The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Imperial German Navy
The Imperial German Navy was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy, which primarily had the mission of coastal defence, Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded the navy, and enlarged its mission. The key leader was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, who expanded the size and quality of the navy. The result was an arms race with Britain as the German navy grew to become one of the greatest maritime forces in the world. The German surface navy proved ineffective during World War I, its only major engagement, the submarine fleet was greatly expanded and posed a major threat to the British supply system. The Imperial Navys main ships were turned over to the Allies, all ships of the Imperial Navy were designated SMS, for Seiner Majestät Schiff. The Imperial Navy achieved some important operational feats, the Navy emerged from the fleet action of the Battle of Jutland having destroyed more ships than it lost, although the strategic value of both of these encounters was minimal.
The Imperial Navy was the first to operate successfully on a large scale in wartime, with 375 submarines commissioned by the end of the First World War. The unification of Germany under Prussian leadership was the point for the creation of the Imperial Navy in 1871. The newly created emperor, Wilhelm I, as King of Prussia, had previously been head of state of the strongest state forming part of the new empire, supreme command was vested in the emperor, but its first appointed chief was General der Infanterie Albrecht von Stosch. Kiel on the Baltic Sea and Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea served as the Navys principal naval bases, the former Navy Ministry became the Imperial Admiralty on 1 February 1872, while Stosch became formally an admiral in 1875. Initially the main task of the new Imperial Navy was coastal protection, with France, the Imperial Navys tasks were to prevent any invasion force from landing and to protect coastal towns from possible bombardment. In March 1872 a German Imperial Naval Academy was created at Kiel for training officers, followed in May by the creation of a Machine Engineer Corps, in July 1879 a separate Torpedo Engineer Corps was created dealing with torpedoes and mines.
In May 1872 a ten-year building programme was instituted to modernise the fleet, the building plan had to be approved by the Reichstag, which controlled the allocation of funds, although one-quarter of the money came from French war reparations. In 1883 Stosch was replaced by general, Count Leo von Caprivi. At this point the navy had seven armoured frigates and four armoured corvettes,400 officers and 5,000 ratings, in October 1887 the first torpedo division was created at Wilhelmshaven and the second torpedo division based at Kiel. In 1887 Caprivi requested the construction of ten armoured frigates, greater importance was placed at this time on development of the army, which was expected to be more important in any war. This shortened the journey for commercial ships, but specifically united the two areas principally of concern to the German navy, at a cost of 150 million marks, the protection of German maritime trade routes became important
Rank insignia of the German Bundeswehr
The rank insignia of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany indicate rank and branch of service in the German Army, German Air Force, or the German Navy. They are regulated by the order on rank designation and military uniform. The ZdV-37/10 – Anzugsordnung für Soldaten der Bundeswehr gives the dress order, the Federal Office of Equipment, IT, and In-Service Support of the Bundeswehr provides numerous details. As to naval persons in uniform there will be additionally depicted sleeve insignias on the uniform jacket, pertaining army persons in uniform there will be shown next shoulder straps of the uniform jacket. Variations of the first instance depicted rank insignias will be explained in more detail, this type of rank insignias is rather seldom in practice. Beside the rank insignia on shoulder straps, as shown above. This version of shoulder straps will be worn to uniform shirt, sleeve insignias on shirts more simple, but pertaining form and dimensions identically to those on jackets.
In the place of stripes, with parts of metallic spinning fibers wire yarn, for Army and Air Force personnel in Bundeswehr dress uniform, as well as for all female soldiers, shoulder straps are mandatory. However, male naval persons in uniform wear cuff titles, known from the jacket, deviating from the description above, naval enlisted personnel of the Guard Battalion of the MOD-Germany are exempted from wearing any sleeve rating mark on all uniforms. Also in deviation from the description above, on the service jacket, mounting straps or loops are in principle absolutely identical to the design of the shoulder straps, depicted above. From this point of view it might be sufficient to demonstrate exemplarily the different versions of design, official procured mounting straps are weaved. The field uniform type of mounting straps, used most, shows black or golden emblems on stone-grey/ olive-colour basic textile, almost similar performed mounting straps do exist for different coloured uniform parts as well as to Army, Air Force and Navy persons in uniform.
