Amaziah of Judah
Amaziah of Judah, (pronounced, Hebrew: אֲמַצְיָהוּ, ʼĂmaṣyāhû, meaning "the strength of the Lord," "strengthened by Yahweh," or "Yahweh is mighty". His mother was Jehoaddan and his son was Uzziah, he took the throne at the age of 25, after the assassination of his father, reigned for 29 years, 24 years of which were with the co-regency of his son. The second Book of Kings and the second Book of Chronicles in the Hebrew Bible consider him a righteous king, but with some hesitation, he is praised for killing the assassins of his father only and sparing their children, as dictated by the law of Moses. Edwin R. Thiele dates his reign from 797/796 to 768/767 BCE. Thiele's chronology has his son, Uzziah becoming co-regent with Amaziah in the fifth year of Amaziah's reign, in 792/791 BCE, when Uzziah was 16 years old; as soon as his kingdom was established Amaziah executed the murderers of his father, but in obedience to the Mosaic laws permitted their children to live. Amaziah was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which he did in his attempt to reconquer Edom, which had rebelled during the reign of Jehoram, his great-grandfather.
He was commanded by an unnamed prophet to send back the mercenaries, to whom he acquiesced, much to the annoyance of the mercenaries. His obedience to this command was followed by a decisive victory over the Edomites. Due to the Israelite mercenaries' anger at being excluded from the battle, they attacked and looted multiple towns in Judah. Afterward, Amaziah began to worship some of the idols. An unnamed prophet rebuked him for this, the king responded by threatening him that if he continues to admonish him, he will have him executed, his victory over Edom inflated his pride, he challenged to a combat Jehoash, grandson of Jehu, king of Israel. The latter's disdain and scorn for Amaziah are embodied in the stinging parable of the thistle and the cedar. In his resentment, Amaziah rushed into a disastrous battle at Beth-shemesh, a humiliating defeat overtook his army and the land; the king was captured, 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem was broken down, the city and palace were looted, hostages were carried to Samaria.
This is all considered in the Hebrew Bible as a punishment for Amaziah's turning away from God. His defeat was followed by a conspiracy. He, like his father, was the victim of assassins bent upon killing the one who had brought upon such dire disasters upon the land. Amaziah was slain at Lachish, to which he had fled, his body was brought to Jerusalem, where it was buried in the royal sepulcher. According to the Books of Kings, Amaziah "did what was right in the sight of the Lord", but did not meet the standard of righteousness set by King David; the writer of the Books of Chronicles considers that during the earlier part of his reign, "he did what was right in the sight of the Lord, but not with a loyal heart". The calendars for reckoning the years of kings in Judah and Israel were offset by six months, that of Judah starting in Tishri and that of Israel in Nisan. Cross-synchronizations between the two kingdoms therefore allow narrowing of the beginning and/or ending dates of a king to within a six-month range.
For Amaziah, the Scriptural data allow the narrowing of his accession to some time between Nisan 1 of 796 BCE and the day before Tishri 1 of the same BCE year. For calculation purposes, this should be taken as the Judean year beginning in Tishri of 797/796 BC, or more 797 BCE, his death occurred at some time between Nisan 1 and Tishri 1 of 767 BCE, i.e. in 768/767 by Judean reckoning, or more 768 BCE. Amatzia, Israel is named after him. Amoz This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments. According to various texts within the Hebrew Bible, it contained Aaron's rod and a pot of manna. Hebrews 9:4 describes: "The ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, in, a golden jar holding the manna, Aaron's rod which budded, the tablets of the covenant."The biblical account relates that one year after the Israelites' exodus from Egypt, the Ark was created according to the pattern given to Moses by God when the Israelites were encamped at the foot of biblical Mount Sinai. Thereafter, the gold-plated acacia chest was carried by its staves while en route by the Levites 2,000 cubits in advance of the people when on the march or before the Israelite army, the host of fighting men; when carried, the Ark was always hidden under a large veil made of skins and blue cloth, always concealed from the eyes of the priests and the Levites who carried it.
