Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe
Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
The Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem known as the Sanjak of Jerusalem, was an Ottoman district with special administrative status established in 1872. The district encompassed Jerusalem as well as Bethlehem, Jaffa and Beersheba. During the late Ottoman period, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, together with the Sanjak of Nablus and Sanjak of Akka, formed the region, referred to as "Southern Syria" or "Palestine", it was the 7th most populated region of the Ottoman Empire's 36 provinces. The district was separated from Damascus and placed directly under Constantinople in 1841, formally created as an independent province in 1872 by Grand Vizier Mahmud Nedim Pasha. Scholars provide a variety of reasons for the separation, including increased European interest in the region, strengthening of the southern border of the Empire against the Khedivate of Egypt; the Mutasarrifate of Acre and Mutasarrifate of Nablus were combined with the province of Jerusalem, with the combined province being referred to in the register of the court of Jerusalem as the "Jerusalem Eyalet", referred to by the British consul as creation of "Palestine into a separate eyalet".
However, after less than two months, the sanjaks of Nablus and Acre were separated and added to the Vilayet of Beirut, leaving just the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem. In 1906, the Kaza of Nazareth was added to the Jerusalem Mutasarrifate, as an exclave in order to allow the issuance of a single tourist permit to Christian travellers; the area was conquered by the Allied Forces in 1917 during World War I and a military Occupied Enemy Territory Administration set up to replace the Ottoman administration. OETA South consisted of the Ottoman sanjaks of Jerusalem and Acre; the military administration was replaced by a British civilian administration in 1920 and the area of OETA South was incorporated into the British Mandate of Palestine in 1923. The political status of the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was unique to other Ottoman province since it came under the direct authority of the Ottoman capital Constantinople; the inhabitants identified themselves on religious terms, 84% being Muslim Arabs. The district's villages were inhabited by farmers while its towns were populated by merchants, artisans and money-lenders.
The elite consisted of wealthy landlords and high-ranking civil servants. In 1841, the district was separated from Damascus and placed directly under Constantinople and formally created as an independent Mutasarrifate in 1872. Before 1872, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was a sanjak within the Syria Vilayet; the southern border of the Mutasarifate of Jerusalem was redrawn in 1906, at the instigation of the British, who were interested in safeguarding their imperial interests and in making the border as short and patrollable as possible. In the mid-19th century the inhabitants of Palestine identified themselves in terms of religious affiliation; the population was 84% Muslim Arabs, 10% Christian Arabs, 5% Jewish, 1% Druze Arabs. Towards the end of the 19th century, the idea that the region of Palestine or the Mutasarifate of Jerusalem formed a separate political entity became widespread among the district's educated Arab classes. In 1904, former Jerusalem official Najib Azuri formed in Paris, France the Ligue de la Patrie Arabe whose goal was to free Ottoman Syria and Iraq from Turkish domination.
In 1908, Azuri proposed the elevation of the mutassarifate to the status of vilayet to the Ottoman Parliament after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. The area was conquered by the Allied Forces in 1917 during World War I and a military Occupied Enemy Territory Administration set up to replace the Ottoman administration. OETA South consisted of the Ottoman sanjaks of Jerusalem and Acre; the military administration was replaced by a British civilian administration in 1920 and the area of OETA South became the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine in 1923, with some border adjustments with Lebanon and Syria. Below are six contemporary Ottoman maps showing the "Quds Al-Sharif Sancağı" or "Quds Al-Sharif Mutasarrıflığı"; the fourth map shows the 1860 borders between Ottoman Syria and the Khedivate of Egypt, although the border was moved to the current Israel-Egypt border in 1906, the area north of the Negev Desert is labelled "Filastin". The division was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean, on the east by the River Jordan and the Dead Sea, on the north by a line from the mouth of the river Auja to the bridge over the Jordan near Jericho, on the south by a line from midway between Gaza and Arish to Aqaba.
Administrative divisions of the Mutasarrifate: Beersheba Kaza, which included two sub-districts and a municipality: a-Hafir, created in 1908 as a middle point between Beersheba and Aqaba, close to the newly agreed border with Sinai al-Mulayha, created in 1908 as a midway point between Hafir and Aqaba Beersheba, created in 1901 Gaza Kaza, which included three sub-districts and a municipality: Al-Faluja, created in 1903 Khan Yunis, created in 1903 and became a municipal
Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time, it has been contrasted with classical styles. The term originated in the 19th century. Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times, but the term folk music has not been applied to the new music created during those revivals; this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, others. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, in U.
