Oaxaca the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca, is one of the 32 states which compose the Federative Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 are governed by the system of usos y costumbres with recognized local forms of self-governance, its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez. Oaxaca is located in Southwestern Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Guerrero to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, Chiapas to the east. To the south, Oaxaca has a significant coastline on the Pacific Ocean; the state is best known for its indigenous cultures. The most numerous and best known are the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, but there are sixteen that are recognized; these cultures have survived better than most others in México due to the state's rugged and isolating terrain. Most live in the Central Valleys region, an economically important area for tourism, with people attracted for its archeological sites such as Monte Albán, Mitla, its various native cultures and crafts.
Another important tourist area is the coast, which has the major resort of Huatulco and sandy beaches of Puerto Escondido, Puerto Ángel, Bahia de Tembo, Mazunte. Oaxaca is one of the most biologically diverse states in Mexico, ranking in the top three, along with Chiapas and Veracruz, for numbers of reptiles, amphibians and plants; the name of the state comes from the name of Oaxaca. This name comes from the Nahuatl word "Huaxyacac", which refers to a tree called a "guaje" found around the capital city; the name was applied to the Valley of Oaxaca by Nahuatl-speaking Aztecs and passed on to the Spanish during the conquest of the Oaxaca region. The modern state was created in 1824, the state seal was designed by Alfredo Canseco Feraud and approved by the government of Eduardo Vasconcelos. Nahuatl word "Huaxyacac" was transliterated as "Oaxaca" using Medieval Spanish orthography, in which the x represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative, making "Oaxaca" pronounced as. However, during the sixteenth century the voiceless fricative sound evolved into a voiceless velar fricative, Oaxaca began to be pronounced.
In present-day Spanish, Oaxaca is pronounced or, the latter pronunciation used in dialects of southern Mexico, the Caribbean, much of Central America, some places in South America, the Canary Islands and western Andalusia in Spain where has become a voiceless glottal fricative. Most of what is known about prehistoric Oaxaca comes from work in the Central Valleys region. Evidence of human habitation dating back to about 11,000 years BC has been found in the Guilá Naquitz cave near the town of Mitla; this area was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2010 in recognition for the "earliest known evidence of domesticated plants in the continent, while corn cob fragments from the same cave are said to be the earliest documented evidence for the domestication of maize." More finds of nomadic peoples date back to about 5000 BC, with some evidence of the beginning of agriculture. By 2000 BC, agriculture had been established in the Central Valleys region of the state, with sedentary villages.
The diet developed around this time would remain until the Spanish Conquest, consisting of harvested corn, chocolate, chili peppers and gourds. Meat was hunted and included tepescuintle, deer, peccary and iguana; the oldest known major settlements, such as Yanhuitlán and Laguna Zope are located in this area as well. The latter settlement is known for its small figures called "pretty women" or "baby face." Between 1200 and 900 BC, pottery was being produced in the area as well. This pottery has been linked with similar work done in Guatemala. Other important settlements from the same time period include Tierras Largas, San José Mogote and Guadalupe, whose ceramics show Olmec influence; the major native language family, Oto-Manguean, is thought to have been spoken in northern Oaxaca around 4400 BC and to have evolved into nine distinct branches by 1500 BC. Historic events in Oaxaca as far back as the 12th century are described in pictographic codices painted by Zapotecs and Mixtecs in the beginning of the colonial period, but outside of the information that can be obtained through their study, little historical information from pre-colonial Oaxaca exist, our knowledge of this period relies on archaeological remains.
By 500 BC, the central valleys of Oaxaca were inhabited by the Zapotecs, with the Mixtecs on the western side. These two groups were in conflict throughout the pre-Hispanic period. Archeological evidence indicates that between 750 and 1521, there may have been population peaks of as high as 2.5 million. The Zapotecs were the earliest to gain dominance over the Central Valleys region; the first major dominion was centered in Monte Albán, which flourished from 500 BC until AD 750. At its height, Monte Albán was home to some 25,000 people and was the capital city of the Zapotec nation, it remained a secondary center of power for the Zapotecs until the Mixtecs overran it in 1325. The site contains a number of notable features including the Danzantes, a set of stone reliefs and the finding of fine quality ceramics. Starting from AD 750 previous large urban centers such as Monte Alban fell across the Oaxaca area and smaller dominions grew and evolved until the Spanish Conquest i
Kahaluʻu-Keauhou is a census-designated place in Hawaiʻi County, United States. The population was 3,549 at the 2010 census, up from 2,414 at the 2000 census. Kahaluʻu-Keauhou is located on the western side of the island of Hawaiʻi at 19°34′32″N 155°57′38″W, it is bordered to the north by Holualoa, to the east by Honalo, to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Kealakekua is 5 miles to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Kahaluʻu-Keauhou CDP has a total area of 7.9 square miles, of which 5.6 square miles are land and 2.3 square miles, or 28.89%, are water. On the coast is the historic district of Kahaluʻu Bay; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,414 people, 1,000 households, 661 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 407.2 people per square mile. There were 2,339 housing units at an average density of 394.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 65.53% White, 0.37% African American, 0.33% Native American, 11.35% Asian, 7.87% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 13.75% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.02% of the population. Of 1,000 households, 18.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.68. In the CDP the population was spread out with 16.4% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 36.0% from 45 to 64, 22.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $52,522, the median income for a family was $60,368. Males had a median income of $31,583 versus $26,389 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $33,067. About 8.6% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.9% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over
The 2009 Korba chimney collapse occurred in the town of Korba in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh on 23 September 2009. It was under construction under contract for the Bharat Aluminium Co Ltd. Construction had reached 240 m when the chimney collapsed on top of more than 100 workers, taking shelter from a thunderstorm. At least 45 deaths were recorded. Plans specify a 275-metre chimney for the construction of a thermal power plant by Balco, owned by Vedanta Resources; the incident happened during extreme weather conditions involving torrential rainfall. Workers sought shelter from the rain in a nearby store room, a lightning strike at 16:00 brought the chimney down on top of them.< A rescue attempt was initiated following the collapse. Ongoing rain obstructed efforts to retrieve the trapped workers. At least seven of the wounded were hospitalised. A Gannon Dunkerley & Co Ltd employee was lynched by angry workers, it was thought he had fallen from the chimney, but wounds indicate he was attacked.
An investigation is ongoing to determine the cause of the collapse. Balco did not discuss the incident at length, stating only that "here is an accident and some people are injured"; the state government believes that Balco had been "overlooking security aspects". District superintendent of police, Ratanlal Dangi, described it as "a massive accident". Rs.100,000 in compensation will be granted to relatives of each of the dead. In November 2009, the project manager from GDCL was arrested, as well as three officials from Vedanta Resources which manages Balco; the National Institute of Technology Raipur observed that the materials were of substandard quality and technically faulty in design. NIT concluded that there was improper water curing and that soil at the site was not up to code. Additionally and monitoring was found to be negligent. On 11 January 2010, as a result of these findings, three senior officials of Sepco, the Chinese company contracted to build the chimney, were arrested and are being held without bail.
The 2009 Korba Chimney Collapse case was headed by Judge Mahadev Katulkar. On 26 November 2009, he rejected bail pleas of BALCO officials, including Vice-President and AGM of BALCO, he sent the pair into judicial custody. On 18 January 2010, Katulkar rejected the bail pleas of three Chinese nationals who were contracted by SEPCO to build the power plant by BALCO. List of chimneys List of structural failures and collapses Official site of Bharat Aluminium Co Ltd