Asterix and the Laurel Wreath
Asterix and the Laurel Wreath is the eighteenth volume of the Asterix comic book series, by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. It was serialized in the magazine Pilote, issues 621-642, in 1971 and translated into English in 1974; the story begins in Rome where Obelix are talking. At dinner, Vitalstatistix becomes drunk and boasts that as a Chief he can obtain for Homeopathix something money cannot buy: a stew seasoned with Julius Caesar's laurel wreath. In Rome and Obelix see a man coming out of Caesar's palace; when Typhus' other slaves provoke the Gauls into a fight, the wealthy patrician Osseus Humerus is amused and offers to buy them. Upon discovery of their mistake, the Gauls are placed under the supervision of Goldendelicius, Humerus' chief slave. Goldendelicius soon expresses dislike of the two Gauls on grounds that they come from Typhus, fears that they might usurp his office. Disappointed by their mistake and Obelix cook a volatile stew, which accidentally cures Humerus' heavy-drinking son Metatarsus of his constant hangovers.
As a result, Humerus suffers a headache and sends the Gauls to Caesar's palace to justify his absence to a secretary there. Goldendelicius, fearing that Asterix and Obelix will usurp his job, tells the palace's guards that the Gauls intend to kill Caesar; as a result and Obelix are thrown into the palace prison upon arrival. Frustrated and tired, they return to their cell, much to the confusion of the palace guards, decide to seize the wreath from Caesar himself; the next morning a lawyer comes to defend Asterix and Obelix in a show trial for the "attempt" on Caesar's life. When the prosecutor announces the same initial speech intended by the defense lawyer, the latter calls for a suspension in proceedings. Anxious to be sentenced to the Circus in order to catch Caesar, Asterix himself speaks for the prosecution, outlining all the "wrongdoings" committed by himself and Obelix; the whole audience, including Typhus and the Humerus family, is moved by this plea, the Gauls are sentenced to death in the Circus.
In the cells, they enjoy luxurious food funded by Humerus. Therefore, the Gauls refuse to go into the arena until he returns, which results in the big cats in the arena eating each other, a mass riot of the audience, everyone evicted from the circus; that night and Obelix sleep at a doorway, where they are woken by brigands. When the latter are defeated in the resulting fight, their chief Habeascorpus offers Asterix and Obelix shelter in return for their participation in their raids; the next night, the gang discover the drunken Metatarsus. From Metatarsus, the two Gauls learn that Goldendelicius has been appointed as Caesar's personal slave, Caesar himself is due to hold a triumph for his victory over the pirates. Asterix and Obelix corner Goldendelicius in a tavern and coerce him into exchanging Caesar's laurel wreath for one of parsley; the next day, during the triumph, Goldendelicius nervously holds the parsley wreath over Caesar's head. Caesar does not acknowledge the switch, but secretly "feels like a piece of fish", which baffles him.
Upon Asterix and Obelix's return, Homeopathix arrives in his brother-in-law's village in order to eat the stew containing Caesar's laurel wreath, Vitalstatistix states that a wealthy man like him would never eat such a meal in his own house. Homeopathix "agrees" by sarcastically pointing out that it is overcooked and of poor quality, which provokes Vitalstatistix to strike him senseless; the album ends with the note that, with Asterix's cure for drunkenness now available to the Romans, they initiate a series of ever-increasing parties that result in the collapse of the empire. Asterix Obelix Vitalstatistix Impedimenta - Vitalstatistix' wife Homeopathix - Impedimenta's brother Tapioca - Homeopathix' wife Kumakros - One of Caesar's slaves Typhus - Owner of The House Of Typhus Osseus Humerus Fibula - Osseus Humerus' wife Tibia - Osseus Humerus' daughter Metatarsus - Osseus Humerus' son Goldendelicius - Osseus Humerus' slave, now Caesar's slave Titus Nisiprius - lawyer Habeascorpus - Chief of a group of thieves Julius Caesar This is by far the most adult-oriented of all the Asterix stories.
