Upper Hungary is the usual English translation of Felvidék, the Hungarian term for the area, the northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, now present-day Slovakia. The region has been called Felső-Magyarország. During the Ottoman wars, Upper Hungary meant only the northeastern parts of the Hungarian Kingdom; the northwestern regions belonged to Lower Hungary. Sometime during the 18th or 19th centuries, Upper Hungary began to imply the whole northern regions of the kingdom; the population of Upper Hungary was mixed and consisted of Slovaks, Hungarians and Ruthenians. The first complex demographic data are from the 18th century, in which Slovaks constituted the majority population in Upper Hungary. Slovaks called this territory "Slovensko", which term appears in written documents from the 15th century, but it was not defined and the region inhabited by Slovaks held no distinct legal, constitutional, or political status within Upper Hungary. There are different meanings: 1; the older Hungarian term Felső-Magyarország formally referred to what is today Slovakia in the 16th-18th centuries and informally to all the northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century.
2. There are some 16th-century sources which refer to the Slovak-inhabited territory of the Kingdom of Hungary as "Sclavonia" or "Slováky", names that distinguish the region ethnically as well as geographically.3. The Hungarian Felvidék has had several informal meanings: In the 19th century and part of the 18th, it was used: to denote the mountainous northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary as opposed to the southern lowlands more to denote regions or territories situated at a higher altitude than the settlement of the speaker as a synonym for the then-meaning of Felső-Magyarország After World War I, the meaning in the Hungarian language was restricted to Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia, after World War II to Slovakia only. At the same time, the word felvidék remains a common Hungarian noun applied to areas at higher elevations, e.g. Balaton-felvidék, a hilly region and national park adjacent to Lake Balaton. After World War I, the meaning of Felvidék in the Hungarian language was restricted to the Slovakian and Carpathian Ruthenian parts of Czechoslovakia.
Today the term Felvidék is sometimes used in Hungary when speaking about Slovakia, it is used in Hungarian historical literature when speaking about the Middle Ages, i.e. before the name came into existence. The three counties of the region that remained in Hungary after World War I, are never called Upper Hungary today, only Northern Hungary. Any use of the word Felvidék to denote all of modern Slovakia is considered offensive by Slovaks, inappropriate by some Hungarians, but it is now used by the sizeable Hungarian minority in the southern border-zone of Slovakia to identify the Hungarian-majority areas where they live; some of them call themselves felvidéki magyarok, i.e. the "Upland Hungarians." The word felvidék is used as a component of the toponym Balaton-felvidék, describing the hilly area north of Lake Balaton, with no connection to the historical Upper Hungary. The term Upper Hungary occurs in publications on history as a somewhat-anachronistic translation of other, earlier designations denoting the same territory.
Some of the other terms were Partes Danubii septentrionales or Partes regni superiores. The actual name "Upper Hungary" arose from the latter phrase. In the 15th century, the "Somorja, Galgóc, Nyitra, Léva, Rimaszombat, Rozsnyó, Jászó, Kassa, Gálszécs, Nagymihály" line was the northern "boundary" of the Hungarian ethnic area; the Principality of Nitra developed into an independent Slavic state. In the early 9th century, the polity was situated on the north-western territories of present-day Slovakia; the term emerged after the conquest of today's Hungary by the Ottomans in the 16th century when Felső-Magyarország referred to present-day eastern Slovakia and the adjacent territories of today's Hungary and Ukraine that were not occupied by the Ottoman Empire. That territory formed a separate military district within Royal Hungary. At that time, present-day western Slovakia, sometimes the remaining territories of Royal Hungary to the south of it, were called Lower Hungary, it was a separate vassal state of the Ottoman Empire under Imre Thököly in the 1680s.
This usage occurs in many texts up to around 1800 – for example, the renowned mining school of Schemnitz/Selmecbánya/Banská Štiavnica in present-day central Slovakia was founded in "Lower" Hungary in the 18th century and Pozsony was referred to as being in "Lower" Hungary in the late 18th c
The Freikorps Oberland was a free corps in the early years of the Weimar Republic, fighting against Communist and Polish insurgents. It was successful in the 1921 Battle of Annaberg and became the core of the Sturmabteilung in Bavaria while several members turned against the Nazis; the Freikorps was founded in April 1919 by president of Thule Society. The cabinet of Johannes Hoffmann flew from Bavarian Soviet Republic to Bamberg; the military control overtook Major Albert Ritter von Beckh. Most of the volunteers came from Bavaria, therefore the symbol of the Edelweiß was chosen. Direct percursor was the „Kampfbund“ within Thule Society, against the Bavarian Soviet republic. In May 1919 the Freikorps fought against the Bavarian Soviet Republic. Parts of the Freikorps were together with Freikorps Epp Franz Ritter von Epp taken to the Reichswehr brigade 21, they fought in 1920 in the Occupation of the Ruhr; the Freikorps itself was dissolved on 21 October 1919. However, all members went to Organization Escherich.
