A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
The Khanty are an indigenous people calling themselves Khanti, Kantek, living in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a region known as "Yugra" in Russia, together with the Mansi. In the autonomous okrug, the Khanty and Mansi languages are given co-official status with Russian. In the 2010 Census, 30,943 persons identified themselves as Khanty. Of those, 26,694 were resident in Tyumen Oblast, of which 17,128 were living in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug and 8,760—in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. 873 were residents of neighbouring Tomsk Oblast, 88 lived in the Komi Republic. In the centuries of the second millennium BC, the territories between Kama and Irtysh rivers were the home of a Proto-Uralic speaking population who had contacts with Proto-Indo-European speakers from the South; the inhabitants of these areas were of Europid stock. This woodland population is the ancestor of the modern-day Ugrian inhabitants of Trans-Uralia; some consider the Khanty's ancestors to be the prehistoric metalworking Andronovo Culture.
Other researchers say that the Khanty people originated in the south Ural steppe and moved northwards into their current location about 500 AD. Khanty appear in Russian records under the name Yugra, when they had contact with Russian hunters and merchants; the name comes from Komi-Zyrian language jögra. It is possible that they were first recorded by the English King Alfred the Great, who located Fenland to the east of the White Sea in Western Siberia; the older Russian name Ostyak is from Khanty as-kho'person from the Ob River,' with -yak after other ethnic terms like Permyak. Some Khanty princedoms were included in the Siberia Khanate from the 1440s–1570s. In the 11th century, Yugra was a term for numerous tribes, each having its own centre and its own chief; every tribe had two exogamic phratries, termed mon't' and por, all members were considered to be blood relatives. This structure was replaced with clans, where each clan leader negotiated with the Russian realm, they participated in Russian campaigns, received the right to collect yasaq from two Khanty volosts respectively.
When this structure was no longer needed, Russia deprived them of their privileges. Between the 17th and 19th centuries, there were attempts to introduce Christianity, but the Khanty lifestyle did not undergo any real changes. In the second half of 19th century, they accepted state law. During the Soviet period the Khanty were one of the few indigenous minorities of Siberia to be granted an autonomy in the form of an okrug; the establishment of autonomy has played a considerable role in consolidation of the ethnos. However, in the 1930s concerted efforts were made by the Soviet state to collectivise them; the initial stages of this meant the execution of tribal chiefs who were labelled "kulaks" followed by the execution of shamans. The abduction by the state of the children who were sent to Russian speaking boarding schools provoked a national revolt in 1933 called the Kazym rebellion. After the end of the Stalin period this process was relaxed and efforts were intensified in the 1980s and'90s to protect their common territory from industrial expansion of various ministries and agencies.
The autonomy has played a major role in preserving the traditional culture and language. The Khantys' traditional occupations were taiga hunting and reindeer herding, they lived as trappers, thus gathering was of major importance. The Khanty are one of the indigenous minorities in Siberia with an autonomy in the form of an okrug. Khanty are today Orthodox Christians, mixed with traditional beliefs, their historical shaman wore no special clothes except a cap. Traditional Khanty cults are related to nature; the Crow spring celebration is being celebrated in April, nowadays it is April 7, the same day as the Annunciation day. The Bear Celebration is being celebrated after a successful hunting of a bear; the Bear Celebration continues 6 days. Over 300 songs and performances occur during a Bear Celebration; the most important parts of the celebration are: Nukh Kiltatty Ar Ily Vukhalty Ar - The story about the son of Torum. The son was sent by Torum to rule the Earth, he has forgotten father's advice, lost his immortality, turned into a beast and has been killed by the hunters.
