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Oath of allegiance

An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to monarch or country. In republics, modern oaths specify allegiance to the country in general, or to the country's constitution. For example, officials in the United States, a republic, take an oath of office that includes swearing allegiance to the United States Constitution. However, in a constitutional monarchy, such as in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, oaths are sworn to the monarch. Armed forces require a military oath. In feudal times a person would swear allegiance to his feudal superiors. To this day the oath sworn by freemen of the City of London contains an oath of obedience to the Lord Mayor of the City of London. Oaths of allegiance are required of newly naturalised citizens, members of the armed forces, those assuming public office. Clergy in the Church of England are required to take an Oath of Supremacy acknowledging the authority of the British monarch.

A typical example of an oath of allegiance is that sworn by Members of Parliament in the Netherlands: I swear allegiance to the King, to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, to the Constitution. I swear. So help me God almighty! In many Commonwealth realms all, required is an oath to the monarch, not the constitution or state. There have been moves in some of the realms to make the oath of citizenship sworn by new citizens refer to the country rather than the monarch. However, the oaths sworn by judges, members of parliament, etc. have not been changed. All of these moves have not succeeded as the Queen is the personification of the Canadian, British, or Australian state. Allegiance sworn to the monarch is the same as to its constitution or flag; the New Zealand Oath of Allegiance still refers to the Queen of New Zealand. The European Court of Human Rights ruled in 1999 that the oath of allegiance to a reigning monarch is "reasonably viewed as an affirmation of loyalty to the constitutional principles which support... the workings of representative democracy in the respondent State."

Antarctic Treaty issue

The Antarctic Treaty issue is a postage stamp, issued by the United States Post Office Department on June 23, 1971. Designed by Howard Koslow, it commemorates the ten-year anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty, is notable as Koslow's first postage stamp design; the stamp has a face value of eight cents. One-hundred thirty million were issued; the Antarctic Treaty was signed on December 1, 1959 by the United States and eleven other nations involved in scientific research on the continent of Antarctica during the preceding biennium. From November 18 to November 19, 1968, the fifth consultative meeting of the state parties to the treaty was held in Paris. During it, the issue of decennial commemorative stamps by the state parties who had signed the Antarctic Treaty was recommended; the public announcement of the Antarctic Treaty issue release was made in May 1971 and it was released June 23, 1971, the tenth anniversary on which the Antarctic Treaty became effective. The official release was accompanied by a first day ceremony in Washington, D.

C. attended by United States Secretary of State William P. Rogers, United States Postmaster General Winton M. Blount, the ambassadors to the United States of the state parties to the Antarctic Treaty. During the ceremony, Blount presented an album of the stamps to Soviet ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin. One-hundred thirty million Antarctic Treaty issue stamps were printed. Specimens of the stamp, as well as its plate proofs, are held by the National Philatelic Collection, housed in the National Postal Museum. In 2013, the United States Postal Service auctioned on eBay a proof of the Antarctic Treaty issue that contained the handwritten approval of Postmaster General Blount; the proof was one of two such proofs of the Antarctic Treaty issue held in the Postmaster General's Philatelic Collection. It sold for $1,099.99. The stamp was designed by the acclaimed American postage stamp illustrator Howard Koslow, was notable as his first postage stamp design, it features a map of Antarctica in white, set on a field of blue, adapted from the logo design used on documents of the treaty's consultative meetings.

Earlier, in 1965, the Special Committee on Antarctic Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions had called for stamps commemorating the decennial of the treaty to prominently feature the map of Antarctica. Due to competing territorial claims in Antarctica, the simplicity of a map-centered design was considered a matter of political importance; the stamp has an eight cents face value. In addition to the United States, other state parties to the Antarctic Treaty issued commemorative stamps on its ten-year anniversary. In 1991, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty, the United States issued another stamp commemorating the Antarctic Treaty. Howard Koslow returned to design the fifty-cent, stamp which depicted USCGC Glacier near Ross Island. Postage stamps and postal history of the United States


Phthalonitrile is an organic compound with the formula C6H42, an off-white crystal solid at room temperature. It is a derivative of benzene; the compound is soluble in common organic solvents. The compound is used as a precursor to phthalocyanine and other pigments, fluorescent brighteners, photographic sensitizers. Phthalonitrile is produced industrially in a single-stage continuous process, by the ammoxidation of o-xylene at 480 °C; the reaction is catalyzed by vanadium oxide-antimony-oxide in a fluidized bed reactor. Phthalonitrile was first described in 1896 by Johannes Pinnow, it was noted as a byproduct of the synthesis of ortho-dicyanodiazoamidobenzene via the reaction of ortho-amidobenzonitrile hydrochloride, sodium nitrite, hydrochloric acid. The first intentional synthesis involved dehydration of phthalamide by boiling in acetic anhydride. Another synthesis of historical interest is the Rosenmund von Braun reaction in which an ortho substituted dihalobenzene is treated with copper cyanide, which results in the halide groups being replaced by cyano groups.

