Alameda is a city in Alameda County, United States. It is located on Alameda Island and Bay Farm Island, is adjacent to and south of Oakland and east of San Francisco across the San Francisco Bay. Bay Farm Island, a portion of, known as "Harbor Bay Isle", is not an island, is part of the mainland adjacent to the Oakland International Airport; the city's estimated 2017 population was 79,928. Alameda is a charter city, rather than a general law city, allowing the city to provide for any form of government. Alameda became a charter city and adopted a council–manager government in 1916, which it retains to the present; the island Alameda occupies what was a peninsula connected to Oakland. Much of it was low-lying and marshy, but on higher ground than the peninsula and adjacent parts of what is now downtown Oakland were home to one of the largest coastal oak forests in the world; the area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for "forest of evergreen oak". Alameda is Spanish for "grove of poplar trees" or "tree-lined avenue", was chosen in 1853 by popular vote.
The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a local band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted in 1820 to Luis Peralta by the Spanish king who claimed California; the grant was confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the place became known as Encinal de San Antonio; the city was founded on June 6, 1853, the town contained three small settlements. "Alameda" referred to the village at Encinal and High Streets, Hibbardsville was at the North Shore ferry and shipping terminal, Woodstock was on the west near the ferry piers of the South Pacific Coast Railroad and the Central Pacific. The Central Pacific's ferry pier became the Alameda Mole, featuring transit connections between San Francisco ferries, local trollies and Southern Pacific commuter lines; the first post office opened in 1854. The first school, Schermerhorn School, was opened in 1855, Encinal School was opened in 1860.
The San Francisco and Alameda Railroad opened the Encinal station in 1864. The Encinal area was known as Fasskings Station in honor of Frederick Louis Fassking. Encinal's own post office opened in 1876, was renamed West End in 1877, closed in 1891; the West End area was called Bowman's Point in honor of Charles G. Bowman, an early settler; the Alameda Terminal was the site of the arrival of the first train via the First Transcontinental Railroad into the San Francisco Bay Area on September 6, 1869. The transcontinental terminus was switched to the Oakland Mole two months on November 8, 1869; the borders of Alameda were made coextensive with the island in 1872, incorporating Woodstock into Alameda. Mark Twain described Alameda as being "The Garden of California." In 1917, an attraction called. Compared to Coney Island, the park was a major attraction in the 1920s and 1930s; the original owners of the facility, the Strehlow family, partnered with a local confectioner to create tastes unique to Neptune Beach.
Both the American snow cone and the popsicle were first sold at Neptune Beach. The Kewpie doll, hand-painted and dressed in unique hand-sewn dresses, became the original prize for winning games at the beach – another Neptune Beach invention; the Strehlows owned and operated the beach on their own filling in a section of the bay to add an additional Olympic-size swimming pool and an exceptional roller coaster which must have given riders a tremendous view of the bay. The Cottage Baths were available for rent. Neptune Beach's two large outdoor pools hosted swimming races and exhibitions by swimmers such as Olympian Johnny Weissmuller, who starred as the original Tarzan, Jack LaLanne, who started a chain of health clubs; the park closed down in 1939 because of the Great Depression, the completion of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, people circumventing paying the admission price, the rise of car culture. Once the Bay Bridge was complete, the rail lines, which ran right past the entrance to Neptune Beach on the way to the Alameda Mole and the Ferry, lost riders in droves.
People began using their cars to escape the city and the immediate suburbs like Alameda and traveling further afield in California. Alameda lost its resort status as more distant locations became more attractive to cash-rich San Francisco tourists. Youngsters in town became aware of ways to avoid paying the dime for admission to the park. Strong swimmers or waders could sneak in on the bay side just by swimming around the fence; some of the resort homes and buildings from the Neptune beach era still exist in present-day Alameda. The Croll Building, on the corner of Webster Street and Central Avenue, was the site of Croll's Gardens and Hotel, used as training quarters for some of the greatest fighters in boxing history from 1883 to 1914. James J. Corbett, Bob Fitzsimmons, Jim Jefferies, Jack Johnson, several other champions all stayed and trained here. Today this preserved building is home to the 1400 Bar & Grill Restaurant. Neptune Court, a block away on the corner of Central Ave. and McKay Ave. provides another glimpse of what resort life was like in Alameda in the 1920s.