S. English it shares the same name, it shares the same performers and venues as traditional folk music; the terms folk music, folk song, folk dance are comparatively recent expressions. They are extensions of the term folklore, coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe "the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes"; the term further derives from the German expression volk, in the sense of "the people as a whole" as applied to popular and national music by Johann Gottfried Herder and the German Romantics over half a century earlier. Though it is understood that folk music is music of the people, observers find a more precise definition to be elusive; some do not agree that the term folk music should be used. Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning given is that of "old songs, with no known composers", another is that of music, submitted to an evolutionary "process of oral transmission....
The fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character". Such definitions depend upon " processes rather than abstract musical types...", upon "continuity and oral transmission...seen as characterizing one side of a cultural dichotomy, the other side of, found not only in the lower layers of feudal and some oriental societies but in'primitive' societies and in parts of'popular cultures'". One used definition is "Folk music is what the people sing". For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, there was a sense of the music of the country as distinct from that of the town. Folk music was "...seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear" in "a community uninfluenced by art music" and by commercial and printed song. Lloyd rejected this in favour of a simple distinction of economic class yet for him true folk music was, in Charles Seeger's words, "associated with a lower class" in culturally and stratified societies.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types:'primitive' or'tribal'. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music, not contemporary folk music. Folk music may include most indigenous music. From a historical perspective, traditional folk music had these characteristics: It was transmitted through an oral tradition. Before the 20th century, ordinary people were illiterate; this was not mediated by books or recorded or transmitted media. Singers may extend their repertoire using broadsheets or song books, but these secondary enhancements are of the same character as the primary songs experienced in the flesh; the music was related to national culture. It was culturally particular. In the context of an immigrant group, folk music acquires an extra dimension for social cohesion.
It is conspicuous in immigrant societies, where Greek Australians, Somali Americans, Punjabi Canadians, others strive to emphasize their differences from the mainstream. They learn songs and dances that originate in the countries their grandparents came from, they commemorate personal events. On certain days of the year, such as Easter, May Day, Christmas, particular songs celebrate the yearly cycle. Weddings and funerals may be noted with songs and special costumes. Religious festivals have a folk music component. Choral music at these events brings children and non-professional singers to participate in a public arena, giving an emotional bonding, unrelated to the aesthetic qualities of the music; the songs have been performed, by custom, over a long period of time several generations. As a side-effect, the following characteristics are sometimes present: There is no copyright on the songs. Hundreds of folk songs from the 19th century have known authors but have continued in oral tradition to the point where they are considered traditional for purposes of music publishing.
This has become much less frequent since the 1940s. Today every folk song, recorded is credited with an arranger. Fusion of cultures: Because cultures interact and change over time
Trinity Church (Boston)
Trinity Church in the City of Boston, located in the Back Bay of Boston, Massachusetts, is a parish of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. The congregation standing at 4,000 households, was founded in 1733. Five services are offered each Sunday, weekday services are offered three times a week from September through June. Within the spectrum of worship styles in the Anglican tradition, Trinity Church has been considered a Broad Church parish. In addition to worship, the parish is involved in service to the community, pastoral care, programs for children and teenagers, Christian education for all ages; the church is home to several high-level choirs, including the Trinity Choir, Trinity Schola, Trinity Choristers, Trinity Chamber Choir. The building is under study for becoming a Boston Landmark. After its former site on Summer Street burned in the Great Boston Fire of 1872, the current church complex was erected under the direction of Rector Phillips Brooks, one of the best-known and most charismatic preachers of his time.
The church and parish house were designed by Henry Hobson Richardson and construction took place from 1872 to 1877, when the complex was consecrated. Situated on Copley Square in Back Bay, Trinity Church is the building that established Richardson's reputation, it is the birthplace and archetype of the Richardsonian Romanesque style, characterized by a clay roof, rough stone, heavy arches, a massive tower. This style was soon adopted for a number of public buildings across the United States; the stone used was Dedham Granite. According to L. C. Norton, the inventor of door checks, the heavy main entrance doors of Trinity Church were the first to be fitted with a quiet and effective means to resist slamming; this led to a patented pneumatic door check, seen throughout the 1880s to 1910s. Norton's door check device would evolve into the modern door closer with his guidance in both the Norton Door Controls and LCN companies; each December, the choirs of Trinity offer three iterations of a service of Candlelight Carols.
