Nätschen is a mountain location and ski area above Andermatt, in the Canton of Uri, Switzerland. Higher up on Nätschen the mountain is known as Gütsch, its highest point is 2,344 m. It is one of the mountains in the Gotthard Oberalp Arena, as is Gemsstock, on the other side of Andermatt, it has 11 ski runs, totaling 21 km of ski pistes, 4 ski lifts, including a Detachable 4-man Chairlift. Nätschen's lifts are powered by 3 wind turbines, two of which were installed in late 2010, the other in 2004; these turbines are all made by Enercon. Nätschen has a railway station, run by the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn, between Andermatt and Disentis/Mustér. Nätschen has a 2-man chairlift. Here you can choose to Go down an easy run Go down an intermediate run Go down an off-piste run Go up a detachable 4-man chairliftIf you choose to go up more, there is An easy run 2 off-piste runs 3 expert runs 2 intermediate runs Nätschen has 4 ski lifts, all made by Garaventa; because Nätschen is low down, south-west facing, all of its lifts and runs all close early for the summer season, sometimes as early as the start of March.
None of its lifts are open in the summer. In 2009 plans to overhaul, replace and insert new ski lifts and runs on Naetschen were announced; this will be part of Orascom Hotels and Development's Andermatt project to make Andermatt a large holiday resort. These plans include Several new ski lifts A new 8-man gondola from the village up to the middle of Nätschen A new combined installation from the middle of Nätschen to the top A connection with the Oberalp/Sedrun ski area with a three lifts; these were both Enercon E-44 models. The new lifts will be made by Swedish company SkiStar. In 2009 plans to connect Nätschen's ski area with the Oberalp/Sedrun ski area were announced; this will be done by having 3 ski lifts, two detachable 4-man chairlifts and an 8-man gondola, 20 km of ski pistes. Most of these pistes will be intermediate/red runs, but with a few easy/blue runs and expert/black runs; the runs will go to the Oberalppass station. The T-bar at Oberalppass station will be replaced by a detachable 6-man chairlift.
There are plans to construct a gondola running from Göschenen to the top of Naetschen. This will allow for quicker, easier access from other areas, it will mean Andermatt will not have as much traffic as previously. If arriving from Göschenen, it would save half an hour of time than having to go up to Andermatt, it will be easier to get onto the slopes. Nätschen railway station is owned and served by the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn, it has one platform, a passing track for trains which need to pass each other — a common occurrence given that the line is all single track, the trains are running at a tight schedule. Public trains are operated every half-hour each direction; the station sees Glacier Express trains and car shuttle trains passing through it. The station has a waiting room. In November 2012 Andermatt and Nätschen appeared on the British television series The Gadget Show. Presenters Jason Bradbury and Pollyanna Woodward were testing electric bicycles and several mobile phone photo editing applications, on the hills of Nätschen.
Andermatt Gemsstock Gotthard Oberalp Arena Canton of Uri Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn List of ski areas and resorts in Switzerland List of wind turbines in Switzerland
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world's mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have played a key role in trade and both human and animal migration throughout Earth's history. At lower elevations it may be called a hill pass; the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world appears to be Mana Pass, located in the Himalayas on the border between India and Tibet, China. Mountain passes make use of a gap, saddle, or col. A topographic saddle is analogous to the mathematical concept of a saddle surface, with a saddle point marking the highest point between two valleys and the lowest point along a ridge. On a topographic map, passes are characterized by contour lines with an hourglass shape, which indicates a low spot between two higher points. Passes are found just above the source of a river, constituting a drainage divide. A pass may be short, consisting of steep slopes to the top of the pass, or may be a valley many kilometres long, whose highest point might only be identifiable by surveying.
Roads have long been built through passes, as well as railways more recently. Some high and rugged passes may have tunnels bored underneath a nearby mountainside to allow faster traffic flow throughout the year; the top of a pass is the only flat ground in the area, is a high vantage point. In some cases this makes it a preferred site for buildings. If a national border follows a mountain range, a pass over the mountains is on the border, there may be a border control or customs station, a military post as well. For instance Argentina and Chile share the world's third-longest international border, 5,300 kilometres long; the border runs north -- south with a total of 42 mountain passes. On a road over a pass, it is customary to have a small roadside sign giving the name of the pass and its elevation above mean sea level; as well as offering easy travel between valleys, passes provide a route between two mountain tops with a minimum of descent. As a result, it is common for tracks to meet at a pass.
