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Oasis (band)

Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991. Developed from an earlier group, the Rain, the band consisted of Liam Gallagher, Paul "Bonehead" Arthurs, Paul "Guigsy" McGuigan, Tony McCarroll. Upon returning to Manchester, Liam's older brother, Noel Gallagher joined as a fifth member, which formed the band's core and settled line-up. During the course of their existence, they had various line-up changes, though the Gallagher brothers remained as the staple members until the group's dissolution. Oasis were a major part of an era dubbed Cool Britannia. Oasis signed to independent record label Creation Records in 1993 and released their record-setting debut album Definitely Maybe; the following year the band recorded Morning Glory? with drummer Alan White, in the midst of a chart rivalry with Britpop peers Blur. Morning Glory? became one of the best-selling albums of all time, the Gallagher brothers were featured in tabloid newspapers for their sibling disputes and wild lifestyles.

In 1996, Oasis performed two nights at Knebworth for an audience of 125,000 each night, which were at the time the largest outdoor concerts in UK history. 2.5 million people applied for tickets, which remains the highest demand for a show in British history. In 1997, Oasis released their third album, Be Here Now which became the fastest-selling album in UK chart history. McGuigan and Arthurs left Oasis in 1999 as the band released Standing on the Shoulder of Giants, they were replaced by former Heavy Stereo guitarist/frontman Gem Archer and former Ride guitarist/frontman Andy Bell. Following a number of further departures, the rest of the band decided to continue under the name Beady Eye until their breakup in 2014. Noel formed Noel Gallagher's High Flying Birds. Following the breakup of Beady Eye, Liam began a solo career, Bell reunited with former band Ride, while Archer and Sharrock became members of Noel Gallagher’s High Flying Birds; as of 2009, Oasis have sold over 75 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time.

They are among the most successful acts on the UK Singles Albums Chart. They have had eight UK number-one singles and eight UK number-one albums, won won 17 NME Awards, nine Q Awards, four MTV Europe Music Awards and six Brit Awards, including one in 2007 for Outstanding Contribution to Music and one for the Best Album of the Last 30 Years, been nominated for two Grammy Awards. Morning Glory? is the UK's fifth best-selling album, was the UK's biggest-selling album of the 1990s. Oasis evolved from an earlier group, the Rain, composed of bassist Paul McGuigan, guitarist Paul Arthurs, drummer Tony McCarroll and Chris Hutton on vocals. Unsatisfied with Hutton, Arthurs invited and auditioned acquaintance Liam Gallagher as a replacement. Liam suggested that the band name be changed to Oasis, inspired by an Inspiral Carpets tour poster in the Gallagher brothers' bedroom which listed the Oasis Leisure Centre in Swindon as a venue. Oasis played their first gig on 18 August 1991 at the Boardwalk club in Manchester.

Liam's brother Noel Gallagher, a roadie for Inspiral Carpets, went with the band to watch his younger brother's band play. Whilst Noel and his friends did not think Oasis sounded spectacular, he began to consider the possibility of using his brother's group as a possible outlet for a series of songs he had been writing for several years. Noel approached the group about joining with the proviso that he would become the band's sole songwriter and leader, that they would commit to an earnest pursuit of commercial success. "He had loads of stuff written," Arthurs recalled. "When he walked in, we were a band making a racket with four tunes. All of a sudden, there were loads of ideas." Under Noel, Oasis crafted a musical approach that relied on simplicity: with Arthurs and McGuigan restricted to playing barre chords and root bass notes, McCarroll playing basic rhythms, the band's amplifiers turned up to create distortion, Oasis created a sound "so devoid of finesse and complexity that it came out sounding pretty much unstoppable."

After over a year of live shows, rehearsals and a recording of a demo, the Live Demonstration tape, Oasis's big break came in May 1993 when they were spotted by Creation Records co-owner Alan McGee. Oasis were invited to play a gig at King Tut's Wah Wah Hut club in Glasgow, Scotland, by Sister Lovers, who shared their rehearsal rooms. Oasis, along with a group of friends, made the journey to Glasgow; when they arrived, they were refused entry. They were given the opening slot and impressed McGee, there to see 18 Wheeler, one of his own bands. McGee offered them a recording contract. Due to problems securing an American contract, Oasis signed a worldwide contract with Sony, which in turn licensed Oasis to Creation in the UK. Following a limited white label release of the demo of their song "Columbia", Oasis went on a UK tour to promote the release of their first single, "Supersonic", playing venues such as the Tunbridge Wells Forum, a converted public toilet. Supersonic was released in April 1994.

