Alfred Manuel Martin Jr. called Billy Martin, was an American Major League Baseball second baseman and manager who, in addition to leading other teams, was five times the manager of the New York Yankees. First known as a scrappy infielder who made considerable contributions to the championship Yankee teams of the 1950s, he built a reputation as a manager who would make bad teams good, before being fired amid dysfunction. In each of his stints with the Yankees he managed them to winning records before being fired or forced to resign by team owner George Steinbrenner amid a well-publicized scandal such as Martin's involvement in an alcohol-fueled fight. Martin was born in a working-class section of California, his skill as a baseball player gave him a route out of his home town. Signed by the Pacific Coast League Oakland Oaks, Martin learned much from Casey Stengel, the man who would manage him both in Oakland and in New York, enjoyed a close relationship with him. Martin's spectacular catch of a wind-blown Jackie Robinson popup late in Game Seven of the 1952 World Series saved that series for the Yankees, he was the hitting star of the 1953 World Series, earning the Most Valuable Player award in the Yankee victory.
He missed most of two seasons, 1954 and 1955, after being drafted into the Army, his abilities never returned. Martin bitterly resented being traded, did not speak to Stengel for years, a time during which Martin completed his playing career, appearing with a series of also-ran baseball teams; the last team for whom Martin played, the Minnesota Twins, gave him a job as a scout, he spent most of the 1960s with them, becoming a coach in 1965. After a successful managerial debut with the minor-league Denver Bears, Martin was made Twins manager in 1969, led the club to the American League West title, but was fired after the season, he was hired by a declining Detroit Tigers franchise in 1971, led the team to an American League East title in 1972 before being fired by the Tigers late in the 1973 season. He was hired by the Texas Rangers, turned them for a season into a winning team, but was fired amid conflict with ownership in 1975, he was immediately hired by the Yankees. As Yankee manager, Martin led the team to consecutive American League pennants in 1976 and 1977.
The 1977 season saw season-long conflict between Martin and Steinbrenner, as well as between the manager and Yankee slugger Reggie Jackson, including a near brawl between the two in the dugout on national television, but culminated in Martin's only world championship as a manager. He was forced to resign midway through the 1978 season after saying of Jackson and Steinbrenner, "one's a born liar, the other's convicted", he was fired at season's end by Steinbrenner. From 1980 to 1982, he managed the Oakland Athletics, earning a division title with an aggressive style of play known as "Billyball", but he was fired after the 1982 season, he was rehired by the Yankees, whom he managed three more times, each for a season or less and each ending in his firing by Steinbrenner. Martin died in an automobile accident in upstate New York on Christmas night, 1989, is fondly remembered by many Yankee fans. Alfred Manuel Martin Jr. was born on May 1928, in Berkeley, California. He was given his father's name.
Al Martin had been born in Kauai, the son of Portuguese immigrants, had moved to Oakland. Billy Martin's mother's birth name was Juvan Salvini, but she went by the first name Jenny for most of her life; the daughter of Italian immigrants who had lived in San Francisco, but who moved across the Bay about the time of the 1906 earthquake, she changed her last name, first when she married Donato Pisani around 1918, by whom she had a son, nicknamed Tudo, before the marriage broke up—Jenny claimed Donato was unfaithful. There is some doubt that Jenny and Al married, but they lived together as a wedded couple for a time, during which Billy Martin was born at his maternal grandmother's house in West Berkeley. Billy Martin acquired his name because his grandmother, who never mastered English, would croon bello over the baby, who only learned his birth name when a teacher used it at school; the Martin couple broke up soon after Billy was born, each accused the other of infidelity. In any event, Billy Martin would have no further contact with his father until he was in his thirties, the conflict between the parents left him with emotional wounds.