Passes traditionally were places for trade routes, cultural exchange, military expeditions etc. A typical example is the Brenner pass in the Alps; some mountain passes above the tree line have problems with snow drift in the winter. This might be alleviated by building the road a few meters above the ground, which will make snow blow off the road. There are many words for pass in the English-speaking world. In the United States, pass is common in the West, the word gap is common in the southern Appalachians, notch in parts of New England, saddle in northern Idaho. Scotland has the Gaelic term bealach. In the Lake District of north-west England, the term hause is used, although the term pass is common—one distinction is that a pass can refer to a route, as well as the highest part thereof, while a hause is that highest part flattened somewhat into a high-level plateau. There are thousands of named passes around the world, some of which are well-known, such as the Great St. Bernard Pass at 2,473 metres in the Alps, the Chang La at 5,360 metres, the Khardung La at 5,359 metres in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The roads at Mana Pass at 5,610 metres and Marsimik La at 5,582 metres, on and near the China-India border appear to be world's two highest motorable passes. Khunjerab Pass between Pakistan and China at 4,693 metres is a high-altitude motorable mountain pass. Media related to Mountain passes at Wikimedia Commons
Car shuttle train
A car shuttle train, or car-carrying train, is a shuttle train used to transport accompanied cars, also other types of road vehicles, for a short distance. Car shuttle trains operate on lines passing through a rail tunnel and connecting two places not accessible to each other by road. On car shuttle train services, the occupants of the road vehicles being carried on the train stay with their vehicle throughout the rail journey; as such, car shuttle train services are to be contrasted with Auto Motorail services. Unlike a car shuttle train, an Auto Train or Motorail train is a passenger train on which, except in France, passengers can take their car or automobile along with them. On Auto Trains or Motorail trains, passengers are carried in normal passenger cars or in sleeping cars on longer journeys, while the cars or automobiles are loaded separately into autoracks, car carriers, or flatcars that form part of the same train. Böckstein, Salzburg – Mallnitz-Obervellach, Carinthia: Autoschleuse Tauern Railway Tunnel operated by the Austrian Federal Railways Accompanied road vehicles are carried in closed railway wagons through the Channel Tunnel between Sangatte and Cheriton.
The SyltShuttle operated by DB AutoZug transports road vehicles on railway wagons over the Hindenburgdamm from Niebüll, Schleswig-Holstein to Westerland in Sylt. Car shuttle trains operate on the Bohinj Railway between Bohinjska Bistrica and Most na Soči through the Bohinj Tunnel to Podbrdo; the following car shuttle trains operate in Switzerland: Andermatt - Sedrun: Oberalp Brig - Iselle di Trasquera: Simplon Kandersteg - Goppenstein: Lötschberg Kandersteg - Iselle di Trasquera: Lötschberg and Simplon Oberwald - Realp: Furka Base Tunnel Selfranga - Sagliains: Vereina Tunnel until 2011 Thusis - Samedan: Albula Railway, including the Albula Tunnel Until the opening of the Gotthard Road Tunnel in 1980, there was a car shuttle train through the Gotthard Rail Tunnel between Göschenen und Airolo. Following the catastrophic fire in the road tunnel on 24 October 2001, this car shuttle train resumed operations for a few weeks; the Great Western Railway introduced a car shuttle service in 1924 to transport cars and their passengers through the Severn Tunnel between Pilning and Severn Tunnel Junction, which operated from 1926 until 1966.
The service survived until it was made redundant by the Severn Bridge in 1966. Motorail operated on several British Rail routes from 1955 to 2005. From the 1960s to 2000, the town of Whittier, Alaska could be reached by vehicle by way of a train shuttle through the Whittier tunnel. In 2000, the expanded Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel opened to shared rail traffic. Media related to Transport of vehicles by rail at Wikimedia Commons Urban commuter concept: increased range for electric vehicles by using trains BLS Lötschberg Car Transport DB Autozug SyltShuttle Eurotunnel ÖBB Autoschleuse Tauernbahn RhB Car transporter - Albula / Vereina SBB Autoverlad Brig – Iselle
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Glacier Express is an express train connecting railway stations of the two major mountain resorts of Zermatt and St. Moritz in the center of the Swiss Alps; the train is not an "express" in the sense of being a high-speed train, but rather, in the sense that it provides a one-seat ride for an eight-hours-long journey, omits stops made by local trains. The Glacier Express is known as the slowest express train in the world; as St. Moritz and Zermatt are home to two well-known mountains, the Glacier Express is said to travel from Matterhorn to Piz Bernina; the journey from Zermatt starts at the dead end of a Alpine valley, the Mattertal, just below the world-renowned Matterhorn at an elevation of 1,606 m before it descends to the huge valley of the Valais in Brig. It traverses the 291-kilometre-long journey through the center of the Swiss Alps, over 291 bridges, through 91 tunnels, such as the 15.4 km-long Furka Tunnel at an elevation of 1,500 m to circumvent the Furka Pass, makes an intermediate stop at Andermatt on a secluded high Alpine valley, just to traverse its highest point on the Oberalp Pass at 2,033 m in order to descend to its lowest point at Chur at 585 m.
