortly thereafter, made another attempt at teaching from the winter of 1840 to the spring of 1841. One story apocryphal, tells of Whitman's being chased away from a teaching job in Southold, New York, in 1840. After a local preacher called him a "Sodomite", Whitman was tarred and feathered. Biographer Justin Kaplan notes that the story is untrue, because Whitman vacationed in the town thereafter.
Biographer Jerome Loving calls the incident a "myth". During this time, Whitman published a series of ten editorials, called "Sun-Down Papers—From the Desk of a Schoolmaster", in three newspapers between the winter of 1840 and July 1841. In these essays, he adopted a constructed persona, a technique he would employ throughout his career. Whitman moved to New York City in May working a low-level job at the New World, working under Park Benjamin Sr. and Rufus Wilmot Griswold. He continued working for short periods of time for various newspapers, he contributed freelance fiction and poetry throughout the 1840s. Whitman lost his position at the Brooklyn Eagle in 1848 after siding with the free-soil "Barnburner" wing of the Democratic party against the newspaper's owner, Isaac Van Anden, who belonged to the conservative, or "Hunker", wing of the party. Whitman was a delegate to the 1848 founding convention of the Free Soil Party, concerned about the threat slavery would pose to free white labor and northern businessmen moving
A Sea Symphony
A Sea Symphony is a piece for orchestra and chorus by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1903 and 1909. Vaughan Williams' first and longest symphony, it was first performed at the Leeds Festival in 1910, with the composer conducting; the symphony's maturity belies the composer's relative youth. One of the first symphonies in which a choir is used throughout the work and is an integral part of the musical texture, A Sea Symphony helped set the stage for a new era of symphonic and choral music in Britain during the first half of the 20th century; the work is sometimes referred to as the Symphony No. 1. From 1903 to 1909, Ralph Vaughan Williams worked intermittently on a series of songs for chorus and orchestra that were to become his most lengthy project to date and his first true symphony. Titled The Ocean, A Sea Symphony was first performed in 1910 at the Leeds Festival on the composer's 38th birthday; this is cited as his first large-scale work. Vaughan Williams had never before attempted a work of quite this duration, or for such large forces, it was his first of what would be nine symphonies.
Like Brahms, Vaughan Williams delayed a long time before composing his first symphony, but remained prolific throughout the end of his life: his final symphony was composed from 1956–58, completed when he was 85 years of age. At 70 minutes, A Sea Symphony is the longest of all Vaughan Williams’ symphonies. Although it represents a departure from the traditional Germanic symphonic tradition of the time, it follows a standard symphonic outline: fast introductory movement, slow movement and finale; the four movements are: A Song for All Seas, All Ships On the Beach at Night, Alone Scherzo: The Waves The Explorers The first movement lasts twenty minutes. The text of A Sea Symphony comes from Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. Though Whitman's poems were little known in England at the time, Vaughan Williams was attracted to them for their ability to transcend both metaphysical and humanist perspectives. Whitman's use of free verse was beginning to make waves in the compositional world, where fluidity of structure was beginning to be more attractive than traditional, metrical settings of text.
Vaughan Williams sets sections from the following poems in A Sea Symphony: Movement 1: “Song of the Exposition” and “Song for all Seas, all Ships" Movement 2: "On the Beach at Night Alone" Movement 3: "After the Sea-ship", taken in its entirety Movement 4: "Passage to India" The symphony is scored for soprano, chorus and a large orchestra consisting of: Woodwinds: two flutes, two oboes, cor anglais, two clarinets, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, two bassoons, contrabassoon Brass: four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba Percussion: timpani, side drum, bass drum, suspended cymbal, crash cymbals Organ Strings: two harps, strings. To facilitate more performances of the work, the full score includes the provision that it may be performed by a reduced orchestra of two flutes, one oboe, cor anglais, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, timpani, one harp, strings; the chorus sings in all four movements. Both soloists are featured in the first and last movements, while only the baritone sings in the second movement.