With Al Martin having returned to his native Hawaii, Jenny no longer used his name, either in conversation or as part of hers, before Billy's first birthday had met John "Jack" Downey, a laborer and jack-of-all-trades, whom she married in late 1929, whose name she took for herself, but not for her sons. Billy Martin called his stepfather a "great guy". Jenny always regretted. Billy was an indifferent student once he started school, from the age of about 12, was in trouble with teachers or the principal, his unusual home situation, his small size and large nose, his residence in poverty-stricken West Berkeley caused other children to mock him, leading to conflict. Intensely
History of the Oakland Athletics
The history of the Athletics Major League Baseball franchise spans the period from 1901 to the present day, having begun as a charter member franchise in the new American League in Philadelphia before moving to Kansas City in 1955 for 14 seasons and to its current home on the San Francisco Bay in Oakland, California, in 1968. In 1954, Chicago real estate magnate Arnold Johnson, bought the Philadelphia Athletics and after 54 years on the Delaware River, moved them to Kansas City, Missouri. Although he was a hero for making Kansas City a major-league town, it soon became apparent that he was motivated more by profit than any regard for the baseball fans of Kansas City, he had long been a business associate of New York Yankees owners Dan Topping, Larry MacPhail and Del Webb, had bought Yankee Stadium in 1953, though the league owners forced Johnson to sell the property before acquiring the Athletics. He'd bought Blues Stadium in Kansas City, home of the Yankees' top Triple AAA level Minor league baseball farm team, the Kansas City Blues of the second American Association.
After Johnson got permission from the American League to move the A's from the "City of Brotherly Love" to Kansas City, he sold Blues Stadium to the city, which renamed it Kansas City Municipal Stadium and leased it back to Johnson. The lease gave Johnson a three-year escape clause if the team failed to draw one million or more customers per season; the subsequent lease signed in 1960 contained an escape clause if the team failed to draw 850,000 per season. Johnson would have had to pay the Yankees an indemnity for moving to Kansas City, would have had to reimburse the Yankees for the costs they incurred for moving the Blues to Denver, Colorado, to make way for the A's. Major-league rules of the time gave the Yankees the major-league rights to Kansas City. However, the Yankees waived these payments as soon. This, combined with the Yankees' thinly concealed support for the sale, led to rumors of collusion between Johnson and the Yankees. Rumors abounded that Johnson's real motive was to operate the Athletics in Kansas City for a few years move the team to Los Angeles.
Whatever the concern about the move to Kansas City, fans turned out in record numbers for the era. In 1955, the Kansas City Athletics drew 1,393,054 to Municipal Stadium, a club record surpassing the previous record of 945,076 in 1948; that number would never be approached again while the team was in Kansas City, would remain the club record for attendance until 1982—the Athletics' 15th season in Oakland. This was because the A's were competitive. Johnson's previous business ties to the Yankees resulted in several trades between the Athletics and the "Bronx Bombers" that helped keep the New York dynasty afloat. Invariably, any good young A's player was traded to the Yankees for cash. Over the years, Johnson would trade such key players as Roger Maris, Bobby Shantz, Héctor López, Clete Boyer, Art Ditmar and Ralph Terry to New York. However, with few exceptions, the trades were weighted in favor of the Yankees; this led to accusations from fans and other teams that Johnson ran the A's as a Yankee farm team at the major-league level.
On the positive side, Johnson devoted attention to player development for the first time in the history of the franchise. Longtime owner Connie Mack, either did not or could not spend any money building a farm system, a major reason why his Philadelphia teams fell from World Series champions to cellar-dwellers so quickly; when Johnson bought the team, the A's only had three scouts in the entire organization. Johnson did make some improvements to the farm system, but was unwilling to pay top dollar for players that could get the A's within sight of contention. Johnson was returning from watching the Athletics in spring training when he was fatally stricken with a cerebral hemorrhage, he died in West Palm Beach, Florida on March 3, 1960 at the age of 53. On December 19, 1960, Charles "Charlie" O. Finley, purchased a controlling interest in the team from Johnson's estate after losing out to Johnson six years earlier in Philadelphia, he bought out the minority owners a year later. Finley promised the fans a new day.