Therefore, in the Silesian Uprisings 1921 the Freikorps was ready and participated in the conquest of St.&nbsGóra Świętej Anny in Annaberg in Upper Silesia. In Upper Silesia the Freikorps had a propaganda unit, it is supposed they gave the order to carry out the Feme murders in the Weimar Republic and kidnappings. There were close connections between the right organizations in Bavaria; the murderers of Matthias Erzberger, Heinrich Tillessen and Heinrich Schulz, did not only belong to Organization Consul, but to „Arbeitsgemeinschaft Oberland“.. Maybe members of Oberland had to do with the murder of USPD politician Karl Gareis. In summer 1922 the Bund became separated because of the question whether Bund Oberland should be integrated into Bund Bayern und Reich; the civil wing formed Bund Treu Oberland Blücherbund. The military wing was led by veterinarian Friedrich Weber. In 1922 the Bund Oberland had a few hundred members; until November 1923 in Bavaria were around 2000 members. Amongst them were many students, members of free professions, some workers.
Most of the military leaders were young former officers. Most of the members were between 20 and 30 years old and had the experience of fighting either in the World War I or in the fights in Bavaria, Ruhr area or in Upper Silesia, they had enough weapons, however many weapons of the Bund were stored and maintained by the Reichswehr. Maybe the Bund was supported by the father-in-law of Friedrich Weber, national publisher Julius Friedrich Lehmann. Under the guidance of Weber Bund Oberland approached continuously to the radical people under Adolf Hitler and Ernst Röhm. Together with the "Wehrverband Reichsflagge" and the SA the Bund formed in January 1923 the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft vaterländischer Kampfverbände". In September 1923 they joined together with the Nazi Party and more national organizations the "Deutscher Kampfbund". From 25 September 1923, the Kampfbund was guided by Adolf Hitler. On 8 November 1923 the Bund activated many members and participated in the Hitlerputsch. Members of the Bund, led by Ludwig Oestreicher took Jewish people as hostages.
Because of his participation in the coup attempt the Bund Oberland e. V. first was forbidden in Bavaria and at the end of 1923 all over Germany. By act of Gustav Ritter von Kahr the Bund Oberland was dissolved on 9 November 1923. Weber was sent to prison the same day and accused in the Hitler-Process and sentenced to five years in prison. Former members of the Bund co-worked with extreme right terror organization Organisation Consul. On 9. Januar 1924 they killed in French-occupied palatine separatism leader Franz Josef Heinz. After the end of the ban, the Bund was re-established in February 1925. 1930 were differences, because the strong Austrian part voted Austrofascist Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg for leader. After 1945 the old fighters gathered around Ernst Horadam and founded in 1951 the still existing tradition community Kameradschaft Freikorps und Bund Oberland; some authors think. In Schliersee took place till 2006 a church service as a commemorate for the in 1921 fallen of the Freikorps. According to a statement of the president of Landsmannschaft Schlesien the event was controlled by the State Office for the Protection of the Constitution.