The scherzo is for the orchestra alone. Comparisons to Stanford and Elgar, as in the Grove article, are expected. Not only were the four writing during the same era and in the same country, Vaughan Williams studied with both Stanford and Parry at the Royal College of Music, his preparations for composing A Sea Symphony included study of both Elgar's Enigma Variations and his oratorio The Dream of Gerontius. A Sea Symphony is among the best-known of a host of sea-related pieces being written around the same time in England, some of the most famous of which are Stanford's Songs of the Sea and Songs of the Fleet, Elgar's Sea Pictures, Frank Bridge's The Sea. Debussy's La mer may have been influential in this apparent nautical obsession. Vaughan Williams studied with Ravel for three months in Paris in the winter of 1907–1908. Though he worked chiefly on orchestration, this was to provide quite a contrast to the Germanic tradition handed down through Stanford and Parry at the RCM, began to give Vaughan Williams a greater sense for colour and a freedom to move chords as block units.
His partiality towards mediant relationships, a unifying harmonic motive of A Sea Symphony, may have been somewhat liberated by these studies, this harmonic relationship is now considered symptomatic of his style in general. A Sea Symphony makes use of both pentatonic and whole tone scales, now considered idiomatic features of French music of the period; this music was in Vaughan Williams’ mind as he finished work on A Sea Symphony in 1908–1909, but Ravel paid him the great compliment of calling him “the only one of my students who does not write my music.” Musically, A Sea Symphony contains two strong unifying motives. The first is the harmonic motive of two chords whose roots are a th
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper owned by Nine in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia and a national online news brand; the print version of the newspaper is published six days a week. The Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety including the magazines Good Weekend. There are a variety of lift-outs, some of them co-branded with online classified advertising sites: The Guide on Monday Good Food and Domain on Tuesday Money on Wednesday Drive, Shortlist on Friday News Review, Domain, Drive and MyCareer on SaturdayAs of February 2016, average week-day print circulation of the paper was 104,000; the editor is Lisa Davies. Former editors include Darren Goodsir, Judith Whelan, Sean Aylmer, Peter Fray, Meryl Constance, Amanda Wilson, William Curnow, Andrew Garran, Frederick William Ward, Charles Brunsdon Fletcher, Colin Bingham, Max Prisk, John Alexander, Paul McGeough, Alan Revell and Alan Oakley.
The February 2016 average circulation of the paper was 104,000. In December 2013, the Audit Bureau of Circulations's audit on newspaper circulation states a monthly average of 132,000 copies were sold, Monday to Friday, 228,000 copies on Saturday, both having declined 16% in 12 months. According to Roy Morgan Research Readership Surveys, in the twelve months to March 2011, the paper was read 766,000 times on Monday to Friday, read 1,014,000 times on Saturdays; the newspaper's website smh.com.au was rated by third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb as the 17th and 32nd most visited website in Australia as of July 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspaper's website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month, it is available nationally except in the Northern Territory. Limited copies of the newspaper are available at newsagents in New Zealand and at the High Commission of Australia, London. In 1831 three employees of the now-defunct Sydney Gazette, Ward Stephens, Frederick Stokes and William McGarvie, founded The Sydney Herald.
In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published. The original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily. In 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for 150 years, based his editorial policies "upon principles of candour and honour. We have no wish to mislead. During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there; the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the country's metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch. In 1949, the newspaper launched The Sunday Herald. Four years this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, which continues to this day. In 1995, the company launched the newspaper's web edition smh.com.au. The site has since grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition.
Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, in the city's west. The SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a broadsheet format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times, for both The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year. However, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013. Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the entire group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers' websites; the subscription type is to be a freemium model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. The announcement was part of an overall "digital first" strategy of digital or on-line content over printed delivery, to "increase sharing of editorial content", to assist the management's wish for "full integration of its online and mobile platforms".