Il Veltatty Ar The Khanty language is a language belonging to the Ugric branch of the Uralic languages, consisting of ten dialects, divided into southern and eastern subgroups, related to Mansi and Hungarian. Iyrcae KHANTIA-MANSIA – YUGRA Khants — Some pictures of Khants' bird and fishery traps Redbook: The Khants Survival International Endangered Uralic Peoples: Khants or Ostyaks
Barnaul is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, located at the confluence of the Barnaulka and Ob Rivers in the West Siberian Plain. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 612,401. Barnaul is located in the forest steppe zone of the West Siberian Plain, on the left bank of the Ob River, at the confluence of the Barnaulka and Ob Rivers. Barnaul is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south; the border with Kazakhstan is 345 kilometers to the southwest. The city is situated close to the borders with Mongolia and China; the humid continental climate of Barnaul is defined by its geographical position at the southern end of the Siberian steppe: it is subject to long winters, with an average of −15.5 °C in January, but enjoys a short warm season in the summer with an average temperature of +19.9 °C in July. Temperatures can vary from below − 45 °C in the winter to above +35 °C in the summer; the climate is dry. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters per year, 75% of which occurs during the region's warmer season.
The area around the city has been inhabited by modern humans and Denisovans, for hundreds of thousands of years. They settled here to take advantage of the confluence of the rivers, used for transportation and fishing. In the late BC millennia, the locality was a centre of activity for Scythian and various Turkic peoples. While 1730 is considered Barnaul's official establishment date, its first mention dates back to 1724, it was granted city status in 1771. Chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river, it was founded by the wealthy Demidov family; the Demidovs wanted to develop the copper in the mountains, soon found substantial deposits of silver as well. In 1747, the Demidovs' factories were taken over by the Crown. Barnaul became the center of silver production of the entire Russian Empire. In 1914, Barnaul was the site of the largest draft riot in Russia during World War I. There were more than 100 casualties from the fighting. Street fighting took place between anti-Communist White Russians and Reds during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
Maria Stepanovna was lived as a child in this city. She became the mother of American actresses Natalie Wood and Lana Wood, her father Stepan was killed in the 1918 street fighting between the Whites and Reds following the Revolution. Afterward her mother took her siblings as refugees to Harbin, China. Maria married a Russian there, they had a daughter Olga together. Maria immigrated with Olga to the United States, where she married another Russian immigrant, from Vladivostok, had two daughters with him. Over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II is estimated to have been manufactured in Barnaul. Barnaul is the administrative center of the krai. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the work settlement of Yuzhny and twenty-four rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Barnaul—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug.
Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia. There are more than 100 industrial enterprises in the city, employing 120,000 people. Leading industries include carbon processing. There are a lot of Higher Universities with good training bases so the city has a strong working potential. Now the old city centre is reconstructing to have a touristic cluster with a brandname "Barnaul is a mining town". Barnaul lies at a junction of the Novosibirsk–Almaty and Biysk train lines; the city is served by Barnaul Airport, located 15 kilometres west of Barnaul. Barnaul is twinned with: Flagstaff, United States Zaragoza, Spain Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, China Uberlandia, Brazil Andrei Svechnikov, hockey player. Решение №789 от 20 июня 2008 г. «Устав городского округа — города Барнаула Алтайского края», в ред. Решения №766 от 31 марта 2017 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав городского округа — города Барнаула Алтайского края ». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Вечерний Барнаул", №103, 15 июля 2008 г. (Barnaul City Duma. Decision #789 of June 20
The Altai Mountains spelled Altay Mountains, are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China and Kazakhstan come together, are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The massif merges with the Sayan Mountains in the northwest, becomes lower in the southeast, where it and merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert, it spans from about 45° to 52° N and from about 84° to 99° E. The region is inhabited by a sparse but ethnically diverse population, including Russians, Kazakhs and Mongolians; the local economy is based on bovine and horse husbandry, agriculture and mining. The now-disputed Altaic language family takes its name from this mountain range; the mountains are called Altain nuruu in Khalkha Mongolian, altai-yin niruɣu in Chakhar Mongolian, Altay tuular in the Altay language. They are called Altai’ tay’lary in Kazakh; the name comes from the word alt that means "gold" in Mongolic languages and the -tai suffix that means "with". That matches their old Chinese name 金山 "Gold Mountain".