It includes drunkenness, human slavery, debauchery graphic violence and instances of humour requiring an unusually sophisticated knowledge of art and history to understand it. There is an implicit acknowledgement of this in that Dogmatix makes only a token appearance, the lettering in the original version of t
Alberto Aleandro Uderzo, known as Albert Uderzo, is a French comic book artist and scriptwriter. The son of Italian immigrants, he is best known for his work on the Astérix series and drew other comics such as Oumpah-pah in collaboration with René Goscinny. Uderzo retired from drawing in September 2011. Uderzo was born in Fismes in the Marne department of France on 25 April 1927 as the fourth child of Silvio Uderzo and his wife Iria Uderzo, his parents had met in 1915 in La Spezia, where Silvio Uderzo was recovering after he had been wounded in his service for the Royal Italian Army during World War I. Uderzo's mother, Iria Crestini, was working in the arsenals of La Spezia, along with many young Italian women at the time. Silvio was dismissed from military service after the conclusion of the conflict, on 19 June 1919; the two married shortly before the birth of their first child, Bruno Uderzo. After Bruno, they had Rina Uderzo in 1922, they moved from Italy to France with their two children, first settling in Chauny in the Aisne departement.
Because of Silvio's occupation as a carpenter, they had to change location regularly. In Chauny, a son died of pneumonia at the age of 8 months; the Uderzos decided to name their next son in honor of the deceased brother, Uderzo was registered as Alberto Aleandro Uderzo. The fact that his name, intended to just be "Albert" like that of his deceased brother, has been registered as the Italian "Alberto" is because the responsible government official misunderstood Silvio Uderzo's heavy Italian accent; the name "Aleandro" is in honor of Uderzo's paternal grandfather. I once asked: "Why did you give me an Italian first name, considering we live in France?" His reply was typical for him: "I didn't try to register to you as Alberto, but instead as Alberto." It was hopeless. Without noticing it, my father pronounced'Albert' the Italian way. Uderzo was born on the morning of 25 April 1927 around 07:00. At this point, he was an Italian citizen rather than a French one. Uderzo was born with six fingers on each hand.
The additional fingers were surgically removed early in childhood as a precaution, as the infant Uderzo would sometimes violently pull on them when enraged or annoyed. In the year 1929, the Uderzos moved to Clichy-sous-Bois in the eastern suburbs of Paris, the capital city of France. Here, Uderzo experienced elements of racism against Italian immigrants during his childhood though he gained French citizenship in the year 1934. Clichy-sous-Bois, at the time a politically left-leaning political district, held deep popular sentiments against Mussolini's dictatorship and its involvement in the Spanish Civil War. Uderzo at one particular point became the target of the anger of a victim of Italian-German bombardment in the Spanish Civil War, said man spit in his face. However, apart from the occasional ethnic resentment against Italians, Uderzo views his childhood and education in Clichy-sous-Bois fondly in retrospect, his mother gave birth to two more children: Jeanne Uderzo was born in 1932 and Marcel Uderzo in 1933.
Uderzo came in touch with the arts for the first time during kindergarten, where he was noted as talented for his age. Most of his siblings shared certain artistic talents, their mother used sheets of paper and pencils to give the children her oldest son Bruno, something to do. Bruno in turn soon noted the younger brother's talent. At this point, Albert did not yet aim to become a professional artist in life and instead dreamt about a career as a clown and, after dropping that aspiration, aimed to follow Bruno into the craft of aircraft engineering. At the same time, he came in contact with the American comic and animated cartoon cultures with the early works of Walt Disney like Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck; the family moved to the Rue de Montreuil in the 11th arrondissement of Paris in October of 1938, changing both schools and the social vicinity. Although Albert and now equipped with a Parisian accent, was no longer recognized as of Italian heritage, he nonetheless had problems in school.
His only successful area in his educational pursuits was the arts. It would take him until around the age of 11 or 12 to go from sketching to painting in colors, when his parents discovered that Uderzo was color blind. From on, Uderzo would use labels on his colors, but as he stuck with black-and-white sketching, it would not make a huge impact on his artistic career either way. In September of 1939, Germany invaded France declared war on Germany in response. Albert's father Silvio, by 51, was too old to be conscripted into the French army, whereas Albert himself was too young at 12. Bruno however was called to action, he survived his military service without injury, the Battle of France lasted between 10 May and 25 June, 1940, ending in a decisive German victory and resulting in a German occupation of France. Albert soon finished his basic education at the age of 13 and decided to follow Bruno into aircraft engineering. Throughout some more creations and travelling for the next few years, he met René Goscinny in 1951.