In July 2013 it was announced that the SMH's news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, replacing Sean Aylmer. On 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014, ahead of the decommissioning of the printing plant at Chullora in June 2014. According to Irial Glynn, the newspaper's editorial stance is centrist, it is seen as the most centrist among the three major Australian non-tabloids. In 2004, the newspaper's editorial page stated: "market libertarianism and social liberalism" were the two "broad themes" that guided the Herald's editorial stance. During the 1999 referendum on whether Australia should become a republic, the Herald supported a "yes" vote; the newspaper did not endorse the Labor Party for federal office in the first six decades of Federation, but did endorse the party in 1961, 1984, 1987. During the 2004 Australian federal election, the Herald annou
Franklin Evans. Franklin Evans or The Inebriate: A Tale of the Times, the first novel written by Walt Whitman, is the rag-to-riches story of Franklin Evans. Franklin Evans starts as an innocent young man, leaving Long Island to come to New York City for the opportunity to better himself. Being young and naïve, he is influenced by someone whom he befriended and becomes a drunkard, he tries many times to abstain from alcohol but does not succeed until after the death of his two wives. Franklin Evans takes you through a journey of a young man living and learning through his mistakes, picking up life lessons along the way. An introduction to a modern reprint of Franklin Evans, written by Christopher Castiglia and Glenn Hendler, serves as a detailed preface to the novel, it incorporates a section about Walt Whitman's early life to give readers an understanding about why he took up writing in the first place. After his childhood, he operated a hand press for both the Long Island Patriot and the Star until his family returned to rural Long Island.
He soon began a journalistic career until becoming a teacher in 1836. He earned a small wage with which he was not satisfied, so he began his own weekly paper. From here, a concrete writing career began, influential authors began to target Whitman's work, including Park Benjamin, who published Franklin Evans in his own paper; the authors touch on Whitman's journalism of the 1840s. They believe. Referencing one of Whitman's pieces of literature, they write one of his statements regarding Chatham Square: "In the middle are dray carts and cabs: on the right, loom up small hills of furniture, of every quality, with here and there an auctioneer, standing on a table or barrel top, crying out to the crowd around him, the merits of the articles, the bids made for them." This statement contains a great deal of nostalgia from past times, which alludes to change in social mobility from a changing economy. Overall and Hendler offer a special focus on labor and social reform of the times as possible reasons for the novel.
It is difficult for readers to formulate a rationale for why Whitman would write a book about a man ruining his life by indulging in intemperance. At the time, working-class individuals who read newspapers like Benjamin's were becoming interested in tales of temperance. About 12 percent of American novels published during the 1830s concerned temperance fiction. Conforming to these social demands of the time period, Benjamin published Whitman's story in his newspaper as a continuous series; this kept readers wanting to read every issue, more buyers of Benjamin’s paper. Hendler and Castiglia mention how Whitman did indeed oppose legal restraints on alcohol consumption because he believed they would not prove effectual, how he was not "one of those who would deny people any sense of delight." However, some of his literature up to 1840 had been used to discourage all forms of intemperance. Therefore, it is safe to say; this is. It is Whitman's direct example of why intemperance is such a dangerous act, needed to be rectified with regulations different from those that were not successful.
Success after Struggle: Whitman conveys this theme through an entire novel of hardship. After battling times of intemperance since he first arrived in New York, Evans achieves some sort of satisfaction at the end; as a middle aged man at the conclusion of the novel, Evans states: “So, at an age, hardly upon the middle verge of life, I found myself possessed of a comfortable property. Readers can see that for someone as ill-behaved as Evans, whose poor judgement lost him nearly everything in his life, amends could still be made, he set himself on a reformed path. It seemed as though nothing remotely good could come out of Evans's situation after lost jobs and money, but that would have taken away from Whitman's lesson that immense struggle will be balanced out with sort of success, or in Evans's case, content frame of mind. Change is Always Possible: Coinciding with Success after Struggle, Whitman conveys both themes in conjunction with one another. From the moment Evans took his first drink to the countless losses he experienced throughout the duration of the novel, it was tough to have much hope for him.