From Chur, the capital of the canton of Graubünden, the GEX backtracks to higher altitudes again in order to reach the resort St. Moritz in a further valley to the south. Before traversing the Albula Range by a tunnel at 1,800 metres, in Filisur travelers can change to a connecting train to reach Davos to the east. Since 2017 the train is operated by the Glacier Express AG, a cooperation jointly owned by the former operators Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn and Rhaetian Railway. For much of its journey, it passes along and through the World Heritage Site known as the Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes; the first Glacier Express started on 30 June 1930 07:30 in Zermatt. It was operated by three railway companies: the Visp-Zermatt-Bahn, the Furka Oberalp Bahn, the RhB. Since 2003, the train has been operated by RhB and the MGB, which arose from a merger between the BVZ and the FO. Since 2017 the Glacier Express AG, owned by the two former operators, runs the train of the same name; the entire line is metre gauge, 23.9 km-large portion of it use a rack-and-pinion system both for ascending steep grades and to control descent.
The completion of the final portion of the FO in 1926 opened up the Cantons of Valais and Graubünden to further tourist development. In particular, a pathway was laid for the introduction of Kurswagen between Brig and Chur, between Brig and St. Moritz. In early June 1930, the Visp–Zermatt Bahn was extended to Brig by the opening of a metre gauge line along the Rhone Valley between Visp and Brig. For the first time, it was feasible to operate through coaches all the way from Zermatt to St. Moritz and return. On 25 June 1930, the first train of such coaches set out from Zermatt to St. Moritz, under the name Glacier Express; the new train's name honoured the Rhone Glacier, near Gletsch, on the Furka Pass. Until 1982, the Glacier Express operated only in the summer months, because the Furka Pass and the Oberalp Pass were both snowed over in winter; the train was made up of first to third class salon and passenger coaches, supplied by all three of the participating railway companies. Between Chur and Disentis/Mustér, passengers could enjoy a hot lunch in a Mitropa dining car.
From 1933, the Glacier Express through coaches were attached to normal passenger trains between Brig and Zermatt. In the earliest years of the Glacier Express, electric locomotives were used to haul the Glacier Express on the BVZ and the RhB, but steam locomotives were used on the FO; that changed in 1941-1942, when overhead catenary was installed on the FO, enabling electric operation for the full length of the route. However, no through trains were operated between 1943 and 1946, due to World War II. Upon the resumption of daily through trains in 1948, the dining car service was extended from Disentis/Mustér to the top of the Oberalp Pass. Between the 1950s and the 1970s, both the BVZ and the RhB introduced new locomotive classes that, when attached to the Glacier Express, enabled reductions in schedule times. Meanwhile, the dining car service was extended further, to Andermatt. In 1981 a Glacier Express era came to an end, with the final closure for the winter of the FO line over the Furka Pass and through the Furka Summit Tunnel, between Oberwald and Gletsch.
In June 1982, that FO line was replaced by the newly opened Furka Base Tunnel. As a consequence, the Glacier Express not only became disconnected from its namesake Rhone Glacier, but could now, for the first time, be operated on a year-round basis. At that time, the BVZ, FO and RhB took the opportunity to relaunch the Glacier Express as a tourist attraction. Promotional material focused on the train's status as "the slowest express train in the world", covering 291 km or 181 mi, 91 tunnels, over 291 bridges. A special promotional wine glass on a sloping base emphasised the steepness of some parts of the route. Passenger numbers rose from 20000 in 1982 to over 53000 in 1983, to just over 80000 in 1984. In 1985 the Glacier Express timetable was revised. Between 1986 and 1993, the BVZ and the FO invested nearly 40 million Swiss francs in constructing 18 new first class panorama cars for the train. By 2005 more than 250000 passengers were travelling on the Glacier Express each year. In 2006 a few scenes of the documentary film The Alps were shot inside the train, further new panorama cars were added to the Glacier Express passenger car fleet.
On 7 July 2008, the Albula Railway and the Bern