The two men became good friends, decided to work together in 1952 at the newly opened Paris office of the Belgian company, World Press. Their first creations were Jehan Pistolet and Luc Junior. In 1958 they adapted Oumpah-pah for serial publication in the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Tintin, where it ran until 1962. In 1959 Goscinny and Uderzo became editor and artistic director
Asterix the Gladiator
Asterix the Gladiator is the fourth volume of the Asterix comic book series, by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. It was first serialized in the magazine Pilote, issues 126–168, in 1962. While stopping at the Roman Camp of Compendium, Prefect'Odius Asparagus' wants one of the indomitable Gauls as a present for Julius Caesar; because none of the others can be captured, Centurion Gracchus Armisurplus decides on Cacofonix the bard. Soldiers sent by the centurion, although driven away by Cacofonix's singing at first, counteract this by stuffing parsley in their ears and capture him easily. A young boy from the village raises the alarm to Asterix and Obelix, the Gauls attack Compendium. Asterix and Obelix therefore board a ship with Ekonomikrisis the Phoenician merchant, who agrees to take them to Rome after they save him from the pirates. In Rome, after Cacofonix has subjected the slaves in the prefect's galley to his bad singing, the prefect presents him to Julius Caesar. Upon arrival in Rome and Obelix befriend Instantmix and visit the public baths.
There, Caius Fatuous decides they would be perfect candidates for the gladiators' fights in the Circus Maximus, he arranges to have them captured. That night and Obelix visit Instantmix in his insula, where he identifies the location of Cacofonix; the next morning, the Gauls' first attempt at rescuing the bard fails when they raid the Circus prison and discover that Cacofonix has been transferred to a lower basement. Caius Fatuous has his men try to ambush them in groups of three, but Asterix and Obelix defeat them with ease, without taking notice. Caius Fatuous offers a reward of 10,000 sestertii to any citizen who captures Asterix and Obelix. Soon, the Gauls demoralize Insalubrius and irritate Caius Fatuous by having the other gladiators play guessing-games instead of training; when Fatuous plans the Games to Julius Caesar, the Gauls go on a stroll, with Caius Fatuous as their guide. On the eve before the games and Obelix visit Cacofonix in his cell and inform him of their intentions to free him and the gladiators.
The next day, during the chariot races and Obelix substitute themselves for an inebriated contestant, win the race. As Cacofonix is put into the arena to be killed by the lions, he sings to the Romans, thus frightens the lions into retreat; when Asterix and the gladiators introduce Caesar to their guessing-game, Caesar insists on a martial contest, Asterix challenges a cohort of Caesar's own guard, the two Gauls win easily. Seeing that the audience are amused, Caesar releases the three Gauls and grants them Fatuous as a prisoner. Soon afterwards, the four men meet back up with Ekonomikrisis, Asterix surprises him and his men by having Caius Fatuous row the ship back to the Gaulish Village alone. After a brief journey, the Gauls arrive home and Ekonomikrisis keeps his promise to return Caius Fatuous to Rome; the villagers celebrate the return of their heroes with a banquet, only with Cacofonix having to sit it out bound and gagged after offering to sing a song to celebrate his triumphant return.
This book is noteworthy in the Asterix series as the first in which Obelix says his famous catchphrase "These Romans are crazy!" An audiobook of Asterix the Gladiator adapted by Anthea Bell and narrated by Willie Rushton was released on EMI Records Listen for Pleasure label in 1988. Geriatrix - Obelix asks him to run his menhir delivery service while he is away, his feisty personality was not shown at this time, neither was the fact. Ekonomikrisis - Provides transport to and from Rome Brutus - Featuring an amusingly ironic exchange with Julius Caesar at the circus; the Pirates - parodying French comic "Barbe-Rouge", serialized in Pilote at the time. Obelix' helmet game - for the first time he collects helmets from the Romans he bashes, trying to outdo Asterix; this is one of the few stories. A noticeable mistake can be seen, when the Decurion who captured Cacofonix was first seen, he was wearing Bronze Armour, he is seen wearing Steel Armour. On Goodreads, Asterix the Gladiator has a score of 4.19 out of 5.
This story was blended with Asterix the Legionary for the animated movie Asterix Versus Caesar. Official English Website
Asterix and the Class Act
Asterix and the Class Act is the thirty-second album of the Asterix comic book series, by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo, published in 2003. Unlike the other Asterix books, it is a compilation of short stories, rather than one long story; each story has an introductory page giving some of its original history. Only one of these stories is original in this album, the remainder are reprinted from earlier sources, most notably the French comic "Pilote"; the majority of these stories were written by Goscinny. Chanticleerix, The Lutetia Olympics and The Birth of Asterix were written by Uderzo after Goscinny's death. Springtime In Gaul and Asterix as you've never seen him were written by Uderzo alone. Most of these stories have had only limited distribution prior to this publication. In 1993 there was an earlier, smaller collection called La Rentree Gauloise, only available in French, it contained a story called L'Antiquaire as filler, not by Goscinny nor Uderzo, does not fit with the other stories and contains two recycled and out-of-character villains.