He continuously chose intemperance over important aspects of life-for instance marriage. However, with the guidance of the Marchion family and some solid effort on his part, Evans changed his life for the better. After experiencing some well due good fortune, Evans displays some newfound maturity with his statement "My country relations were not forgotten by me in my good fortune; the worthy uncle, who had kindly housed and fed me when I was quite too small to make him any repayment for that service, received in his old age the means to render his life more easy and happy. My cousins too, had no reason to be sorry for the good-will which they had shown toward me. I was never the person to forget a friend, or leave unrequited a favor, when I had the payment of it in my power.". Months and years previous, it was not possible for Evans to utter words of recognition. After realizing his faults and making the
LibriVox is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". On 6 August 2016, the project completed project number 10,000. and from 2009–2017 was producing about 1,000 items per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects. LibriVox is affiliated with Project Gutenberg from where the project gets some of its texts, the Internet Archive that hosts their offerings. LibriVox was started in August 2005 by Montreal-based writer Hugh McGuire, who set up a blog, posed the question; the first recorded book was The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad.
The main features of the way LibriVox works have changed little since its inception, although the technology that supports it has been improved by the efforts of its volunteers with web-development skills. LibriVox is an invented word inspired by Latin words liber in its genitive form libri and vox, giving the meaning BookVoice; the word was coined because of other connotations: liber means child and free, unrestricted. As the LibriVox forum says: "We like to think LibriVox might be interpreted as'child of the voice', and'free voice'; the other link we like is'library' so you could imagine it to mean Library of Voice."There has been no decision or consensus by LibriVox founders or the community of volunteers for a single pronunciation of LibriVox. It is accepted. LibriVox is a volunteer-run, free content, Public Domain project, it has legal personality. The development of projects is managed through an Internet forum, supported by an admin team, who maintain a searchable catalogue database of completed works.
In early 2010, LibriVox ran a fundraising drive to raise $20,000 to cover hosting costs for the website of about $5,000/year and improve front- and backend usability. The target was reached in 13 days, so the fundraising ended and LibriVox suggested that supporters consider making donations to its affiliates and partners, Project Gutenberg and the Internet Archive. Volunteers can choose new projects to start, either recording on their own or inviting others to join them, or they can contribute to projects that have been started by others. Once a volunteer has recorded his or her contribution, it is uploaded to the site, proof-listened by members of the LibriVox community. Finished audiobooks are available from the LibriVox website, MP3 and Ogg Vorbis files are hosted separately by the Internet Archive. Recordings are available through other means, such as iTunes, being free of copyright, they are distributed independently of LibriVox on the Internet and otherwise. LibriVox only records material, in the public domain in the United States, all LibriVox books are released with a public domain dedication.
Because of copyright restrictions, LibriVox produces recordings of only a limited number of contemporary books. These have included, for example, the 9/11 Commission Report, a work of the US Federal Government therefore in the Public Domain; the LibriVox catalogue is varied. It contains much popular classic fiction, but includes less predictable texts, such as Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and a recording of the first 500 digits of pi; the collection features poetry, religious texts and non-fiction of various kinds. In January 2009, the catalogue contained 55 percent fiction and drama, 25 percent non-fiction and 20 percent poetry. By the end of 2018, the most viewed item was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in a 2006 solo recording by John Greenman. Around 90 percent of the catalogue is recorded in English, but recordings exist in 31 languages altogether. Chinese and German are the most popular languages other than English amongst volunteers, but recordings have been made in languages including Urdu and Tagalog.