The word for "gold" is altın in Turkic languages. In the north of the region is the Sailughem Mountains known as Kolyvan Altai, which stretch northeast from 49° N and 86° E towards the western extremity of the Sayan Mountains in 51° 60' N and 89° E, their mean elevation is 1,500 to 1,750 m. The snow-line runs at 2,000 m on the northern side and at 2,400 m on the southern, above it the rugged peaks tower some 1,000 m higher. Mountain passes across the range are few and difficult, the chief being the Ulan-daban at 2,827 m, the Chapchan-daban, at 3,217 m, in the south and north respectively. On the east and southeast this range is flanked by the great plateau of Mongolia, the transition being effected by means of several minor plateaus, such as Ukok with Pazyryk Valley, Kendykty, and; this region is studded with large lakes, e.g. Uvs 720 m above sea level, Khyargas and Khar 1,170 m, traversed by various mountain ranges, of which the principal are the Tannu-Ola Mountains, running parallel with the Sayan Mountains as far east as the Kosso-gol, the Khan Khökhii mountains stretching west and east.
The north western and northern slopes of the Sailughem Mountains are steep and difficult to access. On this side lies the highest summit of the range, the double-headed Belukha, whose summits reach 4,506 and 4,440 m and give origin to several glaciers. Altaians call it Kadyn Bazhy, but is called Uch-Sumer; the second highest peak of the range is in Mongolian part named Khüiten Peak. This massive peak reaches 4374 m. Numerous spurs, striking in all directions from the Sailughem mountains, fill up the space between that range and the lowlands of Tomsk; such are the Chuya Alps, having an average elevation of 2,700 m, with summits from 3,500 to 3,700 m, at least ten glaciers on their northern slope. Several secondary plateaus of lower elevations are distinguished by geographers, The Katun Valley begins as a wild gorge on the south-west slope of Belukha; the Katun and the Biya together form the Ob. The next valley is that of the Charysh, which has the Korgon and Tigeretsk Alps on one side and the Talitsk and Bashalatsk Alps on the other.
This, too, is fertile. The Altai, seen from this valley, presents the most romantic scenes, including the small but deep Kolyvan Lake, surrounded by fantastic granite domes and towers. Farther west the valleys of the Uba, the Ulba and the Bukhtarma open south-westwards towards the Irtysh; the lower part of the first, like the lower valley of the Charysh, is thickly populated. The valley of the Bukhtarma, which has a length of 320 km has its origin at the foot of the Belukha and the Kuitun peaks, as it falls some 1,500 m in about 300 km, from an alpine plateau at an elevation of 1,900 m to the Bukhtarma fortress, it offers the most striking contrasts of landscape and vegetation, its upper parts abound in glaciers, the best known of, the Berel, which comes down from the Byelukha. On the northern side of the range which separates the upper Bukhtarma from the upper Katun is the Katun glacier, which after two ice-falls widens out to 700 to 900 metres. From a grotto in this glacier bursts tumultuously the Katun river.
The middle and lower parts of the Bukhtarma valley have been colonized since the 18th century by runaway Russian peasants and religious schismatics, who created a free republic there on Chinese territory. The high valleys farther north, on the same western face of the Sailughem range, are but little known, their only visitors being Kyrgyz shepherds; those o
The Tom River is a river in Russia, a right tributary of the Ob River in Central Siberia. Its watershed lies within the Republic of Khakassia, Kemerovo Oblast, Tomsk Oblast; the river is 827 kilometers long. It flows from the Abakan Range northward through the Kuznetsk Basin, it joins the Ob 50 kilometers north of Tomsk. Cities on the Tom River include Mezhdurechensk, Kemerovo, Yurga and Seversk; the Aba people live near the Tom River
Surgut is a city in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, located on the Ob River near its junction with the Irtysh River. It is one of the few cities in Russia to be larger than the capital or the administrative center of its federal subject in terms of population, economic activity, tourist traffic. Population: 348,643; the name of the city, according to one tradition, originates from the Khanty words "sur" and "gut". It was founded in 1594 by order of Tsar Feodor I Surgut at the end of the 16th century was a small fortress with two gates and five towers, one of which had a carriageway. In 1596 the Gostiny Dvor was built. In the 17th-18th centuries - one of the centers of the Russian development of Siberia; the fortification, built of strong wood, was located on the cape, so that it was impossible to approach it unnoticed either from the river or from the land. In the central square of the ancient settlement there was a cult place. Throughout the perimeter, the fortress was surrounded by a moat, blocked by the structures of the defensive system.