That story has not been reprinted. Earlier, in the mid-1980s, a promotional collection of some of these stories appeared in a number of translations as Astérix mini-histoires. An announcement page for Asterix and the Big Fight – the village chief holds a modern press conference for the up-coming stories. – 1 page. First published in Pilote #260. – 2 pages. First published in Pilote #363. – 4 pages. Published in the 35th anniversary special of Pilote. Introduction to the stories: gives a synopsis of the themes and principal characters. – 3 pages. First published in the May 1977 issue of National Geographic Magazine for an article on the history of Celtic people. Appeared in the original "La Rentree Gauloise" and "Astérix mini-histoires" Dogmatix helps the village rooster defeat an eagle terrorizing the local animals, by stealing Asterix's gourd of potion to provide the rooster with the necessary advantage. – 5 pages. New with this album. Obelix tries to use Gaulish customs to get a kiss from Panacea, but fails, the kiss is instead won by Dogmatix.
– 2 pages. First published in Pilote #424. Appeared in the original "La Rentree Gauloise" and "Astérix mini-histoires" A fashion show generates a fight after Impedimenta quarrels with Mrs. Geriatrix. – 2 pages. Done for French women's magazine "Elle" #1337. Appeared in the original "La Rentree Gauloise" and "Astérix mini-histoires" This is a mockery of the more outrageous "suggestions" made by readers, allowing Uderzo to show his facility with different styles of illustration. In one example, Asterix appears in black and white, simplistic line drawings and telegram-type text in a short story satirizing Asterix and the Great Crossing, using flowers on female legionaries in a story drawn in a psychedelic style, in a quasi-modernized one-panel plot in which Getafix has constructed modern firearms, Asterix is telephoning Getafix, where the word "like" is dropped into their speech, fighting aliens on a distant planet as Jim Asteryx. Last of all and Uderzo write a message saying that as they are the authors, they should be allowed to draw Asterix as they wish, so draw a picture of him and Obelix wearing plus-fours, much to Asterix and Obelix's fury.
– 3 pages. First published in Pilote #527. For the honour of Gaul and Obelix help Lutetia win the chance to host the ancient Olympic Games by acting as security for the event. – 4 pages. Done to aid the 1992 Paris Olympic bid and published in the bid's promotional materials. Asterix helps a tiny anthropomorphic personification of Spring overcome Winter. – 2 pages. First published in Pilote #334. Appeared in the original "La Rentree Gauloise" and "Astérix mini-histoires" Some unlucky Romans try to take Dogmatix as their "lucky" mascot, which brings Asterix and Obelix's vengeance down on them. – 4 pages. First Published in Pilote "Super Pocket 1". Appeared in the original "La Rentree Gauloise" and "Astérix mini-histoires" A joke on modern French anxiety over the bastardization of the French language shows
The Roman legionary was a professional heavy infantryman of the Roman army after the Marian reforms. These soldiers, alongside auxiliary and cavalry detachments, would first conquer and defend the territories of the Roman Empire during the late Republic and Principate eras. At its height, Roman legionaries were viewed as the foremost fighting force in the Roman world, with commentators such as Vegetius praising their fighting effectiveness centuries after the classical Roman legionary disappeared. Roman legionaries were recruited from Roman citizens under the age of 45; this meant that while Roman legionaries were first predominantly made up of recruits from the areas surrounding Rome, more legionaries were recruited from the provinces as time went on. As legionaries moved into newly conquered provinces, they served to help romanize the native population and helped integrate the various disparate regions of the Roman Empire into one polity, they enlisted in a legion for twenty-five years of service, a change from the early practice of enlisting only for a campaign.