Army persons in uniform for wear on shoulder straps to the grey pullover. For naval persons dark-blue mounting straps are widespread in particular to the ship-parka, for Air Force pilots flying suits there exists a version of mounting straps with bright-grey emblems on dark-blue basic textile. The Air Force double-wing is mounted to other parts of the flying suit and they will be replaced by black-colored ones. In practice, the replacement of the obsolete grey-colored mounting loops by the new fashioned black-colour version is almost complete, however, on unicolored flying suits of army pilots and aviation technicians, mounting loops with grey-colored rank insignias conform to the regulations. The following below depicted gallery of mounting loops are practically in use in conjunction with the 5- or 3 color flecktarn fighting suit, this particular versions are not neither mentioned and depicted in the ZDv 37/10, nor officially procured. Mounting loops in 5- and 3-color flecktarn are de facto in contradiction to the Presidential Order on Rank Designation and Uniform of Soldiers, and might be only procured individually
Fregattenleutnant was an officer rank in the Austro-Hungarian Navy. It was equivalent to Oberleutnant of the Austro-Hungarian Army, as well to Oberleutnant zur See of the Imperial German Navy, pertaining to the modern days NATO rank code it could be comparable to OF-1a. The right to be assigned to Fregattenleutnant was limited to professional officers and it was superior to Korvettenleutnant and inferior to Linienschiffsleutnant. Until 1908 the rank was called Linienschiffsfähnrich, professional officers skipped that rank Fregattenleutnant and were regular promote from Seefähnrich to Fregattenleutnant, the next higher rank. The rank name was selected in line to the division of war ships to specific ship categories early of the 19th century, e. g. corvette, frigate, in the Austro-Hungarian Navy the appropriate rank designations were derived as follows. The rank designation Fregattenleutnent was used continuously in naval forces of former Yugoslavia, croatian military ranks Military ranks of Serbia Slovenian military ranks Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO navies
The German Navy is the navy of Germany and part of the unified Bundeswehr, the German Armed Forces. The German Navy was originally known as the Bundesmarine from 1956 until 1995 when Deutsche Marine became the name with respect to the 1990 incorporation of the East German Volksmarine. It is deeply integrated into the NATO alliance and its primary mission is protection of Germanys territorial waters and maritime infrastructure as well as sea lines of communication. Apart from this, the German Navy participates in peacekeeping operations and they participate in Anti-Piracy operations. The German Navy traces its roots back to the Reichsflotte of the era of 1848–52. The Reichsflotte was the first German navy to sail under the black-red-gold flag, in 1956, with West Germanys accession to NATO, the Bundesmarine, as the navy was known colloquially, was formally established. In the same year the East German Volkspolizei See became the Volksmarine, during the Cold war the all of the German Navys combat vessels were assigned to NATOs Allied Forces Baltic Approachess naval command NAVBALTAP.
With the accession of East Germany to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 the Volksmarine along with the whole National Peoples Army became part of the Bundeswehr. Since 1995 the name German Navy is used in international context, as of 16 December 2016, the strength of the navy is 16,137 men and women. A number of forces have operated in different periods. The German Navy is engaged in operations against international terrorism such as Operation Enduring Freedom, presently the largest operation the German Navy is participating in is UNIFIL off the coast of Lebanon. The German contribution to this operation is two frigates, four fast attack craft, and two auxiliary vessels, the naval component of UNIFIL has been under German command. The navy is operating a number of development and testing installations as part of an inter-service, among these is the Centre of Excellence for Operations in Confined and Shallow Waters, an affiliated centre of Allied Command Transformation. The COE CSW was established in April 2007 and officially accredited by NATO on 26 May 2009 and it is co-located with the staff of the German Flotilla 1 in Kiel whose Commander is double-hatted as Director, COE CSW.
The displacement of the navy is 220,000 tonnes, in addition, the German Navy and the Royal Danish Navy are in cooperation in the Ark Project. This agreement made the Ark Project responsible for the strategic sealift of German armed forces where the charter of three roll-on-roll-off cargo and troop ships are ready for deployments. In addition, these ships are kept available for the use of the other European NATO countries. The three vessels have a displacement of 60,000 tonnes
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In this sense, officers are not enlisted, but hold appointments from their government that typically remain in force indefinitely unless resigned, the proportion of officers varies greatly. Officers typically make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel, in 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, and the senior 13. 7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, however, armed forces have generally had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers, in the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12. 5%. Within a nations armed forces, armies tend to have a proportion of officers. For example,13. 9% of British army personnel and 22. 2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, having officers is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though these officers need not have obtained an official commission or warrant.