In a publicized move, he purchased a bus, pointed it in the direction of New York, burned it to symbolize the end of the "special relationship" with the Yankees. He called another press conference to burn the existing lease at Municipal Stadium which included the despised "escape clause." He spent over $400,000 of his own money in stadium improvements. He introduced new uniforms which had "Kansas City" on the road uniforms for the first time and an interlocking "KC" on the cap; this was the first time. He announced, "My intentions are to keep the A's permanently in Kansas City and build a winning ball club. I have no intention of moving the franchise." The fans, in t
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan
History of the Washington Senators (1901–1960)
The Washington Senators baseball team was one of the American League's eight charter franchises. Now known as the Minnesota Twins, the club was founded in Washington, D. C. in 1901 as the Washington Senators. In 1905, the team changed its official name to the Washington Nationals; the name "Nationals" appeared on the uniforms for only two seasons, was replaced with the "W" logo for the next 52 years. However, the names "Senators", "Nationals" and shorter "Nats" were used interchangeably by fans and media for the next sixty years. For a time, from 1911 to 1933, the Senators were one of the more successful franchises in Major League Baseball; the team's rosters included Baseball Hall of Fame members Goose Goslin, Sam Rice, Joe Cronin, Bucky Harris, Heinie Manush and one of the greatest players and pitchers of all time, Walter Johnson. But the Senators are remembered more for their many years of mediocrity and futility, including six last-place finishes in the 1940s and 1950s. Joe Judge, Cecil Travis, Buddy Myer, Roy Sievers and Eddie Yost were other notable Senators players whose careers were spent in obscurity due to the team's lack of success.
When the American League declared itself a major league in 1901, the new league moved the previous minor league circuit Western League's Kansas City franchise to Washington, a city, abandoned by the older National League a year earlier. The new Washington club, like the old one, was called the "Senators"; the Senators began their history as a losing team, at times so inept that San Francisco Chronicle columnist Charley Dryden famously joked, "Washington: First in war, first in peace, last in the American League," a play on the famous line in Henry Lee III's eulogy for President George Washington as "First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen". The 1904 Senators lost 113 games, the next season the team's owners, trying for a fresh start, changed the team's name to the "Nationals". However, the "Senators" name remained used by fans and journalists — in fact, the two names were used interchangeably — although "Nats" remained the team's nickname; the Senators name was restored in 1956.
The club continued to lose, despite the addition of a talented 19-year-old pitcher named Walter Johnson in 1907. Raised in rural Kansas, Johnson was a tall, lanky man with long arms who, using a leisurely windup and unusual sidearm delivery, threw the ball faster than anyone had seen. Johnson's breakout year was 1910, when he struck out 313 batters, posted an earned-run average of 1.36 and won 25 games for a losing ball club. Over his 21-year Hall of Fame career, nicknamed the "Big Train", won 417 games and struck out 3,508 batters, a major-league record that stood for more than 50 years. In 1911, the Senators' wooden ballpark burned to the ground, they replaced it with a modern concrete-and-steel structure on the same location. First called National Park, it was renamed Griffith Stadium, after the man, named Washington manager in 1912 and whose name became synonymous with the ball club: Clark Griffith. A star pitcher with the National League's Chicago Colts in the 1890s, Griffith jumped to the AL in 1901 and became a successful manager with the Chicago White Sox and New York Highlanders.
Walter Johnson blossomed in 1911 with 25 victories, although the Senators still finished the season in seventh place. In 1912, the Senators improved as their pitching staff led the league in team earned run average and in strikeouts. Johnson won 33 games while teammate Bob Groom added another 24 wins to help the Senators finish the season in second place behind the Boston Red Sox; the Senators continued to perform respectably in 1913 with Johnson posting a career-high 35 victories, as the team once again finished in second place, this time to the Philadelphia Athletics. Starting in 1916, the Senators settled back into mediocrity. Griffith, frustrated with the owners' penny-pinching, bought a controlling interest in the team in 1920 and stepped down as field manager a year to focus on his duties as team president. In 1924, Griffith named 27-year-old second baseman Bucky Harris player-manager. Led by the hitting of Goose Goslin and Sam Rice, a solid pitching staff headlined by the 36-year-old Johnson, the Senators captured their first American League pennant, two games ahead of Babe Ruth and the New York Yankees.
