France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Arzfeld is a municipality in the district Bitburg-Prüm, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated near the border with Luxembourg, approx. 20 km north-west of Bitburg and 25 km south-east of Sankt-Vith. Arzfeld is the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde Arzfeld
Trier known in English as Treves and Triers, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. Founded by the Celts in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was conquered by the Romans in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum. Trier may be the oldest city in Germany, it is the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop-Elector of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the archbishop-electorate controlled land from the French border to the Rhine; the Archbishop-Elector had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire. With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz and Koblenz.
The nearest major cities are Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, Koblenz. The University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD, which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier, the Academy of European Law are all based in Trier, it is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it is central to the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux, Rhineland-Palatinate, Wallonia; the first traces of human settlement in the area of the city show evidence of linear pottery settlements dating from the early Neolithic period. Since the last pre-Christian centuries, members of the Celtic tribe of the Treveri settled in the area of today's Trier; the city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum. The historical record describes the Roman Empire subduing the Treveri in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum in 16 BC.
The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities honoring the first emperor Augustus. The city became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul. In the 4th century, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire with a population around 75,000 and as much as 100,000; the Porta Nigra dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. Sometime between 395 and 418 in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture from Trier to Arles; the city was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae and armor and woolen uniforms for the troops, clothing for the civil service, high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans along a line from north of Cologne to the coast at Boulogne through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens.
The Franks seized Trier from Roman administration in 459. In 870, it became part of Eastern Francia. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages; the bishops of the city grew powerful and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials were held the largest witch trial in European history, it was one of the four largest witch trials in Germany alongside the Fulda witch trials, the Würzburg witch trial, the Bamberg witch trials. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, was as such the biggest mass execution in Europe in peacetime.
This counts only those executed within the city itself, the real number of executions, counting those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century; the city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German
Spangdahlem Air Base
Spangdahlem Air Base is a NATO air base with USAF tenant constructed between 1951 and 1953 and located near the small German town of Spangdahlem 30 km NNE of the city of Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate. Spangdahlem is home of the 52d Fighter Wing, which maintains and employs Lockheed Martin Block 50 F-16CM/DM. In total, 4,800 military personnel, 840 German nationals and 200 US contractors are working at the base. 480th Fighter Squadron: F-16CM/F-16DM Group consists of three squadrons: 52d Aircraft Maintenance Squadron 52d Maintenance Squadron 52d Maintenance Operations Group consists of civil engineer, contracting, logistics readiness, security forces and force support squadrons: 52d Civil Engineer Squadron 52d Communications Squadron 52d Contracting Squadron 52d Logistics Readiness Squadron 52d Security Forces Squadron 52d Force Support Squadron 470th Air Base Squadron, Germany Consists of aerospace medicine, medical operations and medical support squadrons: 52d Aerospace Medicine 52d Dental Squadron 52d Medical Operations Squadron 52d Medical Support Squadron Provides four capable U.
S. munitions support squadrons responsible for the ownership, custody and release of war reserve munitions supporting Belgian, Dutch and Italian air forces: 52d Munitions Maintenance Group 701st Munitions Support Squadron, Kleine Brogel Air Base, Belgium 702d Munitions Support Squadron, Büchel Air Base, Germany 703d Munitions Support Squadron, Volkel Air Base, Netherlands 704th Munitions Support Squadron, Ghedi Air Base, ItalyThe wing supports the Supreme Allied Commander Europe with mission-ready personnel and systems providing expeditionary air power. The wing supports contingencies and operations other than war. In addition, Air Mobility Command supports cargo and passenger traffic as part of its airlift mission. With the closure of the Rhein-Main Air Base in 2005, the Rhein-Main Transition Program was initiated to transfer all its former transport capacities to Ramstein Air Base and Spangdahlem AB; the Air Mobility Command 726th Air Mobility Squadron at Spangdahlem supports cargo and passenger traffic as part of its airlift mission, providing command and control and aerial port capability to all AMC aircraft transiting their ramp.