Outside the village there were special buildings - handicraft workshops, in particular, a smithy. By the name list of 1625 there were 222 servicemen living here. Subsequently, due to high mortality, the population of Surgut decreased. In 1627, 216 people lived, in 1635-200 people, in 1642-199. In the second half of the 17th century the population fluctuated around 200 people, by the end of the century there were 185 inhabitants in Surgut. Since 1782, the county town of the Surgut district of the Tobolsk province, has been formed. In 1785, the city's coat of arms was approved. At the end of the 18th century, in connection with the development of southern Siberian cities, lost its administrative significance. Since 1868 - district, since 1898 - the county town of Tobolsk province; the inhabitants of Surgut, like other Siberians, were on state security. The servants received an annual salary of money and salt; the inhabitants were supplied with weapons and ammunition. At the end of the 19th century, the population of Surgut was 1.1 thousand people.
The main occupation of the inhabitants was fishing, gathering of wild plants, cattle breeding, firewood harvesting. In 1835 the Cossack school was founded, in 1877 - the men's folk school, the women's parochial school operated, the weather station, the library-reading room, the people's house, since 1913 - the telegraph. Since November 3, 1923 the city became the center of the district of Tobolsk district of the Ural region. Since April 5, 1926, in connection with a small population, Surgut was transformed into a district village. In 1928, on the basis of the fish section, the first industrial enterprise was created - the fish canning factory. In 1929 a collective farm was organized, in 1930 - a forest site, in 1931 - a timber enterprise. In the 1930s in Surgut, attempts were made to extract minerals. October 23, 1934 is the first newspaper - "Organizer"; the urbanization of Surgut took place in the 1960s, when it became a center of oil and gas production. On June 25, 1965 the work settlement of Surgut was granted town status.
The city's holiday is celebrated annually on June 12. The current mayor is Vadim Nikolaevich Shuvalov. Ex-mayor Alexander Sidorov oversaw the construction of the Surgut Bridge, the longest one-tower cable-stayed bridge in the world. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Surgutsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of okrug significance of Surgut—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of okrug significance of Surgut is incorporated as Surgut Urban Okrug; the city is home to the largest port on the Ob River, the largest road/railway junction in northwest Siberia, two of the world's most powerful power plants, the SDPP-1 and SDPP-2, which produce over 7,200 megawatts and supply most of the region with cheap electricity. Surgut's economy is tied to the processing of natural gas; the most important enterprises are the oil firm Surgutgazprom.
The Surgut-2 Power Station providing Energy for the city is the largest gas-fired power station in the world. In Surgut, Tyumen Energy Retail Company, the largest energy sales company, is the guaranteeing supplier of electric power in the Tyumen region, ranked first in terms of the value of the productive supply of electricity among the energy distribution companies of the Urals Federal District and the second among the energy sales companies in Russia; the management office of OJSC TESS, the largest enterprise of the Urals Federal District, is located in the city in the sphere of complex service maintenance and reconstruction of electric power facilities. In addition, there are factories: stabilization of condensate, motor fuel. Enterprises food industry, timber industry. Manufacture of building materials. For 2013, the volume of shipped goods of own production, works performed and services by own strength for large and medium-sized producers of industrial products amounted to 100.7 billion rubles.