LibriVox has garnered significant interest, in particular from those interested in the promotion of volunteer-led content and alternative approaches to copyright ownership on the Internet. It has received support from the Internet Project Gutenberg. Intellectual freedom and commons proponent Mike Linksvayer described it in 2008 as "perhaps the most interesting collaborative culture project this side of Wikipedia"; the project has been featured in press around the world and has been recommended by the BBC's Click, MSNBC's The Today Show, Wired, the US PC Magazine and the UK Metro and Sunday Times newspapers. A frequent concern of listeners is the site's policy of allowing any recording to be published as long as it is understandable and faithful to the source text; this means. While some listeners may object to those books with chapters read by multiple readers, others find this to be a non-issue or a feature, though many books are narrated by a single reader. Virtual volunteering Voice acting LibriVox siteLibriVox home page and LibriVox Catalogue of Audio BooksArticlesXeni Tech story from NPR's Day to Day, "Amateur Audio Books Cat
The "Calamus" poems are a cluster of poems in Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman. These poems celebrate and promote "the manly love of comrades". Most critics believe that these poems are Whitman's clearest expressions in print of his ideas about homosexual love; the first evidence of the poems that were to become the "Calamus" cluster is an unpublished manuscript sequence of twelve poems entitled "Live Oak With Moss," written in or before spring 1859. These poems were all incorporated in Whitman's 1860 edition of Leaves of Grass, but out of their original sequence; these poems seem to recount the story of a relationship between the speaker of the poems and a male lover. In Whitman's intimate writing style, these poems, read in their original sequence, seem unusually personal and candid in their disclosure of love and disappointment, this manuscript has become central to arguments about Whitman's homoeroticism or homosexuality; this sequence was not known in its original manuscript order until a 1953 article by Fredson Bowers.
In the 1860 third edition of Leaves of Grass, Whitman included the twelve "Live Oak" poems along with others to form a sequence of 45 untitled numbered poems. This sequence as written celebrates many aspects of "comradeship" or "adhesive love," Whitman's term, borrowed from phrenology to describe male same-sex attraction; this attraction is presented in its political, spiritual and personal phases—Whitman offering it as the backbone of future nations, the root of religious sentiments, the solution to the big questions of life, as a source of personal anguish and joy. The 1860 edition contains three poems that Whitman would edit out of the sequence, including the personal Calamus 8, "Long I thought that knowledge alone would suffice me," and Calamus 9, "Hours continuing long and heavy-hearted." Whitman's constant editing of his works meant that many of the other poems would change and shift throughout the editions of his life. By the 1881–82 edition, the poems had been reduced to 39; some critics contended that Whitman's edits tended to reduce some of his most personal and specific disclosures as an attempt to make the sequence more attractive to its wider audience.
Others, such as Betsy Erkkila, note that Whitman retained some personal poems for the 1867 edition, see his selection as a function of Whitman building a particular national persona for himself. This cluster of poems contains a number of motifs that are repeated throughout; the most important is the Calamus root itself. Acorus calamus or Sweet Flag is a marsh-growing plant similar to a cat-tail. Whitman continues through this one of the central images of Leaves of Grass--Calamus is treated as a larger example of the grass that he writes of elsewhere; some scholars have pointed out, as reasons for Whitman's choice, the phallic shape of what Whitman calls the "pink-tinged roots" of Calamus, its mythological association with failed male same-sex love and with writing, the mind-altering effects of the root. The root was chiefly chewed at the time as a breath-freshener. Works by Walt Whitman at Project Gutenberg Calamus On WikiSource Manuscript for "Live Oak With Moss" at the Walt Whitman Archive
Drum-Taps is a collection of poetry by American poet Walt Whitman. The book, written during the American Civil War, was first published in 1865. On April 12, 1861, Confederate cannons fired upon Fort Sumter signaling the opening of the American Civil War; this would mark the beginning of a important time in the life of American poet Walt Whitman. Whitman's style of writing drew from his attempts to better manage the psychological chaos he experienced. Now, with the Civil War, it was easy to see that all of society and the political structure had slipped into chaos; as the nation began to shift so did Whitman as his poetry during this time would begin to demonstrate his vision of democracy as people acting collectively and pragmatically to secure a meaningful political freedom. Regarding many of the poems in Drum-Taps, little is known about when they were written. However, in the winter of 1862, Whitman traveled to Virginia in search of his brother, whom he heard had been wounded in the Battle of Fredericksburg.