These are a "Boston tradition", popular events, drawing nearly 5,000 attendees from as far away as Maine. A traditional scene in Copley Square in December is that of a long line of people waiting to enter the church for the free event; the service is based on the Nine Carols model developed at King's College, Cambridge. In addition to their primary function of supporting worship, the choirs of Trinity Church are fixtures in the rich musical landscape of Boston; the Trinity Choir has toured extensively, can be heard on several critically acclaimed recordings. The Trinity Choristers are a group of children who learn music and sing in the tradition of the Royal School of Church Music; the current Director of Music and Organist is Richard Webster. The Trinity Choir and Trinity Choristers tour England every three years, serving as choirs-in-residence at major houses of worship such as Ely Cathedral, Chichester Cathedral, Westminster Abbey. 1876: The original organ at Trinity was built by Hilborne L. Roosevelt in 1876, his Opus 29.
It had mechanical action, assisted by Barker levers on all divisions and an electrically controlled Echo division, but its location in the chancel proved unsatisfactory, the organ was moved to the gallery. 1903: Hutchings-Votey built a new instrument for the chancel and made both organs playable from a single console. 1924: Ernest M. Skinner undertook a rebuilding project, Opus 479, involving changes to both the Roosevelt and Hutchings-Votey instruments, but by 1926 it had expanded to Opus 573 as a new organ in the gallery, as well as a new chancel console. 1956: Aeolian-Skinner provided a new console in 1956 and, in 1960, installed a new chancel organ. 1962: The gallery organ was extensively rebuilt, major tonal modifications were made by Jason McKown, who maintained the organs for many years. 1987: Jack Steinkampf' installed a rank of horizontal trumpet pipes under the west gallery window. This festival trumpet is given in memory of Paul Albert Merrill. Late 1990s: In conjunction with the parish's building campaign, a plan was set out with Foley-Baker, Inc. for the cleaning and refurbishment of both organs and their joint console.
Late 2010s: Since 2012, the Church has acquired a stockpile of Skinner and Aeolian-Skinner pipes from the general period of Trinity’s organ. The pipes were installed and the organ reworked in an attempt to recapture the original Skinner sound; this work was a collaboration of Trinity’s former and current organ curators: Foley-Baker Inc. of Tolland and Jonathan Ambrosino, who maintains the organs at Old South Church and Church of the Advent. In 2018 a new four-manual organ console was built by Richard Houghten of Milan, J. Zamberlan & Co. in Wintersville, Ohio. The nave and chancel organs feature 121 stops, 113 ranks, 6898 pipes. Trinity Church offers five services on Sundays, including a now heard modified version of Rite I Morning Prayer including a sermon and extra anthem, as well as a service of sung Compline in the late evening. Weekday services include Thursday Holy Eucharist with Prayers for Healing. Trinity has played host to many special services over the years, due to its central location in Boston, large seating capacity, reputation as a parish willing to open its doors and be "Boston's church."
These services have included interfaith services following the 9/11 attacks, a similar service following the July 2005 London bombings, many prominent funerals, consecrations of bishops, the like. The parish supports man
Nine Lessons and Carols
The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is a service of Christian worship, traditionally celebrated on Christmas Eve. The story of the fall of humanity, the promise of the Messiah, the birth of Jesus is told in nine short Bible readings or lessons from Genesis, the prophetic books and the Gospels, interspersed with the singing of Christmas carols and choir anthems. In 1878 the Royal Cornwall Gazette reported that the choir of Truro Cathedral would sing a service of carols at 10:00 p.m. on Christmas Eve. The Choir of the Cathedral will sing a number of carols in the Cathedral on Christmas Eve, the service commencing at 10pm. We understand that this is at the wish of many of the leading others. A like service has been instituted in other cathedral and large towns, has been much appreciated, it is the intention of the choir to no longer continue the custom of singing carols at the residences of members of the congregation. Two years Edward White Benson, at that time Bishop of Truro in Cornwall but Archbishop of Canterbury, formalised the service with Nine Lessons for use on Christmas Eve 1880.