God was said to have spoken with Moses "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover. When at rest the tabernacle was set up and the holy Ark was placed in it under the veil of the covering, the staves of it crossing the middle side bars to hold it up off the ground. According to the Book of Exodus, God instructed Moses on Mount Sinai during his 40-day stay upon the mountain within the thick cloud and darkness where God was and he was shown the pattern for the tabernacle and furnishings of the Ark to be made of shittim wood to house the Tablets of Stone. Moses instructed Oholiab to construct the Ark.. In Deuteronomy, the Ark is said to have been built by Moses himself without reference of Bezalel or Oholiab; the Book of Exodus gives detailed instructions on. It is to be 21⁄2 cubits in length, 11⁄2 in breadth, 11⁄2 in height, it is to be gilded with gold, a crown or molding of gold is to be put around it. Four rings of gold are to be attached to its four corners, two on each side—and through these rings staves of shittim-wood overlaid with gold for carrying the Ark are to be inserted.
A golden lid, the kapporet, covered with 2 golden cherubim, is to be placed above the Ark. Missing from the account are instructions concerning the thickness of the mercy seat and details about the cherubim other than that the cover be beaten out the ends of the Ark and that they form the space where God will appear; the Ark is to be placed under the veil of the covering. The biblical account continues that, after its creation by Moses, the Ark was carried by the Israelites during their 40 years of wandering in the desert. Whenever the Israelites camped, the Ark was placed in a separate room in a sacred tent, called the Tabernacle; when the Israelites, led by Joshua toward the Promised Land, arrived at the banks of the Jordan river, the Ark was carried in the lead preceding the people and was the signal for their advance. During the crossing, the river grew dry as soon as the feet of the priests carrying the Ark touched its waters, remained so until the priests—with the Ark—left the river after the people had passed over.
As memorials, twelve stones were taken from the Jordan at the place. In the Battle of Jericho, the Ark was carried round the city once a day for seven days, preceded by the armed men and seven priests sounding seven trumpets of rams' horns. On the seventh day, the seven priests sounding the seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Ark compassed the city seven times and, with a great shout, Jericho's wall fell down flat and the people took the city. After the defeat at Ai, Joshua lamented before the Ark; when Joshua read the Law to the people between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, they stood on each side of the Ark. We next hear of the Ark in Bethel where it was being cared for by the priest Phineas the grandson of Aaron. According to this verse it was consulted by the people of Israel when they were planning to attack the Benjaminites at the battle of Gibeah. However, the Ark was kept at Shiloh, another religious centre some 16 km north of Bethel, at the time of the prophet Samuel's apprenticeship, where it was cared for by Hophni and Phinehas, two sons of Eli.
A few years the elders of Israel decided to take the Ark out onto the battlefield to assist them against the Philistines, after being defeated at the battle of Eben-Ezer. They were, however defeated with the loss of 30,000 men; the Ark was captured by the Philistines and Hophni and Phinehas were killed. The news of its capture was at once taken to Shiloh by a messenger "with his clothes rent, with earth upon his head." The old priest, fell dead when he heard it. The mother of the child Ichabod died at his birth; the Philistines took the Ark to several places in their country, at each place misfortune befell them. At Ashdod it was placed in the temple of Dagon; the next morning Dagon was found prostrate, bowed down, before it. The people of Ashdod were smitten with tumors; the affliction of boi
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible. The primary source about the Philistines is the Hebrew Bible, but they are first attested in reliefs at the Temple of Ramses III at Medinet Habu, where they are called Peleset, accepted as cognate with Hebrew Peleshet; the first reference to Philistines in the Hebrew Bible is in the Table of Nations, where they are said to descend from Casluhim, son of Mizraim. However, the Philistines of Genesis who are friendly to Abraham are identified by rabbinic sources as distinct from the warlike people described in Deuteronomistic history. Deuteronomist sources describe the "Five Lords of the Philistines" as based in five city-states of the southwestern Levant: Gaza, Ashdod and Gath, from Wadi Gaza in the south to the Yarqon River in the north; this description portrays them at one period of time as among the Kingdom of Israel's most dangerous enemies. In contrast, the Septuagint uses the term allophuloi instead of "Philistines", which means "other nations".