Not only were legionaries expected to fight, but they built much of the infrastructure of the Roman Empire and served as a policing force in the provinces. Large public works projects such as walls and roads were all built by the Roman legionary; the last five years were on veteran lighter duties. Once retired, a Roman legionary received a parcel of land or its equivalent in money and became prominent members of local society; when Gaius Marius became consul in 108 BC, Rome was at war with the Numidian king Jugurtha. Seeing a need for more manpower, Marius eliminated the property requirements that used to qualify Romans into the army, allowing any Roman citizen to become a legionary. After the war, Marius set out to standardize the Roman legionary, he enhanced the training of the soldiers and uniformly armed them, giving Rome an armed force that did not have to be raised with every new campaign. He further gave his soldiers retirement benefits, such as land or monetary payment. However, because the legionaries looked to their generals for their rewards and benefits, they soon became loyal to generals rather than the Roman senate.
This would factor in to the end of the Roman republic. As Augustus consolidated power in 27BC and founded the Principate, he further professionalized the Roman legionary and sought to break the legionary's dependence on his general. Under him, a legionary's term of service was raised to 25 years and pay was standardized throughout the legions; the Roman legionaries were guaranteed a land grant or a cash payment at the end of his service, making the Roman legionary less dependent on generals for rewards after campaigns. Augustus changed the sacramentum so that soldiers swore allegiance only to the emperor, not to the general. Thus, Augustus managed to end the civil wars which defined the late Roman Republic and created an army, broadly loyal to only the emperor. Legionaries would expand Rome's borders to include lower Britannia, North Africa, more through military campaigns under Augustus and future emperors. From the reign of Septimus Severus onward, the Roman legionary lost his preeminence. Though there were multiple causes for this decline, all pointed to the gradual degradation of discipline.
Septimus Severus unwittingly, began this decline when he lavished his legionaries with donatives and pay increases, recognising that they were his key to becoming and staying emperor. However, this proved detrimental to the discipline of the legionaries, as they began to expect more and more rewards from their emperors. Under Caracalla, Septimus Severus's successor, all freedmen in the Roman Empire became Roman citizens erasing the distinction between auxiliaries and legionaries. This, coinciding with the continued expansion of the Roman army, meant recruits of more dubious standards joined the legions, decreasing the quality of the Roman legionary further. During the 3rd Century Crisis, a more mobile army became necessary, as threats arose across the long borders of the Roman Empire; as such, mounted cavalry became essential to respond to the varied challenges to the empire. Because of this, Roman heavy infantry faded further from dominance. By the 4th century, Roman infantry lacked much of the body armor of the classical legionary and used darts rather than the pila of their predecessors.
Though the legionary was first and foremost a soldier, he provided a variety of other critical functions. Lacking a professional police force, governors would use legionaries to keep the peace and protect critical facilities; as the Roman empire lacked a large civil administration, the army would be given many administrative positions. High ranking soldiers acted as judges in disputes among local populations and the army was an important component of tax collection. Legionaries served to spread Roman culture throughout the provinces where they were stationed; as legionaries settled in the provinces, towns sprang up around them becoming large cities. In this way, as legionaries co-mingled and intermarried with the local populace, they helped Romanize the provinces they protect. Roman legionaries served as a source of expertise as well; as such, much of the infrastructure which connected the empire was built by legionaries. Roads and bridges were built by legionaries as well as more defensive structures such as fortresses and walls.
Hadrian's wall, a monumental example of Roman engineering, was built by the three legions stationed in the area. Legionaries were not just limited to building large-scale engineering projects. Surveyors, artisans, a
SPQR refers to the government of the ancient Roman Republic. It appears on Roman currency, at the end of documents made public by inscription in stone or metal, in dedications of monuments and public works; the phrase appears in the Roman political and historical literature, such as the speeches of Cicero and Ab Urbe Condita Libri of Livy. SPQR: Senātus Populusque Rōmānus. In Latin, Senātus is a nominative singular noun meaning "Senate". Populusque is compounded from the nominative noun Populus, "the People", -que, an enclitic particle meaning "and" which connects the two nominative nouns; the last word, Rōmānus is an adjective modifying the whole of Senātus Populusque: the "Roman Senate and People", taken as a whole. Thus, the phrase is translated as "The Roman Senate and People", or more as "The Senate and People of Rome"; the title's date of establishment is unknown, but it first appears in inscriptions of the Late Republic, from c. 80 BC onwards. The official name of the Roman state, as evidenced on coins, was ROMA.