The 726th AMS utilizes various aircraft maintenance equipment, de-icers, mission vehicles and aircraft loaders. The squadron is capable of handling every type of aircraft in the AMC inventory, from C-17s and C-5s to KC-10s and KC-135s. In November 2005, the first C-17 Globemaster III aircraft arrived at Spangdahlem. After emerging as the victors in the Second World War, the Western Allies occupied western Germany under the terms of the Potsdam agreement. With the creation of NATO in response to Cold War tensions in Europe, USAFE wanted its vulnerable fighter units in West Germany moved west of the Rhein River to provide greater air defense warning time. France agreed to air base sites within its zone of occupation in the Rheinland-Palatinate. Spangdahlem base was constructed between 1951 and 1953 at a cost of $27,000,000 using French and German contractors, working under the supervision of a French government agency; the initial USAF military presence began on 1 September 1952 with the arrival of the 7352d Air Base Squadron on 1 September 1952 from Fürstenfeldbruck Air Base near Munich.
The mission of the 7532d ABS was to prepare the facility for an operational wing. On 10 May 1953 the 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing was reassigned to Spangdahlem AB from Toul-Rosieres Air Base, France; the base population at this time totaled more than 1,900 personnel. Operational squadrons of the 10th TRW were: 1st Tactical Reconnaissance RB-26C, RB-57A 38th Tactical Reconnaissance RF-80A, RF-80FUpon its arrival at Spangdahlem AB, the 10 TRW operated Lockheed RF-80A Shooting Star for daylight aerial recon and the Douglas RB-26C Invader for night recon missions; the RB-26s were replaced in October 1954 by Martin RB-57A Canberras and the RF-80s in July 1955 by Republic Aviation RF-84F Thunderjets. In 1957 the RB-57s and RF-84s were transferred to Chateauroux-Deols Air Depot and the 1st and 38th were re-equipped with the Douglas RB-66 Destroyer. Three additional squadrons, the 19th and 30th and 42d Tactical Reconnaissance were assigned to the 10th TRW from the 66th TRW, flying variants of the RB-66.
19th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron RB/EB-66 30th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron RB-66B 42d Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron RB/WB-66The 19th TRS operated from RAF Sculthorpe united Kingdom during 1958, moving to Spangdahlem in 1959. The 42nd TRS flew from RAF Chelveston and remained there as a detachment of the 10th TRW. On 25 August 1959, the 10th TRW ended its six-year stay at Spangdahlem and moved to RAF Alconbury, United Kingdom. On 25 August 1959, the 49th Tactical Fighter Wing moved to Spangdahlem AB from the Etain-Rouvres Air Base and assumed host unit duties. In 1957, the French Government decreed that all nuclear weapons and delivery aircraft had to be removed from French soil; as a result, the nuclear-capable North American F-100C/D Super Sabres of the 49th TFW had to be removed from France. Squadrons of the 49th TFW at Spangdahlem were: 7th Tactical Fighter 8th Tactical Fighter 9th Tactical Fighter The 49th TFW flew F-100s until 1961 when it converted to the Republic F-105D/F Thunderchief known as the "Thud".
The 49th TFW was only the third USAF unit to operate the F-105. The 49th received two Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards for F-105 operations at Spangdahlem. On 9 March 1967, the Wing began receiving the McDonnell Douglas F-4D Phantom II; the 49 TFW remained at Sp
Auw bei Prüm
Auw bei Prüm is a municipality in the district of Bitburg-Prüm, in Rhineland-Palatinate, western Germany. Auw-eifel.de official website Auw bei Prüm at www.pruem.de
The town of Wittlich is the seat of the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Its historic town centre and the beauty of the surrounding countryside make the town a centre for tourism in southwest Germany. Wittlich is the middle centre for a feeder area of 56 municipalities in the Eifel and Moselle area with a population of 64,000. With some 18,000 inhabitants, Wittlich is the biggest town between Trier and Koblenz and the fourth biggest between Mainz and the Belgian border; the town lies in the South Eifel on the River Lieser in a side valley of the Moselle on the northern edge of the Wittlich Depression. This stretch of country is bounded in the west by the low mountains of the Moselle Eifel and in the east by the Moselle valley. Wittlich's Stadtteile or Ortsbezirke, besides the main centre called Wittlich, are Bombogen, Dorf, Lüxem and Wengerohr, each of, a self-administering municipality; until 7 June 1969. The oldest known remnants of human settlement activity come from the third millennium BC.
