Zinal is a village in Switzerland, located in the municipality of Anniviers in the canton of Valais. With the Dent Blanche, four additional 4, 000-metre peaks are located around the valley, Weisshorn, the village is a typical Swiss ski resort with 120 km of ski slopes and 19.5 km of cross-country skiing. In summer the area has 300 km of marked trails and some mountain huts such as the Grand Mountet Hut in the middle of glaciers, media related to Zinal at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Zmutt is a small village in the municipality of Zermatt, Switzerland, situated at 1936 m in the Zmutt Valley west of Zermatt. The village chapel is dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria, patroness of the Valais, the valley passes the northern slope of the Matterhorn and terminates in the Zmutt Glacier on the border to Italys Aosta Valley. The Zmutt dam at 46°0′28″N 7°42′34″E, constructed in 1964, has a height of 74 m and this dam is fed by waters from the Bis and Gorner Glacier
Belaying refers to a variety of techniques climbers use to exert tension on a climbing rope so that a falling climber does not fall very far. The term belay means the place where the belayer is anchored, this is typically a ledge, but may be a hanging belay, where the belayer is suspended from protection in the rock. In a typical climbing situation, one end of the rope is fixed to the harness of the climber, using either a Rewoven Figure Eight, the rope passes through climbing protection, which is fixed into the rock. Attachment to the rocks may be via bolts that are fixed into the rock, or by traditional protection that the climber places. The rope runs through the protection to a person called the belayer. The belayer wears a harness that has a device attached. The rope threads through the belay device, by altering the position of the end of the rope, the belayer can vary the amount of tension on the rope. In one position, the rope runs freely through the belay device, in another position, it can easily be held without moving, because the tension on the rope is so great.
This is called locking off the rope, if the climber climbs three feet higher than the last piece of protection in the rock, and falls, the rope allows him to fall the three feet to the protection, and another three feet below that. If they fall any further, rope is pulled upwards through the protection from the belayer below, because the belayer generally keeps the rope locked off, the climbers fall should be arrested and they are left suspended, but safe, somewhere below the protection. A dynamic rope, which has some stretch in it, is used so that the climber is not brought to a sudden jarring stop. Some climbers choose static ropes for abseiling/rapelling because its easier to use, while the task of belaying is typically assigned to a companion who stays at the bottom, self-belaying is possible as an advanced technical climbing technique. The person climbing is said to be on belay when one of these methods is used. Belaying is a part of the climbing system. A correct belaying method lets the belayer hold the weight of the climber with relatively little force.
By using a mixture of belaying angle and hand-grip on the rope, the belayer should keep the rope locked off in the belay device whenever the climber is not moving. As the climber moves on the climb, the belayer must make sure that the climber has the amount of rope by paying out or pulling in excess rope. If the climber falls, they free-fall the distance of the slack or unprotected rope before the friction applied by the belayer starts to slow their descent
Lord Francis Douglas
Lord Francis William Bouverie Douglas was a novice British mountaineer. After sharing in the first ascent of the Matterhorn, he died in a fall on the way down from the summit and he was an uncle of Oscar Wildes lover Lord Alfred Douglas, and a younger brother of John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry. In 1858, Douglass father, Lord Queensberry, died in what was reported as a shooting accident, in 1862, his mother, Lady Queensberry, converted to Roman Catholicism and took her children to live in Paris. Douglas was educated at the Edinburgh Academy, at the beginning of 1865, the Matterhorn was still unconquered, and more than one assault on it was planned. One such group consisted of Douglas, Edward Whymper, and their guide Peter Taugwalder, Whymper had already made several unsuccessful attempts on the mountain. At 4,30 a. m. on 13 July, a party of seven men, led by Whymper, set off for the Matterhorn under a clear sky, Douglas and Hadow, plus Taugwalder and son. They climbed past the Schwarzsee to a plateau where they camped, the Italians, led by Carrel, had camped at a height of about 4000 meters on the Lion Ridge.