The abbreviation last appears on coins of Constantine the Great, the first Roman emperor to support Christianity. The two legal entities mentioned, Senātus and the Populus Rōmānus, are sovereign. However, where populus is sovereign alone, Senātus is not. Under the Roman Kingdom, neither entity was sovereign; the phrase, can be dated to no earlier than the foundation of the Republic. This signature continued in use under the Roman Empire; the emperors were considered the de jure representatives of the people though the senātūs consulta, or decrees of the Senate, were made at the de facto pleasure of the emperor. Populus Rōmānus in Roman literature is a phrase meaning the government of the People; when the Romans named governments of other countries, they used populus in the singular or plural, such as populī Prīscōrum Latīnōrum, "the governments of the Old Latins". Rōmānus is the established adjective used to distinguish the Romans, as in cīvis Rōmānus, "Roman citizen"; the Roman people appear often in law and history in such phrases as dignitās, maiestās, auctoritās, lībertās populī Rōmānī, the "dignity, authority, freedom of the Roman people".
They were a populus līber, "a free people". There was an exercitus, iudicia, honorēs, consulēs, voluntās of this same populus: "the army, judgments, offices and will of the Roman people", they appear in early Latin as Popolus and Poplus, so the habit of thinking of themselves as free and sovereign was quite ingrained. The Romans believed, it could be said that similar language seen in more modern political and social revolutions directly comes from this usage. People in this sense meant the whole government; the latter, was divided into the aristocratic Senate, whose will was executed by the consuls and praetors, the comitia centuriāta, "committee of the centuries", whose will came to be safeguarded by the Tribunes. One of the ways the emperor Commodus paid for his donatives and mass entertainments was to tax the senatorial order, on many inscriptions, the traditional order is provocatively reversed. Beginning in 1184, the Commune of Rome struck coins in the name of the SENATVS P Q R. From 1414 until 1517, the Roman Senate struck coins with a shield inscribed SPQR.
During the regime of Benito Mussolini, SPQR was emblazoned on a number of public buildings and manhole covers in an attempt to promote his dictatorship as a "New Roman Empire". In contemporary usage, SPQR is still used as the municipal symbol of the city of Rome. SPQx is sometimes used as an assertion of civic rights; the Italian town of Reggio Emilia, for instance, has SPQR in its coat of arms, standing for "Senatus Populusque Regiensis". There have been confirmed reports of the deployment of the "SPQx" template in. Amsterdam, Netherlands, SPQA at one of the major theatres and some of the bridges Antwerp, Belgium, SPQA on the Antwerp City Hall Basel, Switzerland, SPQB on the Webern-Brunnen in Steinenvorstadt Benevento, Italy, SPQB on manhole covers Bremen, Germany, SPQB in the Bremen City Hall Bruges, Belgium, SPQB on its coat of arms Brussels, Belgium, SPQB found on the Palais de Justice, over the main stage of La Monnaie Capua, Italy, SPQC Catania, Italy, SPQC can be found on manhole covers Dublin, Ireland, SPQH on the City Hall, built in 1769 Florence, Italy, SPQF Franeker, Netherlands, SPQF, At the a gate on the Westerbolwerk and Academiestraat 16.
Freising, Germany, SPQF, above the door of the town hall. Ghent, Belgium, SPQG on the Opera and some other major buildings. In 1583, during the Dutch Revolt, Ghent struck coins with a shield inscribed SPQG; the Hague, Netherlands, SPQL above the stage in Koninklijke Schouwburg Hamburg, Germany, SPQH on a door in the Hamburg Rathaus Hanover, Germany Haarlem, the Netherlands, SPQH on the face of the town hall at the "Grote Markt" Hasselt, Belgium, SPQH Kortrijk, Belgium, SPQC, city hall Lazio, Italy, SPQS, coat of arms and flag Leeuwarden, Netherlands, SPQL on the mayor's chain of office Liverpool, England, SPQL on various gold doors in St George's Hall City of London, England, SPQL Lübeck, Germany, SPQL on the Holstentor Lucerne, Switzerland Milan, The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V struck coins at Milan with the inscription S P Q MEDIOL OPTIMO PRINCIPI. M
René Goscinny was a French comics editor and writer of Polish descent, best known internationally for the comic book Astérix, which he created with illustrator Albert Uderzo, for his work on the comic series Lucky Luke with Morris and Iznogoud with Jean Tabary. He authored a series of children's books known as "Le Petit Nicolas" series. Goscinny was born in Paris to a family of Jewish immigrants from Poland, his parents were Stanisław Simkha Gościnny, a chemical engineer from Warsaw and Anna Bereśniak-Gościnna from Chodorków, a small village near Zhytomyr in the Second Polish Republic. Claude, René's older brother was born six years earlier, on 10 December 1920. Stanisław and Anna had met in Paris and married in 1919; the Gościnnys moved to Buenos Aires, two years after René's birth, because of a chemical engineer post Stanisław had obtained there. He spent a happy childhood in Buenos Aires, studied in the French schools there, he had a habit of being the "class clown" to compensate for a natural shyness.