Phthalonitrile is the precursor to phthalocyanine pigments, a common organic pigment.. Such pigments are generated through the reaction of phthalonitrile with various metal precursors; the reaction is carried out in a solvent at around 180 °C. Ammonolysis of phthalonitrile gives to diiminoisoindoline; this intermediate condensation with active methylene compounds to give commercially important pigment yellow 185 and pigment yellow 139

Loretta Lynn singles discography

American country artist Loretta Lynn has released seventy singles, two B-sides, three other singles, ten music videos. Her debut single was "I'm a Honky Tonk Girl" via Zero Records. Promoting the song with her husband by driving to each radio station, the effort paid off when it peaked at number fourteen on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart. Arriving in Nashville, Tennessee that year, she signed a recording contract with Decca Records. In 1962, "Success" reached the sixth position on the country songs chart, starting a series of top ten hits including "Wine Women and Song" and "Blue Kentucky Girl", she began collaborating with Ernest Tubb in 1964 and recorded four hit singles with him, including "Mr. and Mrs. Used to Be". Lynn's popularity increased in 1966 when she began releasing her own compositions as singles. Among the first was "You Ain't Woman Enough" which reached the second position on the country songs list, she reached the number one spot with "Don't Come Home A-Drinkin'". This was followed by "Fist City" and "Woman of the World".

Lynn released the autobiographical single "Coal Miner's Daughter" in 1970, topping the Billboard country songs survey and becoming her first entry on the Billboard Hot 100 at number eight three. The following year, "I Wanna Be Free" charted among the Hot 100 and reached the third position on the Hot Country Songs list; the same year, "One's on the Way" became Lynn's fifth number one single followed by "Rated "X"", "Love Is the Foundation", "Trouble in Paradise". "The Pill" reached number five on the country songs chart and was her highest-charting solo single on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching number seventy. "Somebody Somewhere" reached the top of the country songs chart in 1976 and she reached the same position with "She's Got You", a cover of Patsy Cline's original single. The title track from Out of My Head and Back in My Bed was Lynn's final single to peak at the number one spot. Lynn's singles in the 1980s reached lower chart positions, her 1982 single "I Lie" became her final top ten hit on the Billboard country chart.

In 1985, "Heart Don't Do This to Me" became her final top-twenty and final top-forty hit. After charting with the single "Who Was That Stranger", Lynn's recording career went into hiatus, she returned in 1993 to collaborate with Dolly Parton and Tammy Wynette on the studio album Honky Tonk Angels. The project's only single "Silver Threads and Golden Needles" reached number sixty eight on the Billboard country chart. "Country in My Genes" was spawned from Still Country, Lynn's first studio album following the death of her husband. The single reached number seventy two on the Hot Country Songs chart. Lynn collaborated with Sheryl Crow and Miranda Lambert in 2010 to re-record "Coal Miner's Daughter", released as a single in September. Loretta Lynn singles discography at Discogs

Haseena Maan Jaayegi

Haseena Maan Jaayegi is a 1999 Indian Hindi-language comedy film directed by David Dhawan. It stars Sanjay Dutt, Karisma Kapoor, Pooja Batra, Anupam Kher, Kader Khan, Aruna Irani, Paresh Rawal; the film is inspired by the 1966 film Pyar Kiye Jaa and went on to become the fifth-highest-grossing Hindi film of 1999. It is regarded as being amongst Govinda's greatest performances and he won many awards for his role as Monu. Pyar Kiye Ja itself is a remake of the 1964 Tamil classic film Kadhalikka Neramillai, remade as the Telugu film Preminchi Choodu, the Hindi film Pyar Kiye Jaa, the Kannada film Preethi Madu Thamashe Nodu. Amirchand is the ill-fated father of two mischievous sons -- Monu. Both of them are always up to one prank or another, most of them aimed at stealing money from Amirchand. In the opening scene, they call up their father, acting like gangsters, ask for a huge sum if he wants to live; the plan fails. They fix up the marriage of their father with Shakuntala and take one lakh rupees as advance dowry from her brother Jamnadas.