On 14 July, Whympers party proceeded to a successful first ascent by the Hörnli route, however, on the way down, Hadow fell, knocking down Croz, and dragging Hudson and Douglas, connected by a rope. The four fell to their deaths on the Matterhorn Glacier 1,400 metres below, three of the bodies lost were found, but not Douglass. Whymper described the deaths as follows, The rival party of Italian alpinists reached the Matterhorns summit three days later, the deaths of Douglas, Croz and Hudson led to years of recriminations and debate, many blaming Whymper, others suggesting sabotage and even murder. The coroner in Zermatt asked few searching questions, and the fraternity was deeply divided over the matter until long after the deaths of all concerned. The incident is seen as marking the end of the Golden age of alpinism, thirty years on, as the father of Lord Alfred Douglas, he became the man who brought down Oscar Wilde. Their sister Lady Florence Dixie came to attention, as a traveller, war correspondent, writer.
Their brother Lord James Douglas suffered for years from depression and alcoholism. New York City, Charles Scribners Sons, the First Descent of the Matterhorn. Condensed as Ascent of the Matterhorn
It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system onto a 3D globe. It was originally available with three different licenses, but has since reduced to just two, Google Earth and Google Earth Pro, which is now free and is intended for commercial use. The third original option, Google Earth Plus, has been discontinued. The product, re-released as Google Earth in 2005, is available for use on computers running Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X10.3.9 and above, Linux kernel,2.6 or later. Google Earth is available as a plugin which was released on May 28,2008. It was available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28,2008, as a free download from the App Store. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google added the imagery from the Earth database to their web-based mapping software, as of October 2011, Google Earth has been downloaded more than a billion times. Google Earth displays satellite images of varying resolution of the Earths surface, Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters.
Most areas in Google Earth are only shown in 2D aerial imagery, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASAs Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This means one can view almost the entire earth in three dimensions, since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage. Google Earth allows users to search for addresses for some countries, enter coordinates, some people use the applications to add their own data, making them available through various sources, such as the Bulletin Board Systems or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client, Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language. In December 2006, Google Earth added a new layer called Geographic Web that includes integration with Wikipedia, in Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates.
There is a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World, More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. Google announced on May 30,2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio, in March 2010, Google removed the Geographic Web layer. The Panoramio layer became part of the layers and the Wikipedia layer was placed in the More layer. In Google Earth v4.2 a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature, starting with v4.3 it is no longer hidden. The flight simulator could be accessed by holding down the keys Ctrl, initially the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Cirrus SR-22 were the only aircraft available, and they could be used with only a few airports
St. Niklaus, Switzerland
St. Niklaus is a village and a municipality in the Mattertal, part of the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. St. Niklaus is first mentioned in 1233 as chousun, in 1272 it was mentioned as ecclesia Sancti Nicholai de Chouson, Gebreitun de Gazun,1388 in villa sti nicolai de chosun, niu a fr Saint-Nicolas. Josef Marie Lochmatter, his best friend Peter Knubel, his brother-in-law Alois Pollinger, and Josef Imboden and they had a monopoly on Matterhorn ascents. Moreover, as the first Swiss guide, Peter Knubel climbed a mountain outside the Alps in 1874, Alois Pollinger invented the double-rope system of descent with. He used this technique with success at the Ridge of Ferpècle, Josef Imboden was the first Swiss to ascend a 6,000 meter-high in the Himalayas in 1883, where we find the highest mountains in the world. The fathers trained the sons early in their expeditions. The initiators of the new school came out of their ranks for the time, a fact that gave a new input to alpinism.
They werent satisfied to climb a mountain, but they always chose more and more difficult routes. They were the first ski-guides and were pioneers overseas, the mountain guides of St. Niklaus have effected about 300 first ascents a little bit everywhere in the world. In 1995 a monument for all guides of St. Niklaus was built, moreover, in 2000 a museum of the mountain guides was opened in St. Niklaus. St. Niklaus has an area, as of 2011, of 89.3 square kilometers, of this area,9. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 21. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 67. 2% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district. It is the settlement in the Matter valley. It consists of the settlements of Riedmatten, Stalu, Ze Schwidernu, Herbriggen, Breitmatten on the valley floor and the alpine settlement of Gasenried on the eastern slope. St Niklaus sits in the Mattertal, the valley that runs from Stalden to Zermatt. There are several footpath nets for Alpine hikers leading up on the mountains, the closest hut is the Topali hut at the west side of the village.