He started drawing early on, inspired by the illustrated stories which he enjoyed reading. In December 1943, the year after he graduated from school, 17-year-old Goscinny lost his father to a cerebral hemorrhage, forcing him to find a job; the next year, he got his first job, as an assistant accountant in a tire recovery factory, when he was laid off the following year, he became a junior illustrator in an advertising agency. Goscinny, along with his mother, left Argentina and went to New York in 1945, to join her brother Boris. To avoid service in the United States Armed Forces, he travelled to France to join the French Army in 1946, he served in the 141st Alpine Infantry Battalion. Promoted to senior corporal, he became the appointed artist of the regiment and drew illustrations and posters for the army; the following year, he returned to New York. On his arrival Goscinny went through the most difficult period of his life. For a while, he was jobless and broke. By 1948, though, he recovered and started working in a small studio where he became friends with future MAD Magazine contributors Will Elder, Jack Davis and Harvey Kurtzman.
Goscinny became art director at Kunen Publishers where he wrote four books for children. Around this time he met two Belgian comic artists, Joseph Gillain, better known as Jijé, Maurice de Bevere, aka Morris, the cartoonist and author of the series Lucky Luke. Georges Troisfontaines, chief of the World Press agency, convinced Goscinny to return to Paris and work for his agency as the head of the Paris office in 1951. There he met Albert Uderzo, they started out with some work for Bonnes Soirées, a women's magazine for which Goscinny wrote Sylvie. Goscinny and Uderzo launched the series Jehan Pistolet and Luc Junior in La Libre Junior. In 1955, together with Uderzo, Jean-Michel Charlier, Jean Hébrad, founded the syndicate Edipress/Edifrance; the syndicate launched publications like Clairon for the factory union and Pistolin for a chocolate company. Goscinny and Uderzo cooperated on the series Bill Blanchart in Jeannot, Pistolet in Pistolin and Benjamin et Benjamine in the magazine of the same name.
Under the pseudonym Agostini, Goscinny wrote Le Petit Nicolas for Jean-Jacques Sempé in Le Moustique and Sud-Ouest and Pilote magazines. In 1956, Goscinny began a collaboration with Tintin magazine, he wrote some short stories for Jo Angenot and Albert Weinberg, worked on Signor Spaghetti with Dino Attanasio, Monsieur Tric with Bob de Moor, Prudence Petitpas with Maurice Maréchal, Globul le Martien and Alphonse with Tibet, Strapontin with Berck and Modeste et Pompon with André Franquin. An early creation with Uderzo, Oumpah-pah, was adapted for serial publication in Tintin from 1958-1962. In addition, Goscinny appeared in the magazines Vaillant. In 1959, the Édifrance/Édipresse syndicate started the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Pilote. Goscinny became one of the most productive writers for the magazine. In the magazine's first issue, he launched Astérix, with Uderzo; the series remains popular worldwide. Goscinny restarted the series Le Petit Nicolas and Jehan Pistolet, now called Jehan Soupolet.
Goscinny began Jacquot le Mousse and Tromblon et Bottaclou with Godard. The magazine was bought by Georges Dargaud in 1960, Goscinny became editor-in-chief, he began new series like Les Divagations de Monsieur Sait-Tout, La Potachologie Illustrée, Les Dingodossiers and La Forêt de Chênebeau. With Tabary, he launched Calife Haroun El Poussah in Record, a series, continued in Pilote as Iznogoud. With Raymond Macherot he created Pantoufle for Spirou. Goscinny married Gilberte Pollaro-Millo in 1967. In 1968 their daughter Anne Goscinny, who became an author, was born. Goscinny died at 51, in Paris of cardiac arrest on 5 November 1977, during a routine stress test at his doctor's office, he was buried in the Jewish Cemetery of Nice. In accordance with his will, most of his money was transferred to the chief rabbinate of France. After Goscinny's death, Uderzo began to write Asterix himself and continued the series, although at a much slower pace, until passing the series over in 2011 to Jean-Y