Since 2007 the commemorate became much smaller. Friedrich Weber, head of veterinary surgery in Germany the group's leader Richard Arauner, SS-Oberführer Karl Astel, Nazi eugenics Eleonore Baur, SS-Oberführer in KZ Dachau Albert Ritter von Beckh, SS-Gruppenführer Kurt Benson, SS-Oberführer Josef Dietrich, SS-Oberstgruppenführer and Generaloberst der Waffen-SS Hans Dorn, SS-Sturmbannführer, Commanding Suppily Officer Dachau Concentration Camp 1934-1936 Fritz Fischer, historian, SA- and NSDAP-member Karl Gebhardt,SS-Gruppenführer, physician in Ravensbrück concentration camp Franz Gutsmiedl, Reichstag delegate Wilhelm Harster, SS-Brigadeführer Franz Hayler, SS-Gruppenführer Richard Hildebrandt, SS-Obergruppenführer Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer SS and Chef of German Police Hans Hinkel,SS-Gruppenführe, Reichstag delegate Ernst Horadam, SA-Obersturmbannführer Max Humps, SS-Oberführer Friedrich Gustav Jaeger and resistance leader in 20 July plot Rudolf Jordan, SA-Obergruppenführer, Gauleiter of Magdeburg Gerhard Krüger, student leader Max Lebsche, opponent of the Nazi regime Emil Maurice, SS-Standartenf
Zürcher Oberländer shortened to ZOL, is a Swiss German-language daily newspaper, published in Wetzikon. Allmann, founded in 1852 in Hinwil, was the earliest predecessor of the as of today Zürcher Oberländer. Allmann in which Jakob Messikommer published a poem, was adopted by the printing office Buchdruckerei Wetzikon AG, founded by liberals in 1870, renamed in Der Freisinnige, it was daily published from 1912 and merged in 1960 with the "Volksblatt vom Bachtel, founded in 1861. It was called now Zürcher Oberländer, but kept under the chief editors Karl Eckinger and Oskar Fritschi his liberal orientation. Following the acquisition of the newspapers Tagblatt des Distrikts Pfäffikon and the Anzeigers von Uster, ZO reached a leading position in the districts Hinwil, Pfäffikon and Uster; the as before independent Anzeiger von Uster newspaper was integrated as local part of Zürcher Oberländer for the Uster district. The Tamedia AG acquired in 2010 a minority stake of 38%, ZO was integrated into their Zürcher Regionalzeitungen division, claimed to be of compound of the Zürich regional newspapers, in 2011.
1966 the edition occurred 14,330, 23,348 in 1975 and in 2012 32,196 copies. Zürcher Oberländer describes itself journalistic independent, it is the official publication media for 20 municipalities in the districts of Hinwil, Pfäffikon and Uster. Official website Adrian Scherrer: Zürcher Oberländer, Der in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 24 February 2014
Dampfbahn-Verein Zürcher Oberland
The Dampfbahn-Verein Zürcher Oberland is a heritage railway association based in the Swiss canton of Zurich. The association preserves various items of rolling stock, utilising the historic lok remise or engine shed at Uster station, operates the preserved railway between Hinwil and Bauma stations over a section of the former Uerikon to Bauma railway. Media related to Dampfbahn-Verein Zürcher Oberland at Wikimedia Commons The Dampfbahn-Verein Zürcher Oberland web site
Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Speaking, upland refers to ranges of hills up to 500–600 m. Highland is reserved for ranges of low mountains; the best known highlands in the anglosphere are the Scottish Highlands in northern Scotland, the mountainous region north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. The Highland council area is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands and Britain's largest local government area. Many countries have areas that are or unofficially referred to as highlands. Other than Scotland, these include parts of Tibet, Canada, Eritrea, Ghana, Papua New Guinea and Cantabria. Synonymous terms used in other countries include high country, used in New Zealand, New South Wales, Victoria and Southern Queensland in Australia, parts of the United States, used in South Africa and Roof of the World, used for Tibet; the highlands in Australia are above the elevation of 500 metres. These areas receive snowfalls through winter.
Most of the highlands lead up to large alpine or sub-alpine mountainous regions such as the Australian Alps, Snowy Mountains, Great Dividing Range, Northern Tablelands and Blue Mountains. The most mountainous region of Tasmania is the Central Highlands area, which covers most of the central western parts of the state. Many of these areas are elevated alpine regions. A spine of mountains runs the length of the island of New Guinea, forming a populous highlands region; the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka these are rain forests, where the elevation reaches 2,500 metres above sea level. The Sri Lanka montane rain forests represent the montane and submontane moist forests above 1,000 metres in the central highlands and in the Knuckles mountain range. Half of Sri Lanka's endemic flowering plants and 51 percent of the endemic vertebrates are restricted to this ecoregion; the highlands of Iceland cover about 40% of the country and are inhospitable to humans. They are considered to be any land above 500 meters.