Commissioned officers are typically the only persons, in an armed forces environment, a superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, who is a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se, many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning, even from the enlisted ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel, the IDF often sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers, the first, and primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. The third route is similar to the second, in that they convert from an enlisted to a commission, but these are taken from the highest ranks of SNCOs.
LE officers, whilst holding the same Queens Commission, generally work in different roles from the DE officers, in the infantry, a number of Warrant Officer Class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 30-week period at RAF College Cranwell, Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a grueling 15-month course. The courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, etiquette, until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least socially mobile, AOCS also included the embedded Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate and Naval Aviation Cadet programs. NAVCADs were personnel who held associates degrees, but lacked bachelors degrees, nAVCADs would complete the entire AOCS program, but would not be commissioned until completion of flight training and receiving their wings.
After their initial tour, they would be assigned to a college or university full-time for no more than two years in order to complete their bachelors degree
Oberleutnant is the highest lieutenant officer rank in the armed forces of Germany, Austrian Armed Forces, and Military of Switzerland. In the German Army, it dates from the early 19th century, translated as senior lieutenant, the rank is typically bestowed upon commissioned officers after five to six years of active duty service. Oberleutnant is used by both the German Army and the German Air Force, in the NATO military comparison system, a German Oberleutnant is the equivalent of a First lieutenant or Poruchik in the Army/Air Forces of Allied nations. Other uses The equivalent naval rank is Oberleutnant zur See, in Nazi Germany, within the SS, SA and Waffen-SS, the rank of Obersturmführer was considered the equivalent of an Oberleutnant in the German Army. Comparative military ranks of World War I Comparative military ranks of World War II Ranks of the German Bundeswehr Rank insignia of the German Bundeswehr Yliluutnantti
The Reichsmarine was the name of the German Navy during the Weimar Republic and first two years of Nazi Germany. It was the branch of the Reichswehr, existing from 1919 to 1935. In 1935, it known as the Kriegsmarine, a branch of the Wehrmacht. Many of the administrative and organizational tenets of the Reichsmarine were carried over into the organization of the Kriegsmarine, the Vorläufige Reichsmarine was formed after the end of World War I from the Imperial German Navy. Replacements for the battleships were restricted to a maximum size of 10,000 tons. The Reichsmarine was considered the naval force of the Reichswehrministerium which was headed by a civilian minister appointed by the government of the Weimar Republic. The senior most naval officer was known until 1920 as the Chef der Admiralität, the naval commander oversaw a headquarters office known as the Marinekommandiertenabteilung which was headquartered in Berlin. The Naval Command maintained a headquarters office and a naval archives.
During the 1920s, the German flagship was the SMS Schleswig-Holstein with two officers serving as fleet commander, Vizeadmiral Hans Zenker and Konrad Mommsen, between 1923 and 1927. The fleet commander position was left vacant, but the flag staff remained. The purpose of fleet command was to oversee the four major type commanders of German naval vessels and these commands were in turn responsible for the administration of various German ship classes to include equipment development, vessel deployments, and personnel assignment. Once at sea, operational control of the vessels switched to the commanders of the two main Naval Sea Stations, the Reichsmarine did not maintain traditional at-sea fleets, but instead assigned two geographical areas which oversaw all vessels operationally deployed in the North and Baltic Seas. Each naval station maintained a staff, general naval inspectorate, training department, artillery arsenal inspector. The naval stations served as an officer for the commanders of the various German navy ports.
The restrictions were intended to prevent the German Navy from becoming a threat to the Allied powers, Germany was only allowed six battleships, six cruisers, twelve destroyers, and twelve torpedo boats. The Reichsmarine tried to meet the arms restrictions with secret armament and technical innovations such as the introduction of the pocket battleship
Lieutenant (junior grade)
The rank is used in the United States Maritime Service. The NOAA Corpss predecessors, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, promotion to LTJG is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. DOPMA guidelines suggest all fully qualified ensigns should be promoted to LTJG, the time for promotion to LTJG is a minimum of two years after commissioning in the Navy or 18 months in the Coast Guard. Lieutenants, junior grade typically lead petty officers and non-rated personnel, a LTJGs usual shipboard billet is as a division officer. Lieutenant, junior grade is referred to colloquially as JG. Prior to March 3,1883, this rank was known in the Navy as Master, solid Snake was disguised as this U. S. Navy SEAL. S