Novosibirsk is the third-most populous city in Russia, after Moscow and St. Petersburg, it is the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,612,833 as of the 2018 Census, is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District. The city is located in the southwestern part of Siberia on the banks of the Ob River adjacent to the Ob River Valley, near the large water reservoir formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant, it occupies an area of 502.1 square kilometres. It is about 2,800 kilometres east from Moscow, 600 kilometres east from Omsk, 1,400 kilometres east from Yekaterinburg, 645 kilometres west of Krasnoyarsk. Novosibirsk, founded in 1893 at the future site of a Trans-Siberian Railway bridge crossing the great Siberian river of Ob, first was named Novonikolayevsk, in honor both of Saint Nicholas and of the reigning Tsar Nicholas II, it superseded nearby Krivoshchekovskaya village, founded in 1696. The bridge was completed in the spring of 1897, making the new settlement the regional transport hub.
The importance of the city further increased with the completion of the Turkestan–Siberia Railway in the early 20th century. The new railway connected Novonikolayevsk to the Caspian Sea. At the time of the bridge's opening, Novonikolayevsk had a population of 7,800 people; the frontier settlement developed rapidly. Its first bank opened in 1906, a total of five banks were operating by 1915. In 1907, now with a population exceeding 47,000, was granted town status with full rights for self-government. During the pre-revolutionary period, the population of Novonikolayevsk reached 80,000; the city had steady and rapid economic growth, becoming one of the largest commercial and industrial centers of Siberia. It developed a significant agricultural processing industry, as well as a power station, iron foundry, commodity market, several banks, commercial and shipping companies. By 1917, seven Orthodox churches and one Roman Catholic Church had been built there, several cinemas, forty primary schools, a high school, a teaching seminary, the Romanov House non-classical secondary school.
In 1913, Novonikolayevsk became one of the first places in Russia to institute compulsory primary education. The Russian Civil War took a toll on the city. There were wartime epidemics of typhus and cholera, that claimed thousands of lives. In the course of the war the Ob River Bridge was destroyed. For the first time in the city's history, the population of Novonikolayevsk began to decline; the Soviet Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies of Novonikolayevsk took control of the city in December 1917. In May 1918, the Czechoslovak Legion rose in opposition to the revolutionary government and, together with the White Guards, captured Novonikolayevsk; the Red Army took the city in 1919. Novonikolayevsk began reconstruction in 1921 at the start of Lenin's New Economic Policy period, it was a part of Tomsk Governorate and served as its administrative center from December 23, 1919 to March 14, 1920. Between June 13, 1921 and May 25, 1925, it served as the administrative center of Novonikolayevsk Governorate, separated from Tomsk Governorate.
The city was given its present name on September 12, 1926. When governorates were abolished, the city served as the administrative center of Siberian Krai until July 23, 1930, of West Siberian Krai until September 28, 1937, when that krai was split into Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Krai. Since it has served as the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast; the Monument to the Heroes of the Revolution was erected in the center of the city and has been one of the chief historic sites. Neglect in the 1990s while other areas were redeveloped helped preserve it in the post-Soviet era. During Joseph Stalin's industrialization effort, Novosibirsk secured its place as one of the largest industrial centers of Siberia. Several massive industrial facilities were created, including the'Sibkombain' plant, specializing in the production of heavy mining equipment. Additionally a metal processing plant, a food processing plant and other industrial enterprises and factories were built, as well as a new power station.
The great Soviet famine of 1932–33 resulted in more than 170,000 rural refugees seeking food and safety in Novosibirsk. They were settled in barracks at the outskirts of the city, giving rise to slums such as Bolshaya Nakhalovka, Malaya Nakhalovka, others, its rapid growth and industrialization led to Novosibirsk being nicknamed the "Chicago of Siberia". Tram rails were laid down in 1934, by which time the population had reached 287,000, making Novosibirsk the largest city in Siberia; the following year the original bridge over the Ob River was replaced by the new Kommunalny bridge. Between 1941 and 1942 more than 50 substantial factories were crated up and relocated from western Russia to Novosibirsk in order to reduce the risk of their destruction through war, at this time the city became a major supply base for the Red Army. During this period the city received more than 140,000 refugees; the rapid growth of the city prompted the construction during the 1950s of a hydroelectric power station with a capacity of 400 megawatts, necessitating the creation of a giant water reservoir, now known as the Ob Sea.
As a direct result of the station's construction vast areas of fertile land were flooded as were relic pine woods in the area.