This plan fails as Amirchand refuses to entertain Jamnadas and his sister. Amirchand warns their sons to become serious towards life, he asks Monu to join Sonu to go to Goa for claiming some money he had lent to someone. Whereas Monu plays another prank by calling up a girls' hostel and flirting with Ritu, Sonu mistakenly goes to one Gulzarilal Verma for claiming the money, where he meets Pooja. Both Ritu and Pooja are Gulzarilal's daughters. Sonu and Monu fall in love with Ritu, respectively. Sonu calls up Monu to come to Pooja's marriage; this leads to a series of confusions as Gulzarilal's sister Santho falls in love with Monu. To get rid of the problem and Monu throw a dummy of the Uncle from top of a cliff, only to land up getting arrested for killing the non-existent uncle. Amirchand reaches Goa with his assistant Kunj Biharilal; as they, along with Gulzarilal are on their way to police station, they are kidnapped by a Bhai. Sonu and Monu escape from the lockup with Bhootnath's help and rescue their father and to-be father-in-law, thus proving to be worthy sons.

Sanjay Dutt – Sonu Govinda – Monu, Rai Bahadur aka Chachaji Karisma Kapoor – Ritu Verma Pooja Batra – Pooja Verma Kader Khan – Amirchand Paresh Rawal – Bhootnath Satish Kaushik – Kunj Bihari Aruna Irani – Santho/Santosh Verma Anupam Kher – Gulzarilal Verma Ashish Vidyarthi – Bhai Aasif SheikhPritam Nath Razak Khan – Bhai's henchman Mohan JoshiPrem Nath Pushpa Verma – Premnath's wife Bindu – Shakuntala, Guest appearance Asrani – Jamnadas, Guest appearance Shakti Kapoor – Himself Anil DhawanPolice Commissioner Mahavir ShahGoa Police Inspector All lyrics are written by Suraj, Nitin Raikwar. In the beginning of the film and Monu are in a restaurant and don't have money to pay the bill. Monu picks the pocket of Shakti Kapoor for his wallet and tries to keep it back but his hand gets stuck; this scene is taken from The Return of an episode from the Mr. Bean television series; this scene is repeated in the movie Dhamaal. The lead actress Karisma Kapoor's mother and great uncle, Shashi Kapoor starred in a movie of the same name.

It's a remake of Ashok Saraf, Mahesh Kothare, Laxmikant berde starrer Marathi blockbuster'DHOOM DHADAKA'. List of Indian comedy films Haseena Maan Jaayegi on IMDb

Katie Rich

Katie Rich is an American comedian and actress best known for her work on Saturday Night Live. Rich was raised on the south side of Chicago, where she attended the grammar school St. Bede's, until her family moved to the suburb of Orland Park, Illinois, she graduated from Carl Sandburg High Northwestern University. Rich began her career at Chicago's iO Theater, where she was part of a group called “Carl and the Passions.” During her time at iO, Rich performed in a sketch show that she created with fellow comedian Kate Duffy called The Mary Kay Letourneau Players Present. She left iO to join The Second City, a comedy troupe with which she toured for three and a half years before moving to its mainstage cast. While in the mainstage cast, Rich performed among others. In December 2013, Rich was hired to write for Saturday Night Live, she was recommended for the job by SNL cast member Cecily Strong, a friend of Rich's, her understudy during her time at The Second City. Rich is one of four writers who work on SNL's Weekend Update segment.

On January 20, 2017, following President Donald Trump's inauguration, Rich tweeted about Trump's youngest son, 10-year old Barron, saying he "will be this country's first homeschool shooter." NBC suspended Rich and had her name deleted from the Saturday Night Live closing credits. After widespread criticism, Rich deleted the tweet and deactivated her account, reactivating it on January 23 with an apology for what she called her "insensitive" and "inexcusable" comments. On January 26, 2017, Trump responded to Rich's tweet by calling Rich "terrible" and saying, "For them to attack, for NBC to attack my 10-year-old son... It’s a disgrace."As of August 10, 2017, Rich had returned to SNL, credited as one of the writers on the SNL spinoff Weekend Update: Summer Edition. Rich has appeared in the films The Ice Bad Johnson. Rich has appeared in commercials for Discover Walmart. In 2015, she and her fellow Saturday Night Live writers were nominated for a Writers Guild of America Award for Comedy/Variety - Sketch Series.

In July 2015, Rich married Devlin Murdock, who worked at the Museum of Science and Industry and as a programs director for Recovery on Water, a rowing club for breast cancer survivors. As of at least September 2015, she divides her time between Chicago. Rich has revealed that she suffers from panic disorder. Katie Rich on IMDb Katie Rich on Twitter