The Bordier hut at the east side can be accessed easily from St Niklaus, the highest mountain close to St Niklaus is Brunegghorn, reaching almost 4,000 m. In 1866 the municipality was created through the merger of St. Niklaus Dorf, the municipality is a stop on section of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn between Visp railway station and Zermatt railway station
The Swiss Alps extend over both the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps, encompassing an area sometimes called Central Alps. The Swiss Alps comprise almost all the highest mountains of the Alps, such as Dufourspitze, the Dom, the Liskamm, the Weisshorn, the other following major summits can be found in this list of mountains of Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history, the region north of St Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. The Alps cover 65% of Switzerlands total 41,285 square kilometres surface area, making it one of the most alpine countries. The glaciers of the Swiss Alps cover an area of 1,220 square kilometres — 3% of the Swiss territory, the Swiss Alps are situated south of the Swiss Plateau and north of the national border. The limit between the Alps and the runs from Vevey on the shores of Lake Geneva to Rorschach on the shores of Lake Constance, passing close to the cities of Thun.
The not well defined regions in Switzerland that lie on the margin of the Alps, the Swiss Prealps are mainly made of limestone and they generally do not exceed 2,500 metres. The Alpine cantons are Valais, Graubünden, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Obwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg and Zug. The countries with which Switzerland shares mountain ranges of the Alps are, Italy, the Alps are usually divided into two main parts, the Western Alps and Eastern Alps, whose division is along the Rhine from Lake Constance to the Splügen Pass. The western ranges occupy the greatest part of Switzerland while the more numerous eastern ranges are smaller and are all situated in the canton of Graubünden. The latter are part of the Central Eastern Alps, except the Ortler Alps which belong to the Southern Limestone Alps, the Pennine and Bernina Range are the highest ranges of the country, they contain respectively 38,9 and 1 summit over 4000 metres. The lowest range is the Appenzell Alps culminating at 2,500 metres, Western Alps Eastern Alps The north side of the Swiss Alps is drained by the Rhône, Rhine and Inn while the south side is mainly drained by the Ticino.
The rivers on the empty into the Mediterranean and Black Sea. The major triple watersheds in the Alps are located within the country, they are, Piz Lunghin, Witenwasserenstock, between the Witenwasserenstock and Piz Lunghin runs the European Watershed separating the basin of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The European watershed lies in fact only partially on the main chain, Switzerland possesses 6% of Europes fresh water, and is sometimes referred to as the water tower of Europe. Since the highest dams are located in Alpine regions, many mountain lakes are artificial and are used as hydroelectric reservoirs. Some large artificial lakes can be found above 2,300 m, the melting of low-altitude glaciers can generate new lakes, such as the 0.25 km² large Triftsee which formed between 2002–2003. The following table gives the area above 2000 m and 3000 m
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
Adolphus Warburton Moore
Adolphus Warburton Moore was a British civil servant and mountaineer. The son of Major John Arthur Moore and Sophia Stewart Yates, Moore was an India Office official from 1858–1887, holding the role of Assistant Secretary and he was private secretary to Lord Randolph Churchill. Moore made a first ascent during his first visit to the Alps in 1862, moores first ascents include,23 July 1862, Fiescherhorn with H. B. Moores description of the Brenva ascent is, according to Claire Engel, both Pic Moore and Col Moore on the Brenva face side of Mont Blanc are named after him. According to F. S. W. Moore, situated between the foot of the Brenva ridge and a miniature peak now known as the Pic Moore, the Alps In 1864, A Private Journal, Basil Blackwell,1939
The Zinalrothorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. Its name comes from the village of Zinal lying on the north side, when it was first climbed in 1864 the mountain was known locally as Moming. The Zinalrothorn is one of the high summits separating the Matter valley on the east, the summit of the Weisshorn is located 5 km to the north and the Dent Blanche 7 km to the west. At the western foot of the lies the large Zinal Glacier and, on the northern side. LEpaule is a minor summit lying at the base of the northern ridge, the villages of Täsch and Zermatt are the closest while Zinal on the north-west is located further. The first ascent was made on 22 August 1864 via the ridge by Leslie Stephen and Florence Crauford Grove with guides Jakob Anderegg. They left Zinal at 1 a. m. and ascended the Zinal Glacier, the reached the shoulder from the ridge connecting the Blanc de Moming at the base of the northern ridge at 9 a. m. The traverse of the ridge to the summit took them 2 hours, the first winter and ski ascent was by Marcel Kurz and T.
Theytaz on 7 February 1914. In the 1880s Mrs Aubrey Le Blond, the first president of the Ladies Alpine Club, to preserve her modesty, she made the decision to climb the mountain a second time to retrieve it rather than return to Zermatt in trousers