The Senators faced John McGraw's favored New York Giants in the 1924 World Series. Despite Johnson losing both of his starts, the Senators kept pace to tie the Series at three games apiece and force Game 7; the Senators trailed the Giants 3-1 in the eighth inning of Game 7, when Bucky Harris hit a routine ground ball to third which hit a pebble and took a bad hop over Giants third baseman Freddie Lindstrom. Two runners scored on the play. In the ninth inning with the game tied, 3–3, Harris brought in an aging Johnson to pitch on just one day of rest – he had been the losing pitcher in Game 5. Johnson held. In the bottom of the twelfth inning, Muddy Ruel hit a high foul ball near home plate; the Giants' catcher, Hank Gowdy, dropped his protective face mask to field the ball but, failing to toss the mask aside, stumbled over it and dropped the ball, thus giving Ruel another chance to bat. On the next pitch, Ruel hit a double and proceeded to score the winning run when Earl McNeely hit a ground ball that took another bad hop over Lindstrom's head.
It was the only World Series triumph for the franchise during their 60-year tenure in Washington
August John "Augie" Galan was an American professional baseball outfielder. He played sixteen seasons in Major League Baseball from 1934 to 1949 for the Chicago Cubs, Brooklyn Dodgers, Cincinnati Reds, New York Giants, Philadelphia Athletics. Galan threw right-handed and began his career as a switch hitter, starting in the latter part of 1943, he became a left-handed hitter until the end of his career. One of eight children, Galan’s parents had emigrated from France in the late 19th century, his father operated a French hand laundry on Berkeley’s University Avenue. At age 11 he broke his right elbow playing sandlot ball, he concealed the injury from his parents, fearful of being barred from further play. The arm was never set, healed improperly, it was never healthy throughout Galan's professional career, he graduated from Berkeley High School. Galan started in the Texas League and graduated to the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League in 1932. In 1933 he was PCL Most Valuable Player, in 1934 was purchased by the Cubs.
In a 16-season big-league career, Galan posted a.287 batting average with 1,706 hits, 100 home runs and 830 run batted in in 1,742 games played. In 1937, Galan was the first player National Leaguer to hit home runs from both sides of the plate in a game. Galan was selected to three National League All-Star teams and homered off Schoolboy Rowe in the 1936 contest to help power the senior circuit to a 4–3 victory, he played in three World Series, but his teams never won. Galan collected four fall classic hits in 29 total at bats, he reached the.300 plateau six times. In 1935, he became the first full-time player to make 649 plate appearances and not hit into a double play, though he hit into a triple play that year. Injured, Galan had a deformed arm from a childhood injury; the knee injury forced him to give up batting from the right side of the plate. After leaving the major leagues in 1949, Galan returned to the San Francisco Bay Area and played two more seasons with the Oakland Oaks of the Pacific Coast League managed the club to a 77–103 record in 1953.
He joined the Philadelphia Athletics' coaching staff in 1954, their last year in that city, went on to spend 17 years as a minor league coach and manager in the Athletics' organization. Galan died in 1993 in California at 81 years of age, he was survived by his wife of 40 years and four children, Karen Dumont of Redding, Calif. Adrianne Hain of Napa, Augie Jr. of Portland, Ore. and Darcy Rafferty of Newark, N. J. List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball annual runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball annual stolen base leaders Augie Galan at Find a Grave Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball Library, or SABR Biography Project
History of the New York Giants (baseball)
The San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball originated in New York City as the New York Gothams in 1883 and were known as the New York Giants from 1885 until the team relocated to San Francisco after the 1957 season. During most of their 75 seasons in New York City, the Giants played home games at various incarnations of the Polo Grounds in Upper Manhattan. Numerous inductees of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York played for the New York Giants, including John McGraw, Mel Ott, Bill Terry, Willie Mays, Monte Irvin, Travis Jackson. During the club's tenure in New York, it won five of the franchise's eight World Series wins and 17 of its 23 National League pennants. Famous moments in the Giants' New York history include the 1922 World Series, in which the Giants swept the Yankees in four games, the 1951 home run known as the "Shot Heard'Round the World", the defensive feat by Willie Mays during the first game of the 1954 World Series known as "the Catch".