The release was followed by "Shakermaker", which became the subject of a plagiarism suit, with Oasis paying $500,000 in damages. Their third single, "Live Forever", was their first to enter the top ten of the UK charts. After troubled recording and mixing sessions, Oasis's debut album, D

McCune–Reischauer

McCune–Reischauer romanization is one of the two most used Korean language romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer was the official romanization system in South Korea until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer is still used as the official system in North Korea; the system was created in 1937 by Edwin O. Reischauer. With a few exceptions, it attempts not to transliterate Korean hangul but to represent the phonetic pronunciation. McCune–Reischauer fails to distinguish between voiced and voiceless consonants when the apostrophe is removed. In Korean, ㅂ is pronounced as B identical to English B as in Bus, but McCune–Reischauer assigns ㅂ as p, which forces people to pronounce bus as pus when there is no apostrophe. ㄱ,ㄷ and ㅈ has been assigned as k, t and ch instead of g, d and j. This romanization forced people to pronounce gold and James as kold and Chames when apostrophe was omitted on the internet. In order to correct this problem, National Academy of the Korean Language developed the Revised Romanization of Korean in 2000.

Under the McCune–Reischauer system, aspirated consonants like p', k', t' are distinguished by apostrophe from unaspirated ones, which may be falsely understood as a separator between syllables. The apostrophe is used to mark transcriptions of ㄴㄱ as opposed to ㅇ: 잔금 → chan'gŭm vs. 장음 → changŭm), so these diverse applications of apostrophe made people confused once omitted. The breve is used to differentiate vowels in Korean. So if the apostrophe and breve are omitted, as on the internet, this made it impossible to differentiate between aspirated consonants k',t',p' and ch' and unaspirated consonants k,t,p and ch, separator between syllables, transcriptions of ㄴㄱ to ㅇ and vowels 어 and 오, 으 and 우. An omission of apostrophe in internet and breve in keyboard was the primary reason the South Korean government adopted a revised system of romanization in 2000. However, critics of the revised system claim it fails to represent 어 and 으 in a way, recognizable and misrepresents the way that the unaspirated consonants are pronounced.

However, the counterargument for this assertion is that it is impossible to find matching pairs of letters between the two different writing systems and Korean, priority should be given to revised system of romanization created by the help of many Korean linguists at the National Academy of the Korean Language over a five-year period than the McCune–Reischauer system created by two foreigners with the help of three Korean linguists over a two-year period during the Japanese colonial era. Meanwhile, despite official adoption of the new system in South Korea, North Korea uses a version of McCune–Reischauer, which does not represent the phonetic characteristics of the Korean language; this is a simplified guide for the McCune–Reischauer system. It is used for the transliteration of names but does not convert every word properly, as several Korean letters are pronounced differently depending on their position. ㅔ is written as ë after ㅏ and ㅗ. This is to distinguish ㅐ from ㅏ에, ㅚ and ㅗ에; the combinations ㅏ에 and ㅗ에 rarely occur except in sentences when a noun is followed by a postposition, as, for example, 회사에서 hoesaësŏ and 차고에 ch'agoë.

The Korean surnames 이/리 and 이 are transcribed as Yi not I The consonant digraphs exist only as finals and are transcribed by their actual pronunciation.ㅇ is an initial consonant before a vowel to indicate the absence of sound. 쉬 is romanized shwi. In Sino-Korean words, lt and lch respectively. For ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㅈ, the letters g, d, b, or j are used if voiced, k, t, p, or ch otherwise. Pronunciations such as those take precedence over the rules in the table above. Voiceless/voiced consonants 가구 kagu 등대 tŭngdae 반복 panbok 주장 chujang The initial consonant ㅇ is disregarded in romanization, since it is only used in order to indicate the absence of sound. 국어 kugŏ 믿음 midŭm 법인 pŏbin 필요 p'iryo r vs. l r Between two vowels: 가로 karo, 필요 p'iryo Before initial ㅎ h: 발해 Parhae, 실험 sirhŏm l Before a consonant, or at the end of a word: 날개 nalgae, 구별 kubyŏl, 결말 kyŏlmal ㄹㄹ is written ll: 빨리 ppalli, 저절로 chŏjŏllo Consonant assimilations 연락 yŏllak 독립 tongnip 법률 pŏmnyul 않다 ant'a 맞히다 mach'ida Palatalizations 미닫이 midaji 같이 kach'i 굳히다 kuch'ida The sequences -ㄱㅎ-, -ㄷㅎ- /-ㅅㅎ-, -ㅂㅎ- are written kh, th, ph even though they are pronounced the same as ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ.

속히 sokhi 못하다 mothada 곱하기 kophagi When a plain consonant becomes a tensed consonant in the middle of a word, it is written k, t, p, s, or ch even though it is pronounced the same as ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, or ㅉ. 태권도 t'aekwŏndo 손등 sontŭng 문법 munpŏp 국수 kuksu 한자 hancha In North Korea's variant of McCune–Reischauer, aspirated consonants are not represented by an apostrophe but are instead by adding an "h". For example, 평성 is written as Phyŏngsŏng; the original system would have it written as P'yŏngsŏng. However, the consonant ㅊ is transcribed as "ch"

Cape Evensen

Cape Evensen is a cape forming the north side of the entrance to Auvert Bay, on the northwest coast of Stresher Peninsula, Graham Land in Antarctica. It was discovered by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1903–05, named by Jean-Baptiste Charcot for Captain C. J. Evensen of the Hertha, who explored along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula in 1893; the site has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because it supports a breeding colony of about 180 pairs of imperial shags. Other birds reported as breeding there include kelp skuas; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Evensen, Cape"