In Roman times there stood right on the River Lieser, where the autobahn bridge is now, a stately villa rustica or countryside villa. In 1065, Wittlich had its first documentary mention. In 1300, Archbishop-Elector Diether von Nassau of Trier granted Wittlich town rights, it had long been assumed, that Wittlich had been granted town rights in 1291, leading to the 700th-anniversary celebrations in 1991. In 1912, Germany's first youth prison was built in Wittlich, which still borders on the Justizvollzugsanstalt Wittlich. In 2009, the town of Wittlich was included in the programme Aktive Stadtzentren of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Since some investors have been interested in the town of Wittlich. On 12 November of the same year, the Schlossgalerie was opened, in which C&A, Müller, Ernsting's Family and Depot all have locations. There is still somewhere between 1 500 m ² of available free floor area. In mid March, work began on the project Altstadt, it comprises three new houses in which on the ground floors, there will be 220 m² of storage room and a passage, while upstairs there will be room for medical practices and flats.
Furthermore, there will be an underground garage with 20 parking places. Work is set to finish on this project in mid-2011. Planned for Schlossstraße in Wittlich is a new theatre-cinema with four big and modern cinema halls and one big theatre hall for 600 theatregoers. There is to be 850 m ² of commercial space and 1 500 m ² for flats. A new four-floor building is foreseen for this project, its name will be Schlosstheater. The council is made up of 32 honorary council members, a full-time mayor as chairman. Recent municipal elections have yielded the following results: The German blazon reads: In rotem Feld parallel nebeneinander zwei aufrecht, mit dem Schlüsselbart nach oben voneinander abgekehrte silberne Schlüssel mit übereinandergelegten Griffen, wobei der linke über dem rechten angeordnet ist. Die Mauerkrone ist Zierelement des Wappens: ein Zinnenturm mit offenem Tor in der Mitte zwischen Mauern und Zinnen; the town's arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Gules two keys palewise addorsed, the wards to chief and the bow of the dexter surmounting that of the sinister, ensigning the shield a tower with an open gateway and flanking walls, the whole embattled, of the second.
The German blazon identifies the “left” key as the one that surmounts the other, although the example shown at the town's own website shows the dexter key surmounting the sinister. This may arise from a common misunderstanding about heraldry, in which left and right – or sinister and dexter – are told from the armsbearer's point of view, not the viewer's; the example of the arms shown at the town's own website shows the crenellated tower on top of the escutcheon. This same webpage shows a coat of arms for Wittlich which appeared in the old Coffee Hag albums, it might be described as “Argent two keys per saltire, the wards to chief, the one in bend sinister surmounting the other, azure.” In other words, the field tincture was silver instead of red, the keys were not only blue instead of silver, but crossed to form an X. Whichever way the keys are arranged, they symbolize Saint Peter, the patron saint of the Electorate of Trier, to which Wittlich belonged until 1794; the current tinctures were the ones borne by Trier, whereas the ones in the Coffee Hag image were those borne by the House of Wittelsbach.
The town's first great seal, from the time just after Wittlich had been raised to town, showed a crenellated tower over an open gate between two turrets, each with a roundle high on its wall. The court seal from the early 14th century, on the other hand, showed a two-key charge quite similar to the one in today's arms, thus providing the model for the coat of arms now borne by the town; the crenellated tower on top of the escutcheon was only “rediscovered” much later. Wittlich fosters partnerships with the following places: Boxtel, North Brabant, Netherlands Brunoy, France since 1979 Wellingborough, England, United Kingdom since 1993 Zossen, Teltow-Fläming, Brandenburg since German reunification Old Town Hall on the marketplace with the Alten Rathaus museum for modern art, it was the Georg-Meistermann-Museum until the city held an exhibition there by Nazi artist Hans Schell. The Meistermann family withdrew his name in protest but many of his great works are still there - including the Four Horseme
Badem is a municipality in the district of Bitburg-Prüm, in Rhineland-Palatinate, western Germany