Several theories are given about the origins of the Philistines. Some biblical passages connect the Philistines to other biblical groups such as Caphtorim and the Cherethites and Pelethites, which have both been identified with Crete which has led to the tradition of an Aegean origin, although this theory has been disputed. In 2016, a large Philistine cemetery was discovered, containing more than 150 dead buried in oval-shaped graves, indicating an Aegean origin, yet to be confirmed by genetic testing; the English word Philistine comes from Old French Philistin, from Classical Latin Philistinus, from Late Greek Philistinoi, from Hebrew Philištim, "people of Plešt", there are cognates in Akkadian Palastu and Egyptian Palusata. The Hebrew term Plištim occurs 286 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible, it appears in the Samaritan Pentateuch. In secondary literature, the Aramaic Visions of Amram further mentions "Philistia"; this is datable "prior to Antiochus IV and the Hasmonean revolt" to the term of High Priest of Israel Onias II.
In the Greek version of the Bible called Septuagint, the equivalent term Phylistiim occurs 12 times, again in the Pentateuch. Outside of pre-Maccabean Israelite religious literature, evidence for the name and the origins of the Philistines is less abundant and less consistent. In the remainder of the Hebrew Bible, ha-Plištim is attested at Qumran for 2 Samuel 5:17. In the Septuagint however 269 references instead use the term allophylos; the Philistines are the subject of speculation in biblical archaeology. Since 1846, scholars have connected the biblical Philistines with the Egyptian "Peleset" inscriptions, all five of which appear from c.1150 BCE to c.900 BCE just as archaeological references to "Kinaḫḫu" or "Ka-na-na" come to an end, since 1873 comparisons were drawn between them and to the Aegean "Pelasgians". Archaeological research to date has been unable to corroborate a mass settlement of Philistines during the Ramesses III era. A "Walistina" is mentioned in Luwian texts variantly spelled Palistina.
This implies both. *Falistina was a kingdom somewhere on the'Amuq plain, where the Amurru kingdom had held sway before it. Another theory, proposed by Jacobsohn, is that the name derives from the attested Illyrian locality Palaeste, whose inhabitants would have been called Palaestīnī according to normal grammatical practice. Allen Jones suggests; the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 states in Hebrew with regard to the descendants of Mizraim, the biblical progenitor of the Egyptians: "ve-et Patrusim ve-et Kasluhim asher yats'u mi-sham Plištim ve-et Kaftorim." It says that those whom Mizraim begat included "the Pathrusim and the Caphtorim." There is some debate among interpreters as to whether this verse was intended to signify that the Philistines themselves were the offspring of the Casluhim or the Caphtorim. While the Casluhim or the Caphtorim origin is followed by biblical scholars, other scholars such as Friedrich Schwally, Bernhard Stade, Cornelis Tiele argued for a Semitic origin; the Torah does not record the Philistines as one of the nations to be displaced from Canaan.
In Genesis 15:18-21 the Philistines are absent from the ten nations Abraham's descendants will displace as well as being absent from the list of nations Moses tells the people they will conquer. God directed the Israelites away from the Philistines upon their Exodus from Egypt according to Exodus 13:17. In Genesis 21:22-27, Abraham agrees to a covenant of kindness with Abimelech, the Philistine king, his descendants. Abraham's son Isaac deals with the Philistine king by concluding a treaty with them in chapter 26. Unlike most other ethnic groups in the Bible, the Philistines are always referred to without the definite article in the Torah. Rabbinic sources state that the Philistines of Genesis were different people from the Philistines of the Deuteronomistic history; this differentiation was held by the authors of the Septuagint, who translated its base text as allophuloi instead of "philistines" throughout the Books of Judges
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
According to the Tanakh, Uzzah or Uzza, meaning strength, was an Israelite whose death is associated with touching the Ark of the Covenant. Uzzah was the son of Abinadab, in whose house the men of Kirjath-jearim placed the Ark when it was brought back from the land of the Philistines. With his brother Ahio, he drove the cart on which the ark was placed when David sought to bring it up to Jerusalem; when the oxen stumbled, Uzzah steadied the ark with his hand, in direct violation of the divine law, he was killed for his error. David, displeased because the Lord had killed Uzzah, called the place where this occurred Perez-uzzah, which means "to burst out against Uzzah". David was afraid to bring the ark any further, placed it in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite for three months; the Lord blessed Obed-edom and David went and brought up the ark of God into the city of David. Uzzah, son of Shimei, was a Merarite; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Matthew George.