After witnessing the vast amount casualties of war at the hospital, Walt was profoundly moved. For the next three years, he would devote himself to helping the soldiers. Many considered him a nurse and he acted as one, dutifully dressing wounds, assisting in amputations and administering medications. Whitman, insisted he be referred to as something simpler, calling himself a mere “visitor & consolatory,” one who brought “soothing invigoration” to the sick and wounded; this time in the hospital would have a major effect on his poetry with some of the poems in “Drum-Taps” being directly based on events transpired in these places. Whitman found great richness to being in the military camps, he was fascinated by the men and the ordinary objects they used. His experiences here would fill his notebook as rough-draft poems that constitute his 1865 publication. Years Whitman told Horace Traubel that Drum-Taps was "put together by fits and starts, on the field, in the hospitals as I worked with the soldier boys."
How to go about getting this work published would prove to be a tedious affair. By June 23, 1864, Whitman was on the verge of a mental breakdown and grew to be so ill from all the work he had been doing in the hospitals that he was forced to retire to his home in Brooklyn, he managed to declare himself "gradually alleviated, until now I go about pretty much the same as usual" on July 24 and dedicated himself to, at last, publishing his collection of poems. "I intend to move heaven & earth to publish my Drum-Taps as soon as I am able to go around", Whitman told his friend and associate William O'Connor. He was excessively motivated to get his work out there, it was the perception that his past works had been so controversial that had now scared off any legitimate publishers from wanting to buy his fresh compilation of poetry. If this were to be the case, Whitman explained to O’Connor, “I shall try to bring it out myself, stereotype it, & print an edition of 500 – I could sell that number by my own exertions in Brooklyn and New York in three weeks."
O'Connor was not as confident. He was justifiably concerned that a published book would not be available to a large scale, it was his desire to have this book cement Whitman’s fame. He was going to have to wait for this however. Whitman's dedication to the hospital remained true as well for he would return to Washington as soon as he was physically fit to. Months on March 6, 1865, he received a letter from his mother explaining that George, who had survived the poor conditions experienced at many prisoner of war camps, had been released and was now going home to Brooklyn on medical leave. Walt now wanted to be home. Not only so he could see his brother, but he felt with the way the war was progressing so well now for the Union, this was the perfect time to publish his book, he was only able to gain minimal momentum however after receiving some money from the government. On this date, Whitman signed a contract with printer Peter Eckler to produce five hundred copies of Drum-Taps. Things began to proceed smoothly until the morning of April 15, 1865, when the newspapers told the story of the assassination of President Lincoln.
Like the rest of the country, Whitman was saddened by his passing. Over the following months he would split time between Brooklyn and the Capitol while adding several additions to his compilation of poems, his poem "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd" was popular. It was this success that led to the publication of Drum-Taps, along with a 24-page insert called Sequel to Drum-Taps, on October 28, 1865. Whitman’s writings in Drum-Taps appear to be separated into different loosely congregated sections without plainly saying this. Within the first group of poems, Whitman expresses both exuberance and doubts in regard to the imminent conflict. Both Lincoln and Whitman had a like-minded philosophy that the sole objective of the war was to preserve the "more perfect union". Lincoln expressed this belief and stated that the issue of slavery should be and only would be addressed if it contributed to this preservation. Poems in this first section such as “First O Songs of Prelude” demonstrate this vociferous Unionist pride.
That poem, others like it among the first part such as “Song of the Banner at Daybreak”, serves as a rally cry for the Northern population. These poems demonstrate Whitman’s belief that this war is a good thing for America’s ideals, he believes without such a conflict and threat to society, those ideals could be taken for granted and lost to decay. It seems that war takes bin