The Giants had intense rivalries with their fellow New York teams the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, facing the Yankees in six World Series and playing the league rival Dodgers multiple times per season. Games between any two of these three teams were known collectively as the Subway Series; the rivalry with the Dodgers continues to be played as the Dodgers joined the Giants in moving to along the Pacific Ocean on the West Coast in California after the 1957 season when they relocated to Los Angeles. The New York Giants of the National Football League are named after the team; the Giants began as the second baseball club founded by millionaire tobacconist John B. Day and veteran amateur baseball player Jim Mutrie; the Gothams, as the Giants were known, entered the National League seven years after its 1876 formation, in 1883, while their other club, the Metropolitans played in the rival American Association. Nearly half of the original Gothams players were members of the disbanded Troy Trojans in upstate New York, whose place in the National League the Gothams inherited.
While the Metropolitans were the more successful club, after they won the 1884 AA championship and Mutrie began moving star players to the NL Gothams, whose fortunes improved while the Metropolitans' afterwards slumped. It is said that after one satisfying victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, Mutrie stormed into the dressing room and exclaimed, "My big fellows! My giants!" From on, the club was known as the Giants. The team won its first National League pennant in 1888, as well as a victory over the St. Louis Browns in an early incarnation of the pre-modern-era World Series, they repeated as champions the next year with a pennant and world championship victory over the Brooklyn Bridegrooms. The Giants' original home stadium, the Polo Grounds dates from this early era, it was located north of Central Park adjacent to Fifth and Sixth Avenues and 110th and 112th Streets, in Harlem in upper Manhattan. After their eviction from that first incarnation of the Polo Grounds after the 1888 season, they moved further uptown to various fields which they named the "Polo Grounds" located between 155th and 159th Streets in Harlem and Washington Heights, playing in the Washington Heights located famous Polo Grounds until the end of the 1957 season, when they moved to San Francisco.
The Giants were a powerhouse in the late 1880s, winning their first two National League Pennants and World Championships in 1888 & 1889. But nearly all of the Giants' stars jumped to the upstart newly-organized rival loop, the Players' League, whose New York franchise was named the Giants, in 1890; the new team built a stadium next door to the NL Polo Grounds. With a decimated roster, the NL Giants finished a distant sixth. Attendance took a nosedive, the financial strain affected Day's tobacco business as well; the Players' League dissolved after the single season, Day sold a minority interest in his NL Giants to the defunct PL Giants' principal backer, Edward Talcott. As a condition of the sale, Day had to fire Mutrie as manager. Although the Giants rebounded to third place in 1891, Day was forced to sell a controlling interest to Talcott at the end of the'91 season. Four years Talcott sold the Giants to Andrew Freedman, a real estate developer with ties to the Tammany Hall political machine/of the city/state Democratic Party running New York City.
Freedman was one of the most detested owners in baseball history, getting into heated disputes with other owners and his own players, most famously with star pitcher Amos Rusie, author of the first Giants no-hitter. When Freedman offered Rusie only $2,500 for 1896, the disgruntled hurler sat out the entire season. Attendance fell off throughout the league without Rusie, prompting the other owners to chip in $50,000 to get him to return for 1897. Freedman hired former owner Day as manager for part of the 1899 season. In 1902, after a series of disastrous moves that left the Giants 53½ games behind the front-runner, Freedman signed John McGraw as player-manager, convincing him to jump in mid-season from the Baltimore Orioles of the fledgling American League and bring with him several of his teammates. McGraw went on to manage the Giants for three decades until 1932, one of the longest and most successful tenures in professional sports. Hiring "Mr. McGraw," as his players referred to him, was one of Freedman's last significant moves as owner of the Giants, since after that 1902 season he was forced to sell his interest in the club to John T. Brush.