The vast majority of the Neptune Beach structures – the hand-carved carousel from the world-famed Dentzel Company, the Ferris wheel, the roller coaster, other rides – were auctioned off in 1940 for mere pennies on the dollar of their original cost. Today, a consequence of the Neptune Beach closing around 1940 was a tota
Jack London Square
Jack London Square is an entertainment and business destination on the waterfront of Oakland, United States. Named after the author Jack London and owned by the Port of Oakland, it is the home of stores, hotels, an Amtrak station, a San Francisco Bay Ferry ferry dock, the historic Heinold's First and Last Chance Saloon, the cabin where Jack London lived in the Klondike, a movie theater. A farmer's market is hosted among the retail shops on Sunday mornings; the former presidential yacht USS Potomac is moored at an adjacent slip. Jack London Square is located across the Oakland Estuary from Alameda; the name has come to refer to the industrial neighborhood surrounding Jack London Square now known as the Jack London District, which has undergone significant rehabilitation in the last decade, including loft conversions and new construction. Former California Governor Jerry Brown made his home here before moving north to the Uptown neighborhood. KTVU, the Bay Area's Fox affiliate, has had studios at the Square since it began broadcasting on March 3, 1958, the offices of the Port of Oakland are located there as well.
The Square was the temporary home of the Oakland Tribune from 1989 to 1996 after the newspaper was forced to abandon the landmark downtown Tribune Tower due to damage it sustained in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other businesses at Jack London Square range from the Oakland Athletics team headquarters and software firm Navis LLC, to restaurants such as Kincaid's Bay House and Yoshi's restaurant and jazz club. California Canoe & Kayak retail and kayak rental shop has been located in Jack London Square since 1993. A mainline railroad runs through the middle of Embarcadero West, with the train speed limit set at 15 mph; the tracks running through Jack London Square are used by BNSF Railway, Capitol Corridor, Coast Starlight, San Joaquin, Union Pacific Railroad. The trains share the road with automobiles, AC Transit buses, pedestrians; the square is a popular spot for railfans. Jack London Square's most recent changes are adding more businesses and entertainment. Under lead developer Ellis Partners, Jack London Square's new architecture and public spaces are adding to the daytime and nighttime population and use.
Recent new components include the 55 Harrison building, a 178,000-square-foot mid-rise by RMW Architects in association with Steve Worthington. The public spaces by SWA Group extended the city to the waterfront by adding accessible waterfront spaces supporting a variety of programs and events from farmers markets to the popular Eat Real local, organic food fest; the Athletics plan on building their new stadium and other developments nearby at Howard Terminal. Jack London District, California Chinatown, California Old Oakland Official website The Jack London District Association The Jack London News
Alameda Island is an island in the San Francisco Bay in California. It is south and west of, adjacent to Oakland, across the bay eastward from San Francisco. Located on the island is most of the city of Alameda, a city in Alameda County. Located on the island is the Naval Air Station Alameda, a defunct naval air station, as well as a small uninhabited part of San Francisco; the island was a peninsula and a part of Oakland, is now separated from the mainland by the Oakland Estuary. The island is connected to the mainland by four bridges: the Park Street Bridge, Fruitvale Bridge, High Street Bridge, Bay Farm Island Bridge; the Posey and Webster Street tubes connect Oakland to Alameda Island. The island was a peninsula connected to Oakland. Much of it was low-lying and marshy, but on higher ground the peninsula and adjacent parts of what is now downtown Oakland were home to one of the largest coastal oak forests in the world; the area was therefore called Encinal, Spanish for "oak grove". Alameda is Spanish for "grove of poplar trees" or "tree-lined avenue", was chosen in 1853 by popular vote.