"Uzzah". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
Books of Chronicles
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament. In the Hebrew Bible, Chronicles is a single book, called Diḇrê Hayyāmîm, is the final book of Ketuvim, the third and last part of the Tanakh. Chronicles was called I and II Paralipoménōn; the English name comes from the Latin name chronikon, given to the text by scholar Jerome in the 5th century. Chronicles starts with a genealogy from the first human being and passes into a biblical narrative of the history of ancient Judah and Israel until the proclamation of King Cyrus the Great; the Chronicles narrative begins with Adam and the story is carried forward entirely by genealogical lists, down to the founding of the first Kingdom of Israel. The bulk of the remainder of 1 Chronicles, after a brief account of Saul, is concerned with the reign of David; the next long section concerns David's son Solomon, the final part is concerned with the Kingdom of Judah with occasional references to the second kingdom of Israel.
In the last chapter Judah is destroyed and the people taken into exile in Babylon, in the final verses the Persian king Cyrus the Great conquers the Neo-Babylonian Empire, authorises the restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem, the return of the exiles. A single work, Chronicles was divided into two in the Septuagint, a Greek translation produced in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, it has three broad divisions: the genealogies in chapters 1–9 of 1 Chronicles. Within this broad structure there are signs that the author has used various other devices to structure his work, notably the drawing of parallels between David and Solomon; the last events in Chronicles take place in the reign of Cyrus the Great, the Persian king who conquered Babylon in 539 BC. It was composed between 400–250 BC, with the period 350–300 BC the most likely; the latest person mentioned in Chronicles is Anani, an eighth-generation descendant of King Jehoiachin according to the Masoretic Text. Anani's birth would have been sometime between 425 and 400 BC.
The Septuagint gives an additional five generations in the genealogy of Anani. For those scholars who side with the Septuagint's reading, Anani's date of birth is a century later. Chronicles appears to be the work of a single individual, with some additions and editing; the writer was male a Levite, from Jerusalem. He was well read, a skilled editor, a sophisticated theologian, his intention was to use Israel's past to convey religious messages to his peers, the literary and political elite of Jerusalem in the time of the Achaemenid Empire. Jewish and Christian tradition identified this author as the 5th century BC figure Ezra, who gives his name to the Book of Ezra. One of the most striking, although inconclusive, features of Chronicles is that its closing sentence is repeated as the opening of Ezra–Nehemiah; the latter half of the 20th century saw a radical reappraisal, many now regard it as improbable that the author of Chronicles was the author of the narrative portions of Ezra–Nehemiah. Much of the content of Chronicles is a repetition of material from other books of the Bible, from Genesis to Kings, so the usual scholarly view is that these books, or an early version of them, provided the author with the bulk of his material.
It is, possible that the situation was rather more complex, that books such as Genesis and Samuel should be regarded as contemporary with Chronicles, drawing on much of the same material, rather than a source for it. There is the question of whether the author of Chronicles used sources other than those found in the Bible: if such sources existed, it would bolster the Bible's case to be regarded as a reliable history. Despite much discussion of this issue, no agreement has been reached; the translators who created the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible called this book "Things Left Out", indicating that they thought of it as a supplement to another work Genesis-Kings, but the idea seems inappropriate, since much of Genesis-Kings has been copied without change. Some modern scholars proposed that Chronicles is a midrash, or traditional Jewish commentary, on Genesis-Kings, but again this is not accurate, since the author or authors do not comment on the older books so much as use them to create a new work.
Recent suggestions have been that it was intended as a clarification of the history in Genesis-Kings, or a replacement or alternative for it. The accepted message the author wished to give to his audience was this: God is active in history, the history of Israel; the faithfulness or sins of individual ki
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
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