McGraw went on to manage the Giants to nine National League pennants and three World Series championships, with a tenth pennant and fo
The acorn, or oaknut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives. It contains a single seed, enclosed in a tough, leathery shell, borne in a cup-shaped cupule. Acorns are 1 -- 0.8 -- 4 cm broad. Acorns take between 24 months to mature. Acorns are plentiful; the volume of the acorn crop may vary creating great abundance or great stress on the many animals dependent on acorns and the predators of those animals. Acorns, along with other nuts, are termed mast. Wildlife that consume acorns as an important part of their diets include birds, such as jays, some ducks, several species of woodpeckers. Small mammals that feed on acorns include mice and several other rodents. Large mammals such as pigs and deer consume large amounts of acorns. In Spain and the New Forest region of southern England, pigs are still turned loose in dehesas in the autumn, to fill and fatten themselves on acorns. Heavy consumption of acorns can, on the other hand, be toxic to other animals that cannot detoxify their tannins, such as horses and cattle.
The larvae of some moths and weevils live in young acorns, consuming the kernels as they develop. Acorns are attractive to animals because they are thus efficiently consumed or cached. Acorns are rich in nutrients. Percentages vary from species to species, but all acorns contain large amounts of protein and fats, as well as the minerals calcium and potassium, the vitamin niacin. Total food energy in an acorn varies by species, but all compare well with other wild foods and with other nuts. Acorns contain bitter tannins, the amount varying with the species. Since tannins, which are plant polyphenols, interfere with an animal's ability to metabolize protein, creatures must adapt in different ways to use the nutritional value acorns contain. Animals may preferentially select acorns; when the tannins are metabolized in cattle, the tannic acid produced can cause ulceration and kidney failure. Animals that cache acorns, such as jays and squirrels, may wait to consume some of these acorns until sufficient groundwater has percolated through them to leach out the tannins.
Other animals buffer their acorn diet with other foods. Many insects and mammals metabolize tannins with fewer ill effects than do humans. Species of acorn that contain large amounts of tannins are bitter and irritating if eaten raw; this is true of the acorns of American red oaks and English oaks. The acorns of white oaks, being much lower in tannins, are nutty in flavor. Tannins can be removed by soaking chopped acorns in several changes of water, until the water no longer turns brown. Cold water leaching can take several days, but three to four changes of boiling water can leach the tannins in under an hour. Hot water leaching cooks the starch of the acorn, which would otherwise act like gluten in flour, helping it bind to itself. For this reason, if the acorns will be used to make flour cold water leaching is preferred. Being rich in fat, acorn flour can spoil or molder and must be stored. Acorns are sometimes prepared as a massage oil. Acorns of the white oak group, Leucobalanus start rooting as soon as they are in contact with the soil send up the leaf shoot in the spring.
Acorns are too heavy for wind dispersal, so they require other ways to spread. Oaks therefore depend on biological seed dispersal agents to move the acorns beyond the mother tree and into a suitable area for germination, ideally a minimum of 20–30 m from the parent tree. Many animals eat unripe acorns on the tree or ripe acorns from the ground, with no reproductive benefit to the oak, but some animals, such as squirrels and jays serve as seed dispersal agents. Jays and squirrels that scatter-hoard acorns in caches for future use plant acorns in a variety of locations in which it is possible for them to germinate and thrive. Though jays and squirrels retain remarkably large mental maps of cache locations and return to consume them, the odd acorn may be lost, or a jay or squirrel may die before consuming all of its stores. A small number of acorns manage producing the next generation of oaks. Scatter-hoarding behavior depends on jays and squirrels associating with plants that provide good packets of food that are nutritionally valuable, but not too big for the dispersal agent to handle.
The beak sizes of jays determine. Acorns germinate depending on their place in the oak family. Once acorns sprout, they are less nutritious, as the seed tissue converts to the indigestible lignins that form the root. In some cultures, acorns once constituted a dietary staple, though they have been replaced by grains and are now considered a unimportant food, except in some Native American and Korean communities. Several cultures have devised traditional acorn-leaching methods, sometimes involving specialized tools, that were traditionally passed on to their children by word of mouth. Acorns served an important role in early human history and were a