Additionally, the mountainous natural region of the Thai highlands is found in Northern Thailand. The Cameron Highlands are a highland hill station in Northern Malaysia. Shillong in India in the state of Meghalaya is a hill station, surrounded by highlands. Officers of the British Raj referred to Shillong as "The Scotland of the East". Highland continents – or terrae – are areas of topographically unstable terrain, with high peaks and valleys, they resemble highlands on Earth. They can be found on Venus, Mercury and the Moon. Planum Highlander
Medel is a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. Medel is first mentioned in 1315 as de valle Mederis. Medel has an area, as of 2006, of 136.2 km2. Of this area, 17.8 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 0.6% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. Before 2017, the municipality was located in the Disentis sub-district of the Surselva district, after 2017 it was part of the Surselva Region, it is located in the Medelserrhein river basin. It includes the 16 km long Medel Valley, it consists of a number of settlements at an elevation of 1,332–1,621 meters. These include: Curaglia, Mutschnengia, Drual/Matergia, Pardé, Fuorns and S. Gions; the municipality includes about 50 abandoned farm houses and summer herding camps, including Pali and Casura. Until 1943 Medel was known as Medels im Oberland. Medel has a population of 384; as of 2008, 1.6% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of -10.1%.
Most of the population speaks Romansh, with German being second Italian third. As of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 51.6 % female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Medel is. Of the adult population, 21 people or 4.5 % of the population are between 29 years old. 79 people or 16.8% are between 30 and 39, 52 people or 11.1% are between 40 and 49, 31 people or 6.6% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 58 people or 12.3% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 69 people or 14.7% are between 70 and 79, there are 33 people or 7.0% who are between 80 and 89 there are 6 people or 1.3% who are between 90 and 99. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP; the next three most popular parties were the SVP, the SP and the FDP. In Medel about 53.7% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Medel has an unemployment rate of 0.7%. As of 2005, there were 85 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 37 businesses involved in this sector.
13 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 5 businesses in this sector. 57 people are employed with 16 businesses in this sector. The historical population is given in the following table: Official website
Elbląg Canal is a canal in Poland, in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, 80.5 km in length, which runs southward from Lake Drużno, to the river Drwęca and lake Jeziorak. It can accommodate small vessels up to 50 tons displacement; the difference in water levels approaches 100 m, is overcome using locks and a remarkable system of inclined planes between lakes. Today it is used for recreational purposes, it is considered one of the most significant monuments related to the history of technology and was named one of the Seven Wonders of Poland. The canal was named one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as designated January 28, 2011, its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland. The canal was designed in 1825–44 by Georg Steenke, carrying out the commission given by the King of Prussia. Construction began in 1844; the difference in height over a 9.5 kilometres or 5.9 miles section of the route between the lakes was too great for building traditional locks. There were four inclined planes with a fifth added replacing five wooden locks.
Built under the name Oberländischer Kanal and situated in the Kingdom of Prussia, it was opened on the 29 October 1860. Since 1945 the canal is now in Poland. After wartime damage was repaired, it is now used for tourism; the canal is now again open to navigation. The four original inclined planes are in order from the summit level downwards, Buczyniec with a rise of 20.4m and a length of 224.8m, Kąty with a rise of 18.83m and a length of 225.97m, Oleśnica with a rise of 21.97m and a length of 262.63m and Jelenie with a rise of 21.97m and a length of 263.63m. The fifth incline is Całuny Nowe with a rise of 13.72m, it was built to replace five wooden locks close to Elbląg. They were constructed from 1860 to 1880; the canal worked independently of other waterways and as a result the boats were designed within the limits of the inclines. The boats had a maximum length of 24.48m, a maximum width of 2.98m and a maximum draught of 1.1m, they carried loads of about 50 tonnes. The inclines all consist of two parallel rail tracks with a gauge of 3.27m.
Boats are carried on carriages which run on these rails. The inclines rise from the lower level of the canal to a summit and down a second shorter incline to the upper canal level; the first part of the main incline and the short upper incline were both built at a gradient of 1:24. A carriage is lowered down the incline to counterbalance an upward moving carriage. Once the downward moving carriage has reached the summit and started down the main incline its weight helps pull up the upward moving carriage; this allowed the slope of the incline for this section to be built at a higher gradient of 1:12. Augustów Canal, linking the Vistula River with the Neman River Big Chute Marine Railway carries boats in an open carriage instead of a water filled caisson. Boat lift Tew, David. Canal Lifts. Sutton Books. ISBN 0-86299-031-9. Uhlemann, Hans-Joachim. Canal inclines of the world. Internat. ISBN 0-9543181-1-0. Official webpage An Overland Canal Some old photos of the lift from 1937 Photo gallery of the canal Warsaw Voice article A trip on the Elbląg Canal described by Michael Palin