The inhabitants at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century were a local band of the Ohlone tribe. The peninsula became part of the vast Rancho San Antonio granted to Luis Peralta by the viceroyalty under King Ferdinand VII of Spain; the grant was confirmed by the new Republic of Mexico upon its independence from Spain. Over time, the place became known as Encinal de San Antonio; the island was created by the dredging of a shipping canal on the northside. Landfill was added around the island and stopped once the island had been extended over the San Francisco border; the island contains many Victorian homes built in the late early 1900s. Nearly the entire island has been developed. There are several miles of beaches along the south side. Media related to Alameda, California at Wikimedia Commons
Bay Farm Island Bridge
The San Leandro Bay Bridge, better known as the Bay Farm Island Bridge, is a single-leaf bascule drawbridge spanning the San Leandro Channel, the inlet of San Leandro Bay within the San Francisco Bay Area, United States. It carries California State Route 61 and links the main island of Alameda with Bay Farm Island within the city of Alameda; the present bridge was completed in 1953. The draw opens 360 times per year; the Bay Farm Island Bridge is one of the four bridges and two tunnels linking Alameda Island with the mainland. It is the longest bridge of the four. A toll bridge at this location was first built in 1854, consisting of a wooden trestle surfaced with crushed oyster shells; the owners abandoned the bridge after a failed business deal for land on Bay Farm Island, the 1854 bridge subsequently rotted. Alameda County constructed a second bridge in 1875. In 1877 the bridge was described as a drawbridge with an overall length of 700 feet; the second bridge had been repaired in 1890, was replaced by a third bridge in 1898.
Parts of the third bridge had been built in 1881 to span the Oakland Estuary at Webster Street, were moved to span the San Leandro Channel in 1898. By 1904, it was described as a "creaking old bridge", by 1912, the bridge had "settled dangerously" and "needed immediate repairs."In 1899, Mr. Gighilone, a vegetable farmer from Bay Farm Island, was ambushed by customs officers while crossing the bridge; the customs officers believed he was in league with opium smugglers who had their headquarters on Bay Farm Island. When Gighilone was commanded to stop, he thought he was being robbed and attempted to escape until several bullets convinced him to stop; the fourth bridge, completed in 1953 and opened for service on July 1 of that year, was constructed by the California Department of Transportation as part of California State Route 61. It is owned and maintained by CalTrans, District 4; the total cost of the 1953 bridge, including right-of-way acquisition, approach structures, engineering and construction, was US$2,344,000.
The bicycle bridge was constructed between 1993 and 1995 at a cost of US$3,500,000. In late 2015 and early 2016, the road and bicycle bridges were temporarily closed at night to accommodate maintenance activities, including repainting the road bridge, it had last been painted in 1978. The 1953 road bridge is the longest bascule bridge in Alameda County by overall length, it was designed to accommodate a future second leaf, if warranted by marine traffic, to double the navigable channel width from 92 feet to 200 feet. The existing leaf is opened by two 50-horsepower motors in 135 seconds; the bridge was designed by the California Division of Bridge Department. The main pier of the 1953 road bridge is the largest cofferdam built on a state highway since the construction of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge; the bascule span carries a counterweight of 1,100 short tons. Interlocks are provided so that traffic gates and bollards must be raised before the draw can be opened; the 1995 bicycle bridge is linked to the 1953 road bridge so that when the road bridge opens, the bicycle bridge opens.
The bicycle bridge is operated using two 50-horsepower motors. It is the only pedestrian bascule bridge in the United States. Bay Farm Island Bridge at Structurae Bay Farm Island Bike Bridge Alameda on YouTube. Video showing closing sequence of both bridges
Richardson Bay is a shallow, ecologically rich arm of San Francisco Bay, managed under a Joint Powers Agency of four northern California cities. The 911-acre Richardson Bay Sanctuary was acquired in the early 1960s by the National Audubon Society; the bay was named for William A. Richardson, early 19th century sea captain and builder in San Francisco. Richardson Bay is one of the most pristine estuaries on the Pacific Coast in spite of its urbanized periphery, since it supports extensive eelgrass areas and sizable undisturbed intertidal habitats, it is a feeding and resting area for a panoply of estuarine and pelagic birds, while its associated marshes and littoral zones support a variety of animal and plant life. Richardson Bay has been designated as an Important Bird Area, based upon its large number of annual bird visitors and residents, its sightings of California clapper rail and its strategic location in the flyway; the bay's waters are subject to a "no discharge" rule to protect the elaborate and fragile ecosystems present, including a complex fishery, diverse mollusk populations and marine mammals such as the harbor seal.
Owing to its lack of depth and complicated channel structure, Richardson Bay is limited in boating uses to kayaking and small sailing craft. There are extensive hiking and bicycling paths at the bay perimeter in the shore areas of Mill Valley and the town of Tiburon. On August 22, 1822, an English whaler, the Orion, put into Yerba Buena Cove in San Francisco for supplies. Martinez, for whom the town of Martinez is named, decided to invite the Captain to reside with their family. Maria married the captain after he joined the Catholic Church, being baptized "Guillermo Antonio Richardson." This wedding, held at Mission Dolores on May 12, 1826 was the first great Spanish-Anglo Saxon wedding in North America. Richardson taught carpentry, boat building and navigation at Mission Dolores, served as Captain of the Port of San Francisco, built the first significant residence in San Francisco, although it was meant to be a trading post, he had charge of several schooners belonging to the Mission Dolores and Mission Santa Clara.
Richardson received a 19,500-acre Mexican land grant in 1838, Rancho Saucelito, all of the land north of the Golden Gate extending from bay to ocean and ranging north to Mount Tamalpais The grant contained all the land southeast of Mount Tamalpais, included Redwood Canyon and the lands now within Muir Woods National Monument. Richardson Bay was thus named in the honor of builder; the Tiburon Peninsula on the northeast side of the bay was part of Rancho Corte Madera del Presidio granted to John Thomas Reed in 1834. According to local sources and period maps, the Bay's original given name was possessive: Richardson's Bay. However, the United States Board on Geographic Names discourages the use of apostrophes in United States place names, why the name appears as Richardson Bay in government databases and maps. Richardson Bay is developed on surficial sediments of clays and minor sands and gravels deposited in a marine and estuarine environment during periods of previous high stands of water relative to the present shoreline.
The bay muds are widespread in San Francisco Bay and, at Richardson Bay, are 80 to 95 feet deep. The Bay Muds are of Holocene Age, they overlie firm alluvial soils which contain two sand layers at 110 feet, respectively. This section, in turn, overlies shale of the Franciscan Complex, a heterogeneous mixture of sedimentary and metamorphic rock gathered together in the course of the tectonic evolution of the region from the Late Jurassic to the Middle Miocene; these assemblages of Franciscan rocks are referred to as tectonostratigraphic terrains and two of them, the Central Belt and the Coastal Belt, are in fault contact near Richardson Bay. Richardson Bay is an important ecological area being managed by Audubon California as the Richardson Bay Audubon Center & Sanctuary. There are marsh birdlife, mammalian species and marsh plants. Birds are abundant in Richardson Bay, with over one million migratory visitors each winter, many of whom utilizing the upper mudflats and Bothin Marsh associated with the area west of the U.
S. Route 101. In addition to being designated a high score IBA, Richardson's Bay has been dedicated as a Hemispheric Reserve of the Western Shorebird Network. Migrating birds that winter at Richardson's Bay include least sandpiper, western sandpiper, spotted sandpiper, American avocet, marbled godwit, greater yellowlegs, long-billed curlew and dowitchers. A special resident of Bothin Marsh, Blackies' Creek mouth and DeSilva Island is the California clapper rail, a non-migratory endangered species. Beginning in 2014, endangered black oystercatchers have been observed nesting on Aramburu Island. Common year around residents of the Richardson Bay Sanctuary include great blue heron, snowy egret, great egret. Common residents Passeriformes include scrub jay, American crow, chestnut-backed chickadee, Bewick's wren, house sparrow, red-winged blackbird, house finch, California towhee and song sparrow. Fishery characteristics of Richardson Bay include a Pacific herring oyster beds; the herring fishing fleet serving all of San Francisco Bay is based in Ri
Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, just east of Downtown. It is surrounded by city neighborhoods, it is significant as the United States' first official wildlife refuge, designated in 1870, has been listed as a National Historic Landmark since 1963, on the National Register of Historic Places since 1966. The lake features grassy shores. A popular walking and jogging path runs along its perimeter; the circumference of the lake is 3.4 miles and its area is 155 acres. The lake was an arm of the San Francisco Bay formed where several creeks empty into the bay, it was surrounded by 1,000 acres of wetlands when the Ohlone people fished and gathered food along its shores. By 1810, the remaining Native Americans were removed to Mission San José and the estuary and 44,800 acres of surrounding land was deeded to Sergeant Luis Maria Peralta to become Rancho San Antonio. After gold was discovered in 1848 in present-day Coloma 125 miles to the northeast, Anglo squatters led by lawyer Horace Carpentier took control of the East Bay area, to become downtown Oakland, including the estuary known as "San Antonio Slough."
In 1856, Peralta fought and won a United States Supreme Court case against the squatters but further court cases between his sons and daughters would diminish their holdings. The Peralta brothers had to sell much of the land to Carpentier to pay legal fees and new property taxes. Oakland was incorporated in 1852 with Carpentier as its first mayor and the estuary became the city's sewer. Lake Merritt had tidal flows via a broad 600 foot outlet, but this has been reduced with development of the region after 1869; the tidal flows are limited in size and managed for flood control. For years the lake acted as a waste collector, it was regarded as ideal for sewage because of its chemical contents, which have high acidities that cause it to decompose human feces at high rates. Sixty miles of brick and wood channeling sent the broken down sewage to the bottom of the lake to be eaten by bottom feeders; the stench at the lake during the decomposition of the sewage was a problem for Oaklanders on the west shore and residents of Clinton and San Antonio villages on the east.
Dr. Samuel Merritt, a mayor of Oakland who owned property at the shore's edge, was keen to get the body of water cleaned up so that it could become a source of civic pride. In 1868, he proposed and funded a dam between the estuary and the bay by which the flow of water could be controlled, allowing the water level inland to rise higher and become less saline, turning the tidal lagoon into a lake. Sewage was to be redirected elsewhere by two new city projects, though these weren't completed until 1875; the resulting body of water was called variously "Lake Peralta", "Merritt's Lake" and Lake Merritt. The lake at that time still had thick wetlands fringing the shores and it continued to attract large numbers of migratory birds. In order to protect the birds from duck hunters and stop the noise and danger of gunfire so close to the city, Dr. Merritt proposed to turn the lake into a wildlife refuge in 1869; the state legislature voted Lake Merritt Wildlife Refuge into law in 1870, making it the first such refuge in North America.
No hunting of any sort was to be allowed and the only fishing was to be by hook and line. The ornate Camron-Stanford House was built in 1876 near the lake's western shore. Tax records suggest that Samuel Merritt built the Italianate Victorian as part of his plan to promote and develop downtown Oakland and the new lake. In 1877, the house's title was transferred to Mrs. Alice Camron, a purchase she was able to make due to an inheritance from her father, California pioneer Dr. John Marsh. She, her husband Will and their two daughters were the first residents of the home. Further fine homes were built on the lakeshore by others following Dr. Merritt's lead, though none but Camron-Stanford remain today. Beginning in 1910, the house served as the Oakland Public Museum. In 1967, the Oakland Museum moved to other quarters, the Camron-Stanford House is now a separate museum. Protection for the wetlands was nonexistent and residences kept being built on reclaimed land around the shore of the lake. Cleanliness continued to be a problem because of incomplete sewage projects and the lake kept silting up since the natural tidal flow had been interrupted by Merritt's dam.
Dredging of the lake began in 1891, with the removed silt being piled along the eastern shore to make a foundation for a road which became Lakeshore Avenue. From 1893 to 1915, Lake Merritt saw major changes. Inspired by the new City Beautiful movement which got its start at the World's Columbian Exposition, the lake became a city-owned park. In 1913 an elaborate Mission Revival pergola was constructed at the northeastern tip of the lake. Adam's Point was planted with lawns and imported trees and became Lakeside Park. Eastshore Park was created. Oakland Civic Auditorium was built at the south edge of the lake in 1914. 1923 saw Cleveland Cascade spring into life and assisted by noted landscape architect, Howard Gilkey. This was a three-tiered water feature incorporating multiple waterfalls tumbling sequentially into twenty large collection basins and a pool at the bottom, flanked by twin stairs descending from Cleveland Heights to Lakeshore Avenue. Colored lights in rainbow sequ
Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-