The first service took place at 10:00 p.m. on Christmas Eve in the temporary wooden structure serving as his cathedral whilst the new cathedral was being built. Over 400 people attended this first service. There is an oft-repeated myth; the service has subsequently been in continuous use in Truro since 1880, followed Bishop Benson in his new appointment as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1883. In December 2013 Truro Cathedral staged a reconstruction of Bishop Benson's original 1880 Nine Lessons with Carols Service, attended by an audience of over 1,500 people; the original liturgy has since been used by other churches all over the world. Lessons and Carols most occur in Anglican churches. However, numerous Christian denominations have adopted this service, or a variation on this service, as part of their Christmas celebrations. In the UK, the service has become the standard format for school carol services; the best-known version is broadcast annually from King's Cambridge, on Christmas Eve. It features carols sung by the famous Choir of King's College.
Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, celebrated its 100th Service of Lessons and Carols in 2016, holding its first festival one year before King's College began theirs. From Brown, the festival tradition has spread to other US institutions, including Groton School of Groton, which performed its first Lessons and Carols in 1928; the comprehensive state school, Magdalen College School, in Brackley Northamptonshire, has had a service of Nine lessons and Carols in their school chapel every year since 1899. They were able to continue during both world wars as the choir was made of school boys, when many university Chapels had to temporarily pause their tradition as their students were fighting in the wars; the school still holds a traditional Nine Lessons and Carols every year, with a Chapel Choir made up of students and retired members of the school community. The first Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols at King's College, was held on Christmas Eve in 1918, it was introduced by Eric Milner-White, the Dean of the College, whose experience as an army chaplain had led him to believe that more imaginative worship was needed by the Church of England.
The order of service was adapted from the order created by Benson for Truro Cathedral 38 years earlier, based on an idea of George Walpole, at the time Succentor of Truro Cathedral, the future Bishop of Edinburgh. The music at the first service at King's was directed by Arthur Henry Mann, the organist from 1876 to 1929; the choir had 16 trebles as specified in statutes laid down by Henry VI, until 1927 the men's voices were provided by choral scholars and lay clerks. Today, 14 undergraduates from the Choir of King's College, sing the men's parts; the service was first broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 1928 and, except for 1930, has been broadcast every year since. During the 1930s the BBC began broadcasting the service on its overseas programmes. Throughout the Second World War, despite the stained glass having been removed from the Chapel and the lack of heating, the broadcasts continued. For security reasons, the name "King's" was not mentioned during wartime broadcasts. Since the Second World War, it has been estimated that each year there are millions of listeners worldwide who listen to the service live on the BBC World Service.
Domestically, the service is broadcast live on BBC Radio 4, a recorded broadcast is made on Christmas Day on BBC Radio 3. In the US, a 1954 service was put into the National Recording Registry by the Library of Congress in 2008; the broadcast has been heard live on public radio stations affiliated with American Public Media since 1979, most stations broadcast a repeat on Christmas Day. Since 1963, the service has been periodically filmed for television broadcast in the UK. Presently, each year a programme entitled Carols from King's is pre-recorded in early or mid-December shown on Christmas Eve in the UK on BBC Two and BBC Four; the programme is weighted more in favour of carols sung by the choir, with only seven readings in total, not all of which are from the Bible. The format of the first Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols did not differ from the one known at King's College, Cambridge today; the order of the lessons was revised in 1919, since that time the service has always begun with the hymn "Once in Royal David's City".
Today the first verse is sung unaccompanied by a solo boy chorister. To avoid putting him under undue stress, the chorister is not told that he wi
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, about 10 km south of Jerusalem. Its population is 25,000 people, it is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate. The economy is tourist-driven; the earliest known mention of the city was in the Amarna correspondence of 1350–1330 BCE during its habitation by the Canaanites. The Hebrew Bible, which says that the city of Bethlehem was built up as a fortified city by Rehoboam, identifies it as the city David was from and where he was crowned as the king of Israel; the Gospels of Matthew and Luke identify Bethlehem as the birthplace of Jesus. Bethlehem was destroyed by the Emperor Hadrian during the second-century Bar Kokhba revolt; the church was badly damaged by the Samaritans, who sacked it during a revolt in 529, but was rebuilt a century by Emperor Justinian I. Bethlehem became part of Jund Filastin following the Muslim conquest in 637. Muslim rule continued in Bethlehem until its conquest in 1099 by a crusading army, who replaced the town's Greek Orthodox clergy with a Latin one.
In the mid-13th century, the Mamluks demolished the city's walls, which were subsequently rebuilt under the Ottomans in the early 16th century. Control of Bethlehem passed from the Ottomans to the British at the end of World War I. Bethlehem came under Jordanian rule during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and was captured by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. Since the 1995 Oslo Accords, Bethlehem has been administered by the Palestinian Authority. Bethlehem now has a Muslim majority, but is still home to a significant Palestinian Christian community. Bethlehem's chief economic sector is tourism, which peaks during the Christmas season when Christians make pilgrimage to the Church of the Nativity, as they have done for 2,000 years. Bethlehem has 300 handicraft workshops. Rachel's Tomb, an important Jewish holy site, is located at the northern entrance of Bethlehem; the earliest reference to Bethlehem appears in the Amarna correspondence. In one of his six letters to Pharaoh, Abdi-Heba, Egypt's governor for Jerusalem, appeals for aid in retaking Bit-Laḫmi in the wake of disturbances by Apiru mercenaries: "Now a town near Jerusalem, Bit-Lahmi by name, a village which once belonged to the king, has fallen to the enemy...
Let the king hear the words of your servant Abdi-Heba, send archers to restore the imperial lands of the king!" It is thought that the similarity of this name to its modern forms indicates that this was a settlement of Canaanites who shared a Semitic cultural and linguistic heritage with the arrivals. Laḫmu was the Akkadian god of fertility, worshipped by the Canaanites as Leḥem; some time in the third millennium BCE, Canaanites erected a temple on the hill now known as the Hill of the Nativity dedicated to Lehem. The temple, subsequently the town that formed around it, would have been known as Beyt Leḥem, "House of Lehem"; the Philistines established a garrison there. Biblical scholar William F. Albright noted that the pronunciation of the name remained the same for 3,500 years, but has meant different things: "'Temple of the God Lakhmu' in Canaanite,'House of Bread' in Hebrew and Aramaic,'House of Meat' in Arabic."A burial ground discovered in spring 2013, surveyed in 2015 by a joint Italian-Palestinian team found that the necropolis covered 3 hectares and contained more than 100 tombs in use between 2200 B.
C. and 650 B. C; the archaeologists were able to identify at least 30 tombs. Archaeological confirmation of Bethlehem as a city in the Kingdom of Judah was uncovered in 2012 at the archaeological dig at the City of David in the form of a bulla in ancient Hebrew script that reads "From the town of Bethlehem to the King," indicating that it was used to seal the string closing a shipment of grain, wine, or other goods sent as a tax payment in the 8th or 7th century BCE. Biblical scholars believe Bethlehem, located in the "hill country" of Judah, may be the same as the Biblical Ephrath, which means "fertile", as there is a reference to it in the Book of Micah as Bethlehem Ephratah; the Bible calls it Beth-Lehem Judah, the New Testament describes it as the "City of David". It is first mentioned in the Tanakh and the Bible as the place where the matriarch Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside". Rachel's Tomb, the traditional grave site, stands at the entrance to Bethlehem. According to the Book of Ruth, the valley to the east is where Ruth of Moab gleaned the fields and returned to town with Naomi.
It was the home of Jesse, father of King David of Israel, the site of David's anointment by the prophet Samuel. It was from the well of Bethlehem that three of his warriors brought him water when he was hiding in the cave of Adullam. Writing in the 4th century, the Pilgrim of Bordeaux reported that the sepulchers of David, Asaph, Job and Solomon were located near Bethlehem. There has been no corroboration of this; the Gospel of Matthew 1:18–2:23 and the Gospel of Luke 2:1–39 represent Jesus as having been born in Bethlehem. Modern scholars, regard the two accounts as contradictory and the Gospel of Mark, the earliest gospel, mentions nothing about Jesus having been born in Bethlehem, saying